Islam Review. Andres, German, Talla, German. Fundamental Questions. What is the human condition?
Andres, German, Talla, German
What is the human condition?
Humans must strive to submit themselves to the will of God for, without divine guidance, they are likely to stray from the path of prescribe and prohibited actions that God has set out in order to prevent moral error.
Where are we going?
For the faithful, to eternal janna (paradise), by obedience to God’s will. By disobedience to God’s will, to jahannam (hell), which is reserved for those whom God has decided to punish for a time for committing grave sins and not repenting.
How do we get there?
We attain salvation via submission to God’s will. This may be achieved by:
acknowledging tawhid (the oneness of God) and submitting to his will, as revealed by the Prophet.
The unity of God
Tawhid, meaning "making God one," refers to the strict belief of monotheism and the refusal to compromise this position.He is the only creator and disposer of the Universe, has no partner and no comparable being, none but Allah is worthy of worship (Morgan 91). Tawhid is so essential and central to the faith that shirk, or the associating anything with God, is the one fundamental error for Muslims.
Belief in Prophets
Muhammad was the last in a long line of prophets who were entrusted with bringing Scriptures to their peoples (Denny 108). The prophets are divided into two classes, rasuls and nabis. A rasul, or "messenger," was given a major new revelation and was called to communicate what God had sent to them (Denny 69). A nabi, or "prophet," is also one whom God has spoken to, but their mission lies within the framework of an existing religion (Glasse 318).
Beliefs in Scriptures
The Quran, meaning "recitation", is held to be the eternal, literal word of God. Therefore, to accept and believe in the messages of Allah is a mere consequence of belief in Angels and the prophets, the mediums by which God's word is revealed. All Scriptures are God's work, but the people before the dawn of Islam had corrupted the original messages to suit their own inclinations. The Quran is the purest extant scripture on Earth, as it is all the pure word of God's and has not been subject to tampering (Denny 108). It was revealed to Muhammad and preserved in the Arabic language and was placed in an order that was commanded by divine revelation (Esposito 9).
The ethical system in Islam is presented in light of Shariah – the Islamic social/legal system. According to Islam, whatever leads to welfare of the individual or society is morally good and whatever is injurious is morally bad. The ethical system prescribed in Islam is eternally divine and forms the foundation of an Islamic society. Islamic ethics prescribe its followers to zealously guard their behavior, words, thoughts, and intentions and observe certain norms and moral codes in their family affairs; in dealings with relatives, neighbors, and friends; in their business transactions; in their social affairs; and in private and public life.
Muslims are very deep believers in good character. They believe that by following the quranic scriptures, it will lead into structured morals and will keep an individual out of trouble. Muhammad’s teachings are also heavily based upon moral values and character.