Psyc 3533 sexual behaviour
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Psyc 3533: Sexual Behaviour. Midterm 1 Tutorial. Chapter 1. Sex = Male/Female Gender is a socio-cultural construct Sexual behaviour includes: Thoughts Feelings Actions (sex) Sensual ≠ Sexual Pleasure through sensory input. Chapter 1. Christian view of sex: Women inferior

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Psyc 3533: Sexual Behaviour

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Psyc 3533 sexual behaviour

Psyc 3533: Sexual Behaviour

Midterm 1 Tutorial


Chapter 1

Chapter 1

  • Sex = Male/Female

  • Gender is a socio-cultural construct

  • Sexual behaviour includes:

  • Thoughts

  • Feelings

  • Actions (sex)

  • Sensual ≠ Sexual

    • Pleasure through sensory input


Chapter 11

Chapter 1

  • Christian view of sex:

    • Women inferior

    • Positive at first (400 years)

    • Jesus probably was married

    • Apostles all married

    • All priests married

  • 5th century: drive for celibacy for heads of the church

    • St. Augustine declared sexual pleasure evil, women temptresses


Chapter 12

Chapter 1

  • Christian view of sex (Cont’d)

    • Many restrictions in married sex:

      • Instilled shame and guilt

        • For common people sex OK

        • Only for procreation but mustn’t feel pleasure! (sin)

          • Penitence and fines

      • Role model for women: Virgin Mary

        • Immaculate conception

      • Attracted misogynists to the church

        • Hatred of or contempt for women or girls


Chapter 13

Chapter 1

  • Medicalization of Sex

    • Pharmaceuticals

      • Pills, suppositories, lotions, creams, etc.

    • Identification of “medical” problems

      • Millions affected.

    • Reducing sex to a “hydraulic response in a few inches of men’s anatomy”.


Chapter 14

Chapter 1

  • Koro syndrome

    • Far East countries

    • Young men convinced that genitals shrinking and retracting into abdomen

    • Fatal trajectory

    • Epidemics going back thousands of years till the present.


Chapter 15

Chapter 1

  • Dhat syndrome

    • Affects young Indian males

    • Fear of loss of seminal fluid in nocturnal emissions. Or that semen mixes with urine and is eliminated.

  • Loss of semen

    • Depletes mental and physical energy

  • Cultural beliefs about the importance of semen

    • Guarantee health and longevity.


Chapter 16

Chapter 1

  • Virginity Testing

    • Very important marriage custom in Sri Lanka

    • A bride who cannot prove her virginity to her husband and her in-laws suffer consequences

  • Determined a virgin if hymen is intact

    • A woman's hymen can be broken or eroded by masturbation and also a number of nonsexual activities


Chapter 2

Chapter 2

  • Problems with Self-Reports

    • Social Desirability

    • Memory

    • Estimation Error

    • Wording of Questions Important

  • Direct Observations: Sampling Bias?

    • (Masters and Johnson)

  • Problems with Direct Observation

    • Expensive and time consuming


Chapter 21

Chapter 2

  • Interview

    • Rapport

    • Flexible

  • Questionnaires

    • Inexpensive

    • Anonymity

  • CASI (Computer-Assisted Self-Interview)


Chapter 22

Chapter 2

  • Ethical Considerations

    • Free and Informed Consent

    • Protection From Harm

    • Justice

    • Harms vs Benefits


Chapter 23

Chapter 2

  • Field Experiment

    • Researcher Controls Independent Variable

    • Real Life Setting

  • Quasi Experiment

    • Researcher Has No Control Over Independent Variable

    • Uses “Natural” Events As Independent Variable


Chapter 24

Chapter 2

  • Kinsey Report

    • Sampling issues

    • Highly regarded interviewing techniques

    • Major Concerns

      • Generally high levels of sexual activity and homosexuality


Chapter 25

Chapter 2

  • National Health and Social Life Survey (NHSLS)

    • Gold standard

    • Probability sample

    • High response rate

    • Low rates of homosexuality


Chapter 26

Chapter 2

  • The Canada Youth, Sexual Health, and HIV/AIDS Study4 Canadian universities

    • Excellent sampling

      • Enough to report for provinces)

