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Psyc 3533: Sexual Behaviour. Midterm 1 Tutorial. Chapter 1. Sex = Male/Female Gender is a socio-cultural construct Sexual behaviour includes: Thoughts Feelings Actions (sex) Sensual ≠ Sexual Pleasure through sensory input. Chapter 1. Christian view of sex: Women inferior

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psyc 3533 sexual behaviour

Psyc 3533: Sexual Behaviour

Midterm 1 Tutorial

chapter 1
Chapter 1
  • Sex = Male/Female
  • Gender is a socio-cultural construct
  • Sexual behaviour includes:
  • Thoughts
  • Feelings
  • Actions (sex)
  • Sensual ≠ Sexual
    • Pleasure through sensory input
chapter 11
Chapter 1
  • Christian view of sex:
    • Women inferior
    • Positive at first (400 years)
    • Jesus probably was married
    • Apostles all married
    • All priests married
  • 5th century: drive for celibacy for heads of the church
    • St. Augustine declared sexual pleasure evil, women temptresses
chapter 12
Chapter 1
  • Christian view of sex (Cont’d)
    • Many restrictions in married sex:
      • Instilled shame and guilt
        • For common people sex OK
        • Only for procreation but mustn’t feel pleasure! (sin)
          • Penitence and fines
      • Role model for women: Virgin Mary
        • Immaculate conception
      • Attracted misogynists to the church
        • Hatred of or contempt for women or girls
chapter 13
Chapter 1
  • Medicalization of Sex
    • Pharmaceuticals
      • Pills, suppositories, lotions, creams, etc.
    • Identification of “medical” problems
      • Millions affected.
    • Reducing sex to a “hydraulic response in a few inches of men’s anatomy”.
chapter 14
Chapter 1
  • Koro syndrome
    • Far East countries
    • Young men convinced that genitals shrinking and retracting into abdomen
    • Fatal trajectory
    • Epidemics going back thousands of years till the present.
chapter 15
Chapter 1
  • Dhat syndrome
    • Affects young Indian males
    • Fear of loss of seminal fluid in nocturnal emissions. Or that semen mixes with urine and is eliminated.
  • Loss of semen
    • Depletes mental and physical energy
  • Cultural beliefs about the importance of semen
    • Guarantee health and longevity.
chapter 16
Chapter 1
  • Virginity Testing
    • Very important marriage custom in Sri Lanka
    • A bride who cannot prove her virginity to her husband and her in-laws suffer consequences
  • Determined a virgin if hymen is intact
    • A woman\'s hymen can be broken or eroded by masturbation and also a number of nonsexual activities
chapter 2
Chapter 2
  • Problems with Self-Reports
    • Social Desirability
    • Memory
    • Estimation Error
    • Wording of Questions Important
  • Direct Observations: Sampling Bias?
    • (Masters and Johnson)
  • Problems with Direct Observation
    • Expensive and time consuming
chapter 21
Chapter 2
  • Interview
    • Rapport
    • Flexible
  • Questionnaires
    • Inexpensive
    • Anonymity
  • CASI (Computer-Assisted Self-Interview)
chapter 22
Chapter 2
  • Ethical Considerations
    • Free and Informed Consent
    • Protection From Harm
    • Justice
    • Harms vs Benefits
chapter 23
Chapter 2
  • Field Experiment
    • Researcher Controls Independent Variable
    • Real Life Setting
  • Quasi Experiment
    • Researcher Has No Control Over Independent Variable
    • Uses “Natural” Events As Independent Variable
chapter 24
Chapter 2
  • Kinsey Report
    • Sampling issues
    • Highly regarded interviewing techniques
    • Major Concerns
      • Generally high levels of sexual activity and homosexuality
chapter 25
Chapter 2
  • National Health and Social Life Survey (NHSLS)
    • Gold standard
