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Geography / American Indian Studies 322 Professor Zoltán Grossman. Introduction to Native Geographies. No “Indians” before 1492. There goes the neighborhood…. Diversity in… Tribes/bands Languages Governments Cultures Spiritual beliefs Resource use Land control. Pros & Cons of Terms.

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Geography / American Indian Studies 322 Professor Zoltán Grossman

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Geography / American Indian Studies 322Professor Zoltán Grossman

Introduction toNative Geographies


No “Indians”before 1492

There goes the neighborhood…

Diversity in…

Tribes/bands

Languages

Governments

Cultures

Spiritual beliefs

Resource use

Land control


Pros & Cons of Terms

Aboriginal

First Nations

4th World

American Indian

or Indian

Native American

or Native

Tribal

Indigenous

Nation names

Amerindian

Autochthonous


  • Racial category?

    (“minority”)

  • Ethno-cultural groups

  • Economic status

  • Groups with a land base

  • Autonomous nations

Native Americans


Tribal Diversity


CulturalAreas

Arctic

Subarctic

Northwest Coast

Plateau

Great Basin

California

Plains

Southwest

Southeast

Northeast


xxxxx


Major Early Language & Cultural Groups


Eastern U.S.language groups

xxxxx

Algonquian

Algonquian

Siouan

Caddoan

Iroquoian

Gulf (Muskogean)

Timucua

Algonquian

Siouan

Iroquoian

Algonquian

Iroquoian

Caddoan

Gulf

Timucua


Western U.S.language groups

Salish

xxxxx

Algonquian

Penutian

Siouan

Athaba-

scan

Algonquian

Siouan

Caddoan

Aztec-Tanoan

Athabascan (Southern)

Salish

Penutian

Hokan

Keres

Siouan

Hokan

Caddoan

Aztec-

Tanoan

Penutian

Algonquian

Athabascan

Aztec-

Tanoan

Hokan

Keres

Aztec-

Tanoan

Caddoan

Athabascan

Hokan


Alaskalanguagegroups

Inuit

xxxxx

Inuit

Dené

Dené

(Northern

Athabascan)

Inuit

(Eskimo)

Aleut

Inuit

Inuit

Dené

Aleut

Aleut


Canadalanguagegroups

xxxxx

Inuit

Dené

Algonquian

Dené

(Athabascan)

Inuit

Siouan

Iroquoian

Salish

Wakashan

Tsimshian

Kootenai

Inuit

Dené

Inuit

Dené

Inuit

Dené

Inuit

Waka-

shan

Algonquian

Algonquian

Salish

Siouan

Algonquian

Algonquian

Iroquoian


Native Land Losses


Studying Native History/Geography

  • Not only about racial conflict, but the colonization of nations

  • Not only about the U.S. government, but the origins of the United States

  • Not only about federal/state policies, but the land base where they occur

  • Not only looks at political/economic, but at European cultural underpinnings


xxxx


  • Ancestors lived in America,

  • before the arrival of Europeans.

  • Who is considered to be

  • an Indian by the community.

  • Who self-defines as an Indian.

  • Federal court decisions have

  • shifted definitions over time

Who is an “Indian”?


Blood Quantum(% of tribal ancestry)

  • Pushed by federal Bureau

  • of Indian Affairs (1/4)

  • Tribal govt’s set today

  • (often internalized)

  • Intermarriage can

  • “fractionalize” tribe


Racial Complexities

  • Native Americans can “appear” white, black, etc.

  • Multiracial

  • tribal nations

    • Seminole, Lumbee, etc.

  • Mixed categories

    • Métis (French),

    • Mestizo (Spanish), etc.


Who is an “Indian”?

CategoriesDefined by….What about…

RACIALBlood Quantum (biology)“Mixed bloods,”

Assimilated

CULTURALTribally raised/acceptedAdopted Indians,

White ‘wannabes’

GEOGRAPHICALReservation residents Urban Indians,

Rez whites


“Racial composition is not always dispositive in determining who are Indians for the purposes of Indian law. In dealing with Indians, the federal government is dealing with members or descendants of political entities, that is, Indian tribes, not with persons of a particular race. Tribal membership as determined by the Indian tribe or community itself is often an essential element.”

— Handbook of Federal Indian Law


Top 10 Things to Say to a White Person Upon First Meeting

10. How much white are you?

9. I’m part white myself, you know.

8. I learned all your people’s ways in the Boy Scouts.

  • My great-great-grandmother was a full-blooded white-

    American princess.

    6. Funny, you don’t look white.

    5. Where’s your powdered wig and knickers?

    4. Do you live in a covered wagon?

    3. What’s the meaning behind the square dance?

    2. What’s your feeling about river-boat casinos? Do they

    really help your people, or are they just a short-term fix?

    1. Oh wow, I really love your hair! Can I touch it?


2000 CENSUS1.5% of U.S. population

American Indian or

Alaska Native alone 2.5 million

(26% higher than 1990)(0.9%)

In combination

with other “races” 1.6 million (0.6%)

Total =4.1 million (1.5%)

(110% higher than 1990)


Native Population Distribution

100 million acres =

4% of U.S.,

BUT…..


Modern Indian Lands = 4% of U.S.?

322 entities in Lower 48 = 56 million acres

BUT much of rez land is allotted ( non-Indian ownership)


Modern Indian Lands = 4% of U.S.?

229 Alaska villages =

44 million acres

BUT Alaska Native

lands held as village &

regional corporations,

not as sovereign

reservations


Federal Recognition of Tribes

Historical Written or oral history proves a tribe/nation.

2. Demographical Members not from another tribe.

3. Geographical Lived and continue to live in a distinct area.

4. Political Record of continuous government or leadership.


“Trust Responsibility”

  • Direct relationship between federal & tribal gov’ts

  • Tribal land put “in trust” to become reservation

  • Protects reservation from state & local gov’ts

  • Puts tribe at mercy of federal “trustee”


Sovereignty

Paramount; supreme

Having supreme

rank or power

3. Self-governing

(American Heritage Dictionary)


Percentages by County

Reservations


19 states above U.S.

average (1.5%)

MN 1.6%

WI 1.3%


Population by County


Top 10 states =

62% of Native pop.


Urban Population


Top 10 cities =

8% of Native pop.


xxxxx


Canadian Treaties1,200 tiny reserves today


Inuit (Eskimo) territory of Nunavut

1999

Canada


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