    • Many youth engaging in sex at 14

      • 23% boys; 19% girls in grade 9)

    • 5-10% did not use birth control


Chapter 27

Chapter 2

  • Ontario First Nations AIDS and Healthy Lifestyle Survey

    • Face-to-face interviews

    • Many had engaged in high-risk behaviors

      • 60% did not use condoms

    • Presents special challenges

      • Interviewer should be same sex and ethnicity (rapport)


Chapter 28

Chapter 2

  • Canadian Survey of Gay and Bisexual Men

    • Recommendations about prevention of HIV/AIDS among gay and bisexual men

    • Avoided terms gay and bisexual – sampling

      • Excellent response rate

    • More knowledge about transmission of HIV associated with less unprotected sex


Chapter 29

Chapter 2

  • Masters and Johnson

    • Physiology of sexual response

      • Behavior and physiological responses measured and observed in lab

    • Assumed the processes they were studying were normative

    • Artificial Coition

      • Clear plastic penis with sensors


Chapter 210

Chapter 2

  • Schultz, Andel, Sabelis, & Mooyaart, (1999)


Chapter 211

Chapter 2

  • Humphries “Tea Room Trade”

    • Acted as lookout

    • Got licence plates and later interviewed under false pretence

    • Serious ethical issues


Chapter 212

Chapter 2

  • Experimental Studies

    • Control of extraneous variables

    • Manipulation of independent variable

    • Measurement of dependent variable

    • Random assignment of participants to conditions


Chapter 213

Chapter 2

  • Correlational Designs

    • Imply only an association between variables

  • Experimental Designs

    • Can infer that changes in one variable cause changes in another variable.


Chapter 214

Chapter 2

  • Romer et al., 1997

    • Can only say that the type of interview (computer or human) influenced the amount of reporting.


Chapter 215

Chapter 2

  • Meredith Chivers

    • DV1: plethysmograph readings

    • DV2: subjective ratings of arousal on a keypad

    • Females subjective and physiological measures at odds


Chapter 4

Chapter 4

  • Clitoridectomy

    • Surgical removal of the clitoris

  • Infibulation

    • Surgical removal of clitoris and labia, closing of the introitus.

  • Endometriosis

    • the growth of endometrial cells in a location outside of the uterus.


Chapter 41

Chapter 4

  • Pubococcygeus muscle

    • Contracts during orgasm

  • Kegel exercises

    • Contract PC muscle voluntarily

    • A stronger PC muscle leads to better orgasms.

  • Fimbria

    • A fringe of tissue near the ovary leading to the fallopian tube

  • Follicle

    • A capsule that surrounds and egg

    • Produce estrogen, progesterone.


Chapter 42

Chapter 4

  • Hysterectomy

    • Surgical removal of uterus.

  • Oophorectomy

    • Surgical removal of ovaries

  • Surgical complications (short and long term) but also cervix and uterus important for sexual enjoyment, arousal and orgasm.


Chapter 43

Chapter 4

  • PID (pelvic inflammatory disease)

    • Can affect internal reproductive organs

    • Different pathogens, most often STDs

    • Infertility

  • Breast augmentations

    • Health problems

    • Compromises breastfeeding.

  • Reduction

    • For comfort

    • Can also compromise breastfeeding.


Chapter 44

Chapter 4

  • Circumcision

    • Surgical removal of the foreskin

    • Controversial.

  • Better genital health (partners too).

    • associated with lower incidence of HIV and of penile cancer

  • Newborns feel pain (anesthetic)

  • Surgical accidents.

  • No evidence of decreased sensitivity.


Chapter 45

Chapter 4

  • Testes descend prenatally from pelvis to scrotum

    • Need to be about 2°C cooler than body

  • Cremaster muscle

    • Functions to raise and lower the testes in order to regulate temperature

  • Cryptorchidia

    • leads to infertility – can be corrected surgically.