    • Probability sample
    • High response rate
    • Low rates of homosexuality
chapter 26
Chapter 2
  • The Canada Youth, Sexual Health, and HIV/AIDS Study4 Canadian universities
    • Excellent sampling
      • Enough to report for provinces)
    • Many youth engaging in sex at 14
      • 23% boys; 19% girls in grade 9)
    • 5-10% did not use birth control
chapter 27
Chapter 2
  • Ontario First Nations AIDS and Healthy Lifestyle Survey
    • Face-to-face interviews
    • Many had engaged in high-risk behaviors
      • 60% did not use condoms
    • Presents special challenges
      • Interviewer should be same sex and ethnicity (rapport)
chapter 28
Chapter 2
  • Canadian Survey of Gay and Bisexual Men
    • Recommendations about prevention of HIV/AIDS among gay and bisexual men
    • Avoided terms gay and bisexual – sampling
      • Excellent response rate
    • More knowledge about transmission of HIV associated with less unprotected sex
chapter 29
Chapter 2
  • Masters and Johnson
    • Physiology of sexual response
      • Behavior and physiological responses measured and observed in lab
    • Assumed the processes they were studying were normative
    • Artificial Coition
      • Clear plastic penis with sensors
chapter 210
Chapter 2
  • Schultz, Andel, Sabelis, & Mooyaart, (1999)
chapter 211
Chapter 2
  • Humphries “Tea Room Trade”
    • Acted as lookout
    • Got licence plates and later interviewed under false pretence
    • Serious ethical issues
chapter 212
Chapter 2
  • Experimental Studies
    • Control of extraneous variables
    • Manipulation of independent variable
    • Measurement of dependent variable
    • Random assignment of participants to conditions
chapter 213
Chapter 2
  • Correlational Designs
    • Imply only an association between variables
  • Experimental Designs
    • Can infer that changes in one variable cause changes in another variable.
chapter 214
Chapter 2
  • Romer et al., 1997
    • Can only say that the type of interview (computer or human) influenced the amount of reporting.
chapter 215
Chapter 2
  • Meredith Chivers
    • DV1: plethysmograph readings
    • DV2: subjective ratings of arousal on a keypad
    • Females subjective and physiological measures at odds
chapter 4
Chapter 4
  • Clitoridectomy
    • Surgical removal of the clitoris
  • Infibulation
    • Surgical removal of clitoris and labia, closing of the introitus.
  • Endometriosis
    • the growth of endometrial cells in a location outside of the uterus.
chapter 41
Chapter 4
  • Pubococcygeus muscle
    • Contracts during orgasm
  • Kegel exercises
    • Contract PC muscle voluntarily
    • A stronger PC muscle leads to better orgasms.
  • Fimbria
    • A fringe of tissue near the ovary leading to the fallopian tube
  • Follicle
    • A capsule that surrounds and egg
    • Produce estrogen, progesterone.
chapter 42
Chapter 4
  • Hysterectomy
    • Surgical removal of uterus.
  • Oophorectomy
    • Surgical removal of ovaries
  • Surgical complications (short and long term) but also cervix and uterus important for sexual enjoyment, arousal and orgasm.
chapter 43
Chapter 4
  • PID (pelvic inflammatory disease)
    • Can affect internal reproductive organs
    • Different pathogens, most often STDs
    • Infertility
  • Breast augmentations
    • Health problems
    • Compromises breastfeeding.
  • Reduction
    • For comfort
    • Can also compromise breastfeeding.
chapter 44
Chapter 4
  • Circumcision
    • Surgical removal of the foreskin
    • Controversial.
  • Better genital health (partners too).
    • associated with lower incidence of HIV and of penile cancer
  • Newborns feel pain (anesthetic)
  • Surgical accidents.
