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Geography / American Indian Studies 322 Professor Zoltán Grossman. Introduction to Native Geographies. No “Indians” before 1492. There goes the neighborhood…. Diversity in… Tribes/bands Languages Governments Cultures Spiritual beliefs Resource use Land control. Pros & Cons of Terms.
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Introduction toNative Geographies
There goes the neighborhood…
Who is an “Indian”?
Categories Defined by…. What about…
RACIAL Blood Quantum (biology) “Mixed bloods,”
CULTURAL Tribally raised/accepted Adopted Indians,
GEOGRAPHICAL Reservation residents Urban Indians,
“Racial composition is not always dispositive in determining who are Indians for the purposes of Indian law. In dealing with Indians, the federal government is dealing with members or descendants of political entities, that is, Indian tribes, not with persons of a particular race. Tribal membership as determined by the Indian tribe or community itself is often an essential element.”
— Handbook of Federal Indian Law
10. How much white are you?
9. I’m part white myself, you know.
8. I learned all your people’s ways in the Boy Scouts.
6. Funny, you don’t look white.
5. Where’s your powdered wig and knickers?
4. Do you live in a covered wagon?
3. What’s the meaning behind the square dance?
2. What’s your feeling about river-boat casinos? Do they
really help your people, or are they just a short-term fix?
1. Oh wow, I really love your hair! Can I touch it?
American Indian or
Alaska Native alone 2.5 million
(26% higher than 1990)(0.9%)
with other “races” 1.6 million (0.6%)
Total = 4.1 million (1.5%)
(110% higher than 1990)
100 million acres =
4% of U.S.,
322 entities in Lower 48 = 56 million acres
BUT much of rez land is allotted ( non-Indian ownership)
229 Alaska villages =
44 million acres
BUT Alaska Native
lands held as village &
not as sovereign
Historical Written or oral history proves a tribe/nation.
2. Demographical Members not from another tribe.
3. Geographical Lived and continue to live in a distinct area.
4. Political Record of continuous government or leadership.
rank or power
(American Heritage Dictionary)
62% of Native pop.
8% of Native pop.