Chapter 46

Chapter 4

  • Sperm count can decrease (infertility?) if:

    • long hot baths

    • prolonged fever

    • long distance truck drivers, any long sitting

    • steel workers close to furnaces

    • jockey shorts, tight jeans


Chapter 47

Chapter 4

  • Testicular cancer:

    • Age range: 15-35

  • Higher incidence

    • Family history

    • Cryptorchidia(undescended testicles)

  • Very treatable, 98% success rate when discovered early


Chapter 48

Chapter 4

  • Cancer of the penis

    • Rare can be fatal if not treated early

    • Risk factors

      • Over 50

      • History of multiple sex partners

      • History of STDs

      • Poor genital hygiene

      • Smoking


Chapter 49

Chapter 4

  • Priapism

    • Prolonged erection

    • Due to:

      • Constant vibration (e.g. snowmobile),

      • Some pathological conditions

      • Use of drugs like Cialis. Painful.


Chapter 9

Chapter 9

  • Females:

    • Vaginal lubrication

    • Glansclitoris enlarges (similar to penile erection)

    • Nipples erect (myotonia: muscle contraction)

    • Breasts enlarge (vasocongestion

    • Inner lips of vulva swell and open, change in colour (darker)

    • Upper 2/3rds of vagina balloons

    • Cervix and uterus stand up: tenting effect

    • Angle of cervical opening more receptive to sperm


Chapter 91

Chapter 9

  • Masters and Johnson: four phases

  • Excitation

    • Sex flush (can happen later)

    • Heart rate, respiration rate gradually increase

    • Generalized myotonia

    • Vasocongestion

      • Pelvic area receives more blood in general, in particular to genitals.

  • Males:

    • Penile erection

    • Scrotal sac thickens, elevates


Chapter 92

Chapter 9

  • Plateau:

    • Both males and females continue vasocongestion to max

    • Heart rate, respiration rate and blood pressure continue to increase

    • Copious perspiration

    • Increased myotonia


Chapter 93

Chapter 9

  • Plateau

  • Females:

    • Orgasmic platform

      • Outer third of vagina thickens, swells

      • Without it, no orgasm

    • Tenting complete

    • Clitoris erect


Chapter 94

Chapter 9

  • Plateau

  • Males:

    • Cowper’s glands secrete fluid through tip of penis

    • May contain live sperm!

    • Scrotum even higher and testicles bigger


Chapter 95

Chapter 9

  • Orgasmic:

  • Both:

    • very high heart rate, blood pressure and breathing

    • intense myotonia

  • Males: Two stages:

    • Contraction of seminal vesicles, vas and prostate

    • Contraction of urethra and penis: ejaculation


Chapter 96

Chapter 9

  • Orgasmic:

    • Females:

      • Contractions of orgasmic platform

      • Contractions of uterus

      • Several orgasms possible if stimulation continues

      • Oxytocin


Chapter 97

Chapter 9

  • Health Benefits Associated With Orgasm

    • General Health

      • An orgasm at least once or twice per week appears to strength the immune system’s ability to resist flu and other viruses

    • Pain Relief

      • Some women find that an orgasm’s release of hormones and muscle contractions help relieve the pain of menstrual cramps and raise pain tolerance in general.


Chapter 98

Chapter 9

  • Health Benefits Associated With Orgasm (Cont’d)

    • Lower Cancer Rate

      • Men who have more than five ejaculations per week during their 20s have a significantly lower rate of prostate cancer later in life

    • Mood Enhancement

      • Orgasms increase estrogen and endorphins, which tend to improve mood and ward off depression in women


Chapter 99

Chapter 9

  • Health Benefits Associated With Orgasm

    • Greater Feelings of Intimacy

      • The hormone oxytocin, which may play a role in feelings of love and intimacy, increases fivefold at orgasm

    • Better Sleep

      • The neurotransmitter dopamine, released during orgasm, triggers a stress-reducing, sleep-inducing response that may last up to two hours


Chapter 910

Chapter 9

  • Resolution:

    • Return to normal, muscles relax, breathing etc. back to normal, blood back to circulation from genitals.