  • No evidence of decreased sensitivity.
chapter 45
Chapter 4
  • Testes descend prenatally from pelvis to scrotum
    • Need to be about 2°C cooler than body
  • Cremaster muscle
    • Functions to raise and lower the testes in order to regulate temperature
  • Cryptorchidia
    • leads to infertility – can be corrected surgically.
chapter 46
Chapter 4
  • Sperm count can decrease (infertility?) if:
    • long hot baths
    • prolonged fever
    • long distance truck drivers, any long sitting
    • steel workers close to furnaces
    • jockey shorts, tight jeans
chapter 47
Chapter 4
  • Testicular cancer:
    • Age range: 15-35
  • Higher incidence
    • Family history
    • Cryptorchidia(undescended testicles)
  • Very treatable, 98% success rate when discovered early
chapter 48
Chapter 4
  • Cancer of the penis
    • Rare can be fatal if not treated early
    • Risk factors
      • Over 50
      • History of multiple sex partners
      • History of STDs
      • Poor genital hygiene
      • Smoking
chapter 49
Chapter 4
  • Priapism
    • Prolonged erection
    • Due to:
      • Constant vibration (e.g. snowmobile),
      • Some pathological conditions
      • Use of drugs like Cialis. Painful.
chapter 9
Chapter 9
  • Females:
    • Vaginal lubrication
    • Glansclitoris enlarges (similar to penile erection)
    • Nipples erect (myotonia: muscle contraction)
    • Breasts enlarge (vasocongestion
    • Inner lips of vulva swell and open, change in colour (darker)
    • Upper 2/3rds of vagina balloons
    • Cervix and uterus stand up: tenting effect
    • Angle of cervical opening more receptive to sperm
chapter 91
Chapter 9
  • Masters and Johnson: four phases
  • Excitation
    • Sex flush (can happen later)
    • Heart rate, respiration rate gradually increase
    • Generalized myotonia
    • Vasocongestion
      • Pelvic area receives more blood in general, in particular to genitals.
  • Males:
      • Penile erection
      • Scrotal sac thickens, elevates
chapter 92
Chapter 9
  • Plateau:
    • Both males and females continue vasocongestion to max
    • Heart rate, respiration rate and blood pressure continue to increase
    • Copious perspiration
    • Increased myotonia
chapter 93
Chapter 9
  • Plateau
  • Females:
    • Orgasmic platform
      • Outer third of vagina thickens, swells
      • Without it, no orgasm
    • Tenting complete
    • Clitoris erect
chapter 94
Chapter 9
  • Plateau
  • Males:
    • Cowper’s glands secrete fluid through tip of penis
    • May contain live sperm!
    • Scrotum even higher and testicles bigger
chapter 95
Chapter 9
  • Orgasmic:
  • Both:
    • very high heart rate, blood pressure and breathing
    • intense myotonia
  • Males: Two stages:
      • Contraction of seminal vesicles, vas and prostate
      • Contraction of urethra and penis: ejaculation
chapter 96
Chapter 9
  • Orgasmic:
    • Females:
      • Contractions of orgasmic platform
      • Contractions of uterus
      • Several orgasms possible if stimulation continues
      • Oxytocin
chapter 97
Chapter 9
  • Health Benefits Associated With Orgasm
    • General Health
      • An orgasm at least once or twice per week appears to strength the immune system’s ability to resist flu and other viruses
    • Pain Relief
      • Some women find that an orgasm’s release of hormones and muscle contractions help relieve the pain of menstrual cramps and raise pain tolerance in general.
chapter 98
Chapter 9
  • Health Benefits Associated With Orgasm (Cont’d)
    • Lower Cancer Rate
      • Men who have more than five ejaculations per week during their 20s have a significantly lower rate of prostate cancer later in life
    • Mood Enhancement
      • Orgasms increase estrogen and endorphins, which tend to improve mood and ward off depression in women
chapter 99
Chapter 9
  • Health Benefits Associated With Orgasm
    • Greater Feelings of Intimacy
      • The hormone oxytocin, which may play a role in feelings of love and intimacy, increases fivefold at orgasm
    • Better Sleep
      • The neurotransmitter dopamine, released during orgasm, triggers a stress-reducing, sleep-inducing response that may last up to two hours
chapter 910
Chapter 9
  • Resolution:
    • Return to normal, muscles relax, breathing etc. back to normal, blood back to circulation from genitals.
