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CE 374 K – Hydrology. Second Quiz Review Daene C. McKinney. Atmospheric Moisture. Snow. Rain. Energy. Evaporation. Interception. Throughfall and Stem Flow. Snowpack. Snowmelt. Watershed Boundary. Surface. Pervious. Impervious. Infiltration. Evapotranspiration. Soil Moisture.

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Ce 374 k hydrology

CE 374 K – Hydrology

Second Quiz Review

Daene C. McKinney


Runoff processes

Atmospheric Moisture

Snow

Rain

Energy

Evaporation

Interception

Throughfall and

Stem Flow

Snowpack

Snowmelt

Watershed

Boundary

Surface

Pervious

Impervious

Infiltration

Evapotranspiration

Soil Moisture

Percolation

Overland

Flow

Groundwater

Groundwater Flow

Evaporation

Streams and Lakes

Channel Flow

Runoff

Runoff Processes

  • Watershed

    • Terminology

    • Concepts

  • Streamflow

    • Components of hydrologic cycle affecting it


Hydrographs

Basin Lag

Centroid of

Precipitation

Peak

Time

of Rise

Recession Limb

Rising Limb

Discharge, Q

Inflection

Point

Baseflow

Recession

Baseflow

Recession

Time

Beginning of

Direct Runoff

End of

Direct Runoff

Hydrographs


Baseflow separation

Discharge, Q

Discharge, Q

Discharge, Q

Direct Runoff

Direct Runoff

D

Direct Runoff

E

B

B

B

A

A

A

C

C

Baseflow

Baseflow

Baseflow

Time

Time

Time

Baseflow Separation

  • Three techniques

    • Straight – line method

    • Fixed Base Method

    • Variable Slope Method


Abstraction losses estimation

fDt=0.27

Abstraction (Losses) Estimation

  • Phi – Index Method


Abstraction losses estimation1

Precipitation

Time

Abstraction (Losses) Estimation

  • SCS Curve Number Method


Hydrologic measurement
Hydrologic Measurement

  • Climate

  • Precipitation

  • Surface Water

    • Flow

    • Stage

    • Rating Curve


Unit hydrograph

D

C

B

A

G

Excess Rainfall

Time, t

Unit Hydrograph

  • Time – Area Relationship


Unit hydrograph1
Unit Hydrograph

  • Derivation


Reservoir routing
Reservoir Routing

  • Storage - Discharge Relationship

  • Level Pool Routing


River routing
River Routing

  • Muskingum Method

    • Prism Storage

    • Wedge Storage


Scs dimensionless hydrograph
SCS Dimensionless Hydrograph

  • SCS developed a parametric UH model based on averages of UHs from a large number of small agricultural watersheds in the US.

  • A – watershed area

  • C – conversion factor for unit system

  • Tp- time to peak

  • Dt – excess precip duration

  • tlag - basin lag, time between center of rainfall excess and UH peak

Given ER hyetograph and time lag, then solve for time of UH peak, then UH peak


Frequency analysis
Frequency Analysis

  • Recurrence Interval

  • Return Period: Average recurrence interval

  • Probability of an extreme event is related to the return period


Extreme value distributions
Extreme Value Distributions

  • EV-I, EV-II, and EV-III

  • Extreme Value Type I (Gumbell) Distribution


Frequency factors
Frequency Factors

  • In general

  • Normal

  • EV-I

  • LP-III: See table


Hydrologic design
Hydrologic Design

  • Depth-Duration-Frequency Estimates

    • TP-40, Hydro-35, Asquith

  • I – D – F Curves

  • Design Hyetographs: distribute rainfall over time

    • SCS Hyetograph

    • Triangular Hyetograph

    • Alternating Block Method


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