Evaluating professional development
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Evaluating Professional Development. J . Salmon. Guskey points out that professional development must develop new knowledge and skills in teachers and that knowledge and skill must be used to affect students’ learning. Guskey: Does It Make a Difference? (2002).

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Evaluating Professional Development

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Evaluating professional development

Evaluating Professional Development

J. Salmon


Guskey does it make a difference 2002

  • Guskey points out that professional development must develop new knowledge and skills in teachers and that knowledge and skill must be used to affect students’ learning.

Guskey: Does It Make a Difference? (2002)


Birman et al designing pd that works 2000

  • Birman et. al. states that many new professional development programs “emphasize improved teaching as the best path to increased learning.”

Birman et. al.: Designing PD That Works (2000)


Leadership

  • Scott and Webber (2008) indicate that one of the roles of a principal is to be an instructional leader. This, despite reluctance, includes the responsibility to monitor and support quality teaching.

Leadership


Through teachers

  • So if the path to increased student learning is through the teachers, how can leaders supervise teacher growth effectively?

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sDlaf7-JJ14

Through Teachers


Case studies

  • As we go through these case studies, ask yourself the following questions:

    • What barriers are preventing effective supervision?

    • What ways of effective supervision have I experienced/read about that would work better here?

Case Studies


Evaluating professional development

  • A sixth-grade teacher has good classroom management and is well liked by students and parents, but his students do poorly on standardized tests. A new principal mentions the disappointing scores, and the teacher launches into a litany of complaints: he always gets the “bad class,” most of his students come from dysfunctional families, and he’s tired of being asked to “teach to the test.” Later that day, the union representative officiously tells the principal that she can’t mention test results in a teacher’s evaluation.

    • What barriers are preventing effective supervision?

    