    • Males
      • refractory period
  • EACH PHASE MUST BE FULLY COMPLETED IN ORDER TO REACH THE NEXT ONE
chapter 911
Chapter 9
  • SOME GENDER DIFFERENCES:
    • Excitation
      • Women slower
  • Three types of female orgasm have been identified by some researchers:
    • Clitoral stimulation,
      • Via pudendal nerve
    • G-spot stimulation
      • Via pelvic nerve
    • A blend of both
chapter 912
Chapter 9
  • Each phase shows age changes.
    • Excitation:
      • Men:
        • Fastest 16-20 years, then slow decline
      • Women:
        • Slower in teens, early 20s
        • Faster 30’s on
    • Plateau:
      • Men:
        • Capacity for longer with age
      • Women:
        • Same, but never a big problem
chapter 913
Chapter 9

Orgasmic:

  • Men:
    • Intensity lessens from mid- to late 20s
    • Middle Age:
      • Really noticeable
      • Ejaculate less volume, less forceful
    • Resolution:
      • Refractory period increases
chapter 914
Chapter 9
  • Cognitive models:
    • Kaplan’s triphasic model:
      • Sexual desire
      • Vasocongestion
      • Muscular contraction
    • Walenand Roth’s model:
      • Emphasis on perception and evaluation
      • 8 steps, necessary for the arousal cycle to be completed
chapter 915
Chapter 9
  • Neural and hormonal involvement in sexual responses:
    • Parasympathetic:
      • arousal
    • Sympathetic:
      • Orgasm
  • Women’s Neural Mechanisms:
    • Not yet well known
    • One recent study found that sexual sensations can be transmitted to the brain via the vagus nerve, which is normally used for digestive processes.
chapter 916
Chapter 9
  • Experiments using electrical stimulation:
    • Erection centers found in the limbic system, both in monkeys and humans.
chapter 917
Chapter 9
  • Hormonal Influences on Sex:
    • Hormone:
      • substance produced by endocrine glands (internal secretion) which affect specific organs via the blood stream
    • Exocrine Gland:
      • substance produced by a gland that goes to the ‘outside’, e.g., sweat, tears
chapter 918
Chapter 9
  • Most Studied Sex Hormone:
    • Testosterone
    • Produced by testes, ovaries and adrenal glands
    • Important for sexual desire in both sexes Hormonal
  • Women have 1/10th the amount but are ten times more sensitive to it.
    • More testosterone in a normal person will not increase desire or response.
    • Most testosterone is ‘bound’, not available in this regard, ‘free’ testosterone is 2-5%.
chapter 919
Chapter 9
  • DHEA (dehydroepiandrosterone)
    • Secreted by adrenal glands (weak androgen)
    • Same amount for males and females in bloodstream
    • Pro-hormone - Most sex hormones and pheromones derived from it.
  • Pheromones
    • Sexual signals for both sexes
    • Sensed by the vomeronasal organ
  • Oxytocin
    • Released by the pituitary when touching or being touched by loved ones
    • Important for attachment, also involved in parental behaviours.
chapter 920
Chapter 9
  • PEA (phenylethylamine)
    • Called “the molecule of love”
    • Produce euphoria
    • Amphetamine-like substance produced in brain capillaries and in catecholaminergic terminals.
    • Low PEA levels associated with depression (some depressions successfully treated with PEA).
    • Some people become addicted to the PEA “high” and change partners frequently to get it
    • More abundant early in a relationship
chapter 921
Chapter 9
  • Estrogen
    • Makes women sexually attractive and receptive. Skin, lips, hair, fatty padding (curves), breasts, hips.
  • Testosterone
    • Increases sex drive in both sexes, too much is counterproductive.
  • Progesterone
    • Testosterone antagonist
    • Lowers sex drive
    • Mild sedative, calming effect.