    • Males

      • refractory period

  • EACH PHASE MUST BE FULLY COMPLETED IN ORDER TO REACH THE NEXT ONE


Chapter 911

Chapter 9

  • SOME GENDER DIFFERENCES:

    • Excitation

      • Women slower

  • Three types of female orgasm have been identified by some researchers:

    • Clitoral stimulation,

      • Via pudendal nerve

    • G-spot stimulation

      • Via pelvic nerve

    • A blend of both


Chapter 912

Chapter 9

  • Each phase shows age changes.

    • Excitation:

      • Men:

        • Fastest 16-20 years, then slow decline

      • Women:

        • Slower in teens, early 20s

        • Faster 30’s on

    • Plateau:

      • Men:

        • Capacity for longer with age

      • Women:

        • Same, but never a big problem


Chapter 913

Chapter 9

Orgasmic:

  • Men:

    • Intensity lessens from mid- to late 20s

    • Middle Age:

      • Really noticeable

      • Ejaculate less volume, less forceful

    • Resolution:

      • Refractory period increases


Chapter 914

Chapter 9

  • Cognitive models:

    • Kaplan’s triphasic model:

      • Sexual desire

      • Vasocongestion

      • Muscular contraction

    • Walenand Roth’s model:

      • Emphasis on perception and evaluation

      • 8 steps, necessary for the arousal cycle to be completed


Chapter 915

Chapter 9

  • Neural and hormonal involvement in sexual responses:

    • Parasympathetic:

      • arousal

    • Sympathetic:

      • Orgasm

  • Women’s Neural Mechanisms:

    • Not yet well known

    • One recent study found that sexual sensations can be transmitted to the brain via the vagus nerve, which is normally used for digestive processes.


Chapter 916

Chapter 9

  • Experiments using electrical stimulation:

    • Erection centers found in the limbic system, both in monkeys and humans.


Chapter 917

Chapter 9

  • Hormonal Influences on Sex:

    • Hormone:

      • substance produced by endocrine glands (internal secretion) which affect specific organs via the blood stream

    • Exocrine Gland:

      • substance produced by a gland that goes to the ‘outside’, e.g., sweat, tears


Chapter 918

Chapter 9

  • Most Studied Sex Hormone:

    • Testosterone

    • Produced by testes, ovaries and adrenal glands

    • Important for sexual desire in both sexes Hormonal

  • Women have 1/10th the amount but are ten times more sensitive to it.

    • More testosterone in a normal person will not increase desire or response.

    • Most testosterone is ‘bound’, not available in this regard, ‘free’ testosterone is 2-5%.


Chapter 919

Chapter 9

  • DHEA (dehydroepiandrosterone)

    • Secreted by adrenal glands (weak androgen)

    • Same amount for males and females in bloodstream

    • Pro-hormone - Most sex hormones and pheromones derived from it.

  • Pheromones

    • Sexual signals for both sexes

    • Sensed by the vomeronasal organ

  • Oxytocin

    • Released by the pituitary when touching or being touched by loved ones

    • Important for attachment, also involved in parental behaviours.


Chapter 920

Chapter 9

  • PEA (phenylethylamine)

    • Called “the molecule of love”

    • Produce euphoria

    • Amphetamine-like substance produced in brain capillaries and in catecholaminergic terminals.

    • Low PEA levels associated with depression (some depressions successfully treated with PEA).

    • Some people become addicted to the PEA “high” and change partners frequently to get it

    • More abundant early in a relationship


Chapter 921

Chapter 9

  • Estrogen

    • Makes women sexually attractive and receptive. Skin, lips, hair, fatty padding (curves), breasts, hips.

  • Testosterone

    • Increases sex drive in both sexes, too much is counterproductive.

  • Progesterone

    • Testosterone antagonist

    • Lowers sex drive

    • Mild sedative, calming effect.


Chapter 922

Chapter 9

  • Serotonin

    • Neurotransmitter

    • At low levels intensifies sex drive

    • At high levels decreases it

    • Antidepressants elevate serotonin, decrease sex drive

  • Dopamine

    • Neurotransmitter associated with all pleasures

    • Increases sex drive, promotes action


Chapter 923

Chapter 9

  • Prolactin

    • Decreases sex drive, especially in men

  • Vasopressin

    • Hormone produced by the pituitary

    • Antidiuretic (water retention)

    • Increases blood volume and blood pressure

    • “monogamy molecule”

      • Modulates testosterone, levels extremes of feelings, increases focus in lovemaking


Chapter 10

Chapter 10

  • Effective Communication

    • Unconditional Positive Regard

      • Conveying that you love the person no matter what they reveal

    • Intent

      • What you mean to say

    • Impact

      • What the other hears


Chapter 101

Chapter 10

  • Effective Communication (cont)

    • Documenting

      • Giving specific examples of the issue being discussed

    • Levelling

      • Telling your partner what you are feeling by stating your thoughts clearly, simply, and honestly

    • Editing

      • Censoring or not saying things that would be deliberately hurtful to your partner or that are irrelevant


Chapter 102

Chapter 10

  • Active Listening:

    • Attentive body language

    • Appropriate facial expressions

    • Asking questions

    • Making brief comments

  • Paraphrasing

    • Show true understanding of the message

    • Rephrasing in own words what the listener heard

    • Opportunity to clarify misunderstandings


Chapter 103

Chapter 10

  • Validation

    • Telling your partner that, given his or her point of view, you can see why he or she thinks a certain way

  • Non-verbal communication

    • Important cues


Chapter 121

Chapter 12

  • The purpose of marriage: meet the needs of the group by forming alliances with other groups.

  • Factors that helped usher the love marriage:

    • industrialization: individual has more value

    • affluence: less dependence on family

    • literacy: romantic novels

    • later, movies

    • increased longevity

    • secularization

    • women financially independent

    • lower birth rate


Chapter 122

Chapter 12

  • Attraction

    • Mere-exposure effect

      • Tendency to like a person more if we have been exposed to him or her repeatedly

      • Propinquity

      • Familiarity

      • Complementarity?

    • Homophily

      • The tendency to have contact with people who are equal in social status

  • Matching phenomenon

    • Tendency for individuals to choose partners who are similar


Chapter 123

Chapter 12

  • Intimacy

    • Physical:

      • Sensual

    • Emotional:

      • Trust

      • Self-disclosure (mutual)

      • Vulnerability

      • Security


Chapter 124

Chapter 12

  • Passionate Love

    • A state of intense longing for union with the other person and of intense physiological arousal

  • Companionate Love

    • A feeling of deep attachment and commitment to a person whom one has an intimaterelationship


Chapter 125

Chapter 12

  • Eros:

    • romantic, passionate love, physical chemistry, instant attraction, intense, satisfying

  • Ludus:

    • game-playing love, having two or more loves concurrently, dangling on a string, not serious

  • Storge:

    • friendship love, friends that over time become a couple, friends even if they break up

  • Pragma:

    • logical, “shopping list”, planned choice based on logic and practical considerations

  • Mania:

    • Possessive and dependent love, unable to sleep or eat, frantic if loved one out of range, can’t concentrate on anything else.

  • Agape:

    • Self-sacrificing love, spiritual, selfless.


Chapter 126

Chapter 12

  • Sociobiology

    • The purpose of attraction is to propagate the species, transmission of genetic material

  • Byrne’s Law

    • More reinforcements than punishments

  • Berscheid and Walster’s Two Component Theory

    • Physiological arousal

    • Cognitive attribution


Chapter 127

Chapter 12

  • Sternberg’s Triangular Theory

    • Passion

    • Intimacy

    • Commitment

  • Best match: partners similar in all three


Answers

Answers

  • T

  • T

  • F

  • T

  • T

  • F

  • T

  • F

  • F

  • F


Answers1

Answers

  • Clitoridectomy

  • Limbic

  • Experimental

  • Pubococcygeus

  • Frenulum

  • Spongiousum

  • Interstitial Cells

  • Cryptorchidia

  • Priapism

  • Orgasmic Platform

  • Oxytocin

  • Pudendal nerve

  • Parasympathetic / Sympathetic

  • Exocrine

  • Testosterone

  • Dhat Syndrome

  • Quasi-experimental

  • Progesterone

  • Oophorectomy

  • Vomeronasal

  • Agape

  • Passionate Love

  • Homophily

  • Leveling

  • DHEA


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