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RESPONSIBLE CONDUCT IN RESEARCH ( supported in part by a grant from the National Postdoctoral Association). Mentor/Trainee Relationships and Independence. RCR – Mentor/Trainee Relationship. Short pre-test Presentation Objectives NIH Comment background challenges

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RESPONSIBLE CONDUCT IN RESEARCH(supported in part by a grant from the National Postdoctoral Association)

Mentor/Trainee

Relationships and Independence

RCR – Mentor/Trainee Relationship

created February, 2009


Presentation content

  • Short pre-test

  • Presentation Objectives

    • NIH Comment

    • background

    • challenges

    • responsibilities

    • pitfalls

    • ethical considerations

    • available resources

  • Reference Material

  • Faculty Presentation

  • Case Study and Discussion

  • Short post-test

Presentation content

RCR – Mentor/Trainee Relationships

created February, 2009


Nih comment

Nih comment

“Almost as soon as a fellow arrives at NIH for postdoctoral training, he or she should start to consider career pathways.” (1)

RCR – Mentor/Trainee Relationships

created February, 2009


Nih comment1

“Research conducted by established investigators together with scientists-in-training is part of the complex pattern of pre-and postdoctoral training that has evolved in much of science over the last 50 years. Scientists who work with trainees on research projects, and the institutions that support them, are responsible for ensuring that their fellows receive the best possible training in how to conduct research, as well as how to develop and achieve career goals, throughout the training period. (1)

Nih comment

RCR – Mentor/Trainee Relationships

created February, 2009


Nih comment2

Nih comment with scientists-in-training is part of the complex pattern of pre-and postdoctoral training that has evolved in much of science over the last 50 years. Scientists who work with trainees on research projects, and the institutions that support them, are responsible for ensuring that their fellows receive the best possible training in how to conduct research, as well as how to develop and achieve career goals, throughout the training period.

“A mentor is a person who has achieved career success and counsels and guides another for the purpose of helping him or her achieve like success. Research supervisors should always be mentors; they have the responsibility to discuss with and advise a trainee on aspects of his or her work and professional development.” (1)

RCR – Mentor/Trainee Relationships

created February, 2009


Background

Background with scientists-in-training is part of the complex pattern of pre-and postdoctoral training that has evolved in much of science over the last 50 years. Scientists who work with trainees on research projects, and the institutions that support them, are responsible for ensuring that their fellows receive the best possible training in how to conduct research, as well as how to develop and achieve career goals, throughout the training period.

  • “[Mentoring]…grew out of a sense that research training at NIH – and undoubtedly elsewhere – would benefit from a more explicit set of expectations for the predoctoral and postdoctoral research training experience. This sentiment, in turn, sprang from a movement by NIH fellows themselves seeking improved mentoring…” (1)

RCR – Mentor/Trainee Relationships

created February, 2009


Challenges

  • “The mentor-trainee relationship can be abused in many ways as a result of the inherent imbalance of power…”(2)

  • International trainees are a particularly sensitive group for academic research institutions

    • -- on limited visas that restrict stays to time they are studying

    • -- dependent on maintaining satisfactory relationship with mentor and sponsoring institutions

  • Faculty choice of research sponsors could impact trainee

    • -- industry sponsors often try to delay publications in order to protect intellectual property and this could negatively impact the trainee’s ability to publish a thesis or dissertation

  • challenges

    RCR – Mentor/Trainee Relationships

    created February, 2009


    Responsibilities

    responsibilities ways as a result of the inherent imbalance of power…”

    • MENTORS

      • Be available

      • Allow for differences in personalities

      • -- determine how each trainee learns best – they are not interchangeable

      • -- remember when you were a post-doc in a mentor’s lab

      • Let trainees make their own decisions

      • -- give them the foundation (and room) to grow as a scientist

      • Teach by word and deed

        • -- remember you ARE the role model…”walk the walk”

      • Continue to refine mentoring skills

      • -- by virtue of the continuing nature of mentoring as opposed to ‘traditional’ teaching ,and the fact the fellows are always there, mentoring can be stressful (2)

    RCR – Mentor/Trainee Relationships

    created February, 2009


    Responsibilities1

    • TRAINEES ways as a result of the inherent imbalance of power…”

      • Identify career plans

        • -- know what you want in order to optimize the training experience

      • Locate prospective mentors

      • -- identify a mentor who successfully made the transition themselves

      • -- do your homework…identify someone with relevant experience

      • Look for a mentor…..not a supervisor

      • -- identify someone who will give you information essential for professional success….not just work schedules

      • Effectively communicate needs & expectations

        • -- accept responsibility for your own learning experience

      • Learn from your mentoring experience

      • -- if you’ve had a great mentor…..pass it on. If not…..be better

      • (2)

    responsibilities

    RCR – Mentor/Trainee Relationships

    created February, 2009


    Pitfalls

    COMMUNICATION CHALLENGES ways as a result of the inherent imbalance of power…”:

    -- language

    -- culture

    -- gender

    -- age

    -- Let’s hope it’s not species related

    pitfalls

    RCR – Mentor/Trainee Relationships

    Leaving your career development to chance– have a plan!

    created February, 2009


    Ethical considerations

    • Clearly, the primary concern in any mentor-trainee relationship is the potential for abuse because of the imbalance of power. Whether viewed as a ‘challenge,’ ‘pitfall’ or ‘ethical consideration’ both parties must constantly monitor the relationship for any change in the dynamics.

    • As importantly, both parties must remain sensitive to cultural practices and biases that may manifest themselves in the relationship.

    Ethical considerations

    RCR – Mentor/Trainee Relationships

    created February, 2009


    Available resources

    • Provost and University Vice President relationship is the potential for abuse because of the imbalance of power. Whether viewed as a ‘challenge,’ ‘pitfall’ or ‘ethical consideration’ both parties must constantly monitor the relationship for any change in the dynamics.

      • 4th Floor, EAS

      • 201.216.5263

      • Dr. George Korfiatis

    • Office of Human Resources

      • 7th Floor, Howe Center

      • 201.216.5218

      • Mark Samolewicz, Vice President

    • Office of Sponsored Research

      • 9th Floor, Howe Center

      • 201.216.8762

      • Barbara DeHaven, Executive Director

      • -- Potential funding sources for postdoctoral fellows transitioning to independence

    • National Postdoctoral Association

      • -- http://www.nationalpostdoc.org/site/c.eoJMIWOBIrH/b.1388059/

    Available resources

    RCR – Mentor/Trainee Relationships

    created February, 2009


    Available resources1

    • “International Postdoc Survival Guide” relationship is the potential for abuse because of the imbalance of power. Whether viewed as a ‘challenge,’ ‘pitfall’ or ‘ethical consideration’ both parties must constantly monitor the relationship for any change in the dynamics.

      • -- http://www.nationalpostdoc.org/site/c.eoJMIWOBIrH/b.4416951/k.75BE/International_Postdoc_Survival_Guide.htm

    • “Postdoc-ing in the USA”

      • -- http://www.nationalpostdoc.org/site/c.eoJMIWOBIrH/b.4416951/k.75BE/International_Postdoc_Survival_Guide.htm

    • “Going in With Your Eyes Open: What to Ask Before Accepting a US Postdoctoral Position”

      • -- http://www.nationalpostdoc.org/atf/cf/%7B89152E81-F2CB-430C-B151-49D071AEB33E%7D/GoingInWithEyesOpen.pdf

    • “Signposts to Living in the US”

      • -- http://www.nationalpostdoc.org/atf/cf/%7B89152E81-F2CB-430C-B151-49D071AEB33E%7D/GoingInWithEyesOpen.pdf

    • “So Nobody Will Give you a Credit Card?

    • -- http://www.nationalpostdoc.org/site/c.eoJMIWOBIrH/b.1741845/k.40E9/Signposts_to_Living_in_the_USA.htm

    • “A Quick Guide to Visas for International Postdocs”

      • http://www.nationalpostdoc.org/site/c.eoJMIWOBIrH/b.1741823/k.E7EF/A_Quick_Guide_to_Visas_for_International_Postdocs.htm

    • “Beginners Guide to Income Taxation”

      • -- http://www.nationalpostdoc.org/site/c.eoJMIWOBIrH/b.2763533/k.2BB3/Beginners_Guide_to_Income_Taxes.htm

    • “Been There Done That”

      • -- http://www.nationalpostdoc.org/site/c.eoJMIWOBIrH/b.1741835/k.50A6/Been_There_Done_That.htm

    Available resources

    RCR – Mentor/Trainee Relationships

    created February, 2009


    Available resources2

    • “A Guide to Training and Mentoring in the Intramural Research Program at NIH”

    • -- Developed 2006 by Northern Illinois University http://ori.hhs.gov/education/products/niu_authorship/index.htm

    • “The Effective Mentor’s Toolkit Course”

    • -- The Online College

    • http://www.sheffcol.ac.uk/index.cfm?ParentID=6980947b-0885-4e4d-b5df-c6290d4d065f&gclid=CN7z3rXsypkCFSVM5QodoRb7tg

    • “Responsibilities of a Mentor”