chapter 922
Chapter 9
  • Serotonin
    • Neurotransmitter
    • At low levels intensifies sex drive
    • At high levels decreases it
    • Antidepressants elevate serotonin, decrease sex drive
  • Dopamine
    • Neurotransmitter associated with all pleasures
    • Increases sex drive, promotes action
chapter 923
Chapter 9
  • Prolactin
    • Decreases sex drive, especially in men
  • Vasopressin
    • Hormone produced by the pituitary
    • Antidiuretic (water retention)
    • Increases blood volume and blood pressure
    • “monogamy molecule”
      • Modulates testosterone, levels extremes of feelings, increases focus in lovemaking
chapter 10
Chapter 10
  • Effective Communication
    • Unconditional Positive Regard
      • Conveying that you love the person no matter what they reveal
    • Intent
      • What you mean to say
    • Impact
      • What the other hears
chapter 101
Chapter 10
  • Effective Communication (cont)
    • Documenting
      • Giving specific examples of the issue being discussed
    • Levelling
      • Telling your partner what you are feeling by stating your thoughts clearly, simply, and honestly
    • Editing
      • Censoring or not saying things that would be deliberately hurtful to your partner or that are irrelevant
chapter 102
Chapter 10
  • Active Listening:
    • Attentive body language
    • Appropriate facial expressions
    • Asking questions
    • Making brief comments
  • Paraphrasing
    • Show true understanding of the message
    • Rephrasing in own words what the listener heard
    • Opportunity to clarify misunderstandings
chapter 103
Chapter 10
  • Validation
    • Telling your partner that, given his or her point of view, you can see why he or she thinks a certain way
  • Non-verbal communication
    • Important cues
chapter 121
Chapter 12
  • The purpose of marriage: meet the needs of the group by forming alliances with other groups.
  • Factors that helped usher the love marriage:
    • industrialization: individual has more value
    • affluence: less dependence on family
    • literacy: romantic novels
    • later, movies
    • increased longevity
    • secularization
    • women financially independent
    • lower birth rate
chapter 122
Chapter 12
  • Attraction
    • Mere-exposure effect
      • Tendency to like a person more if we have been exposed to him or her repeatedly
      • Propinquity
      • Familiarity
      • Complementarity?
    • Homophily
      • The tendency to have contact with people who are equal in social status
  • Matching phenomenon
    • Tendency for individuals to choose partners who are similar
chapter 123
Chapter 12
  • Intimacy
    • Physical:
      • Sensual
    • Emotional:
      • Trust
      • Self-disclosure (mutual)
      • Vulnerability
      • Security
chapter 124
Chapter 12
  • Passionate Love
    • A state of intense longing for union with the other person and of intense physiological arousal
  • Companionate Love
    • A feeling of deep attachment and commitment to a person whom one has an intimaterelationship
chapter 125
Chapter 12
  • Eros:
    • romantic, passionate love, physical chemistry, instant attraction, intense, satisfying
  • Ludus:
    • game-playing love, having two or more loves concurrently, dangling on a string, not serious
  • Storge:
    • friendship love, friends that over time become a couple, friends even if they break up
  • Pragma:
    • logical, “shopping list”, planned choice based on logic and practical considerations
  • Mania:
    • Possessive and dependent love, unable to sleep or eat, frantic if loved one out of range, can’t concentrate on anything else.
  • Agape:
    • Self-sacrificing love, spiritual, selfless.
chapter 126
Chapter 12
  • Sociobiology
    • The purpose of attraction is to propagate the species, transmission of genetic material
  • Byrne’s Law
    • More reinforcements than punishments
  • Berscheid and Walster’s Two Component Theory
    • Physiological arousal
    • Cognitive attribution
chapter 127
Chapter 12
  • Sternberg’s Triangular Theory
    • Passion
    • Intimacy
    • Commitment
  • Best match: partners similar in all three
answers
Answers
  • T
  • T
  • F
  • T
  • T
  • F
  • T
  • F
  • F
  • F
answers1
Answers
  • Clitoridectomy
  • Limbic
  • Experimental
  • Pubococcygeus
  • Frenulum
  • Spongiousum
  • Interstitial Cells
  • Cryptorchidia
  • Priapism
  • Orgasmic Platform
  • Oxytocin
  • Pudendal nerve
  • Parasympathetic / Sympathetic
  • Exocrine
  • Testosterone
  • Dhat Syndrome
  • Quasi-experimental
  • Progesterone
  • Oophorectomy
  • Vomeronasal
  • Agape
  • Passionate Love
  • Homophily
  • Leveling
  • DHEA
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