      • -- University of Michigan

      • http://www.responsibility.research.umich.edu/UMMSmentor.html

    • “A Guidebook for Teaching Selected Responsible Conduct of Research Topics to a Culturally Diverse Trainee Group”

      • -- Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia http://ori.dhhs.gov/documents/Alexander.RCR%20Guidebook.BW.pdf

    Available resources

    RCR – Mentor/Trainee Relationships

    created February, 2009


    Reference material

    Reference material Research Program at NIH”

    • 1. “A Guide To Training and Mentoring in the Intramural Research Program at NIH”

      • http://www1.od.nih.gov/oir/sourcebook/ethic-conduct/mentor-guide.htm

    • “Columbia University – “Responsible Conduct of Research –Mentoring”

    • http://ori.dhhs.gov/education/products/columbia_wbt/rcr_mentoring/foundation/index.html#5

    RCR – Mentor/Trainee Relationships

    created February, 2009


    Faculty presentation supported in part by a grant from the national postdoctoral association

    Faculty presentation Research Program at NIH”(SUPPORTED IN PART BY A GRANT FROM THE NATIONAL POSTDOCTORAL ASSOCIATION)

    Faculty

    Presenter –

    Dr. Michael Bruno

    RCR – Mentor/Trainee Relationships

    created February, 2009


    Case study

    Dr. David Huang accepted a postdoctoral fellowship in Dr. James Smart’s lab almost a year ago after carefully considering a list of possible mentors. Dr. Huang is a brilliant chemist from Shanghai and Dr. Smart was pleased to learn David was interested in his lab. David Huang is a few years older than the rest of his postdoc cohort, extremely driven and feels a lot of pressure to perform well, complete his course of study and begin his academic career. About eight months ago, Jim Smart who is an extremely laid-back individual launched a biotech company that seems to occupy a considerable amount of his time. David Huang is increasingly anxious about his progress and feels his self-imposed timeline slipping. He is also dismayed by the amount of time he spends troubleshooting phone calls for Dr. Smart’s private company when Jim Smart is away from the office. David Huang grows more unhappy by the day but is reluctant to talk to Dr. Smart because he is such a well-respected senior scientist.

    Consider the following questions:

    CASE STUDY

    RCR – Mentor/Trainee Relationships

    created February, 2009


    Case study cont

    Q: What are the responsibilities for these two scientists?

    CASE STUDY(cont.)

    A: Dr. Smart– as a mentor, Jim Smart should recognize that David Huang:

    -- has a limited amount of time to achieve his goal

    -- might feel additional pressure because he is older than his cohort group

    -- might be having difficulty adjusting his personality to Jim Smart’s

    David Huang – as a trainee, David should:

    -- have already engaged Dr. Smart in a discussion that established goals in order for him to accomplish his objective

    -- have engaged Dr. Smart in a discussion regarding the amount of time spent on troubleshooting calls for his personal company

    -- accept responsibility for advancing his own agenda with Dr. Smart

    RCR – Mentor/Trainee Relationships

    created February, 2009


    Case study cont1

    Q: What responsibility does David Huang have regarding Dr. Smart’s biotech business?

    CASE STUDY(cont.)

    • A: In reality……none; however, Dr. Huang obviously feels insecure about engaging in the discussion with Dr. Smart.

    • When he finally did discuss the matter, Jim Smart was apologetic and explained he had given clients his office number when he launched the business but had almost immediately obtained business cards and company letterhead with the business’ address and phone number. However, he did allow as how there probably were some people who still had his office number at the school. He regretted

    • that David Huang had spent so much time on his personal business and again apologized.

    RCR – Mentor/Trainee Relationships

    created February, 2009


    Case study cont2

    Q: Do you think the personality differences in these two individuals plays any part in the dynamic?

    CASE STUDY(cont.)

    A: Probably.

    David Huang is driven, aware of the clock ticking and in a vulnerable position from the outset. With so much at stake and under stress, he is likely to be anxious and stay in a state of insecurity.

    James Smart is a senior scientist, well-established, a low-key personality, and has made his mark in academia. He’s now launched into another aspect of his career and may not remember quite as well what it’s like to be where David Huang is.

    RCR – Mentor/Trainee Relationships

    created February, 2009


    Case study cont3

    Q: Do you think this professional relationship can be salvaged?

    CASE STUDY(cont.)

    A: Yes.

    If both individuals engage in a forthright discussion about their individual expectations and pressures. Additionally, David Huang needs to immediately establish a written contract, or research timeline, with Jim Smart in order to keep both of them focused on David’s development.

    RCR – Mentor/Trainee Relationships

    created February, 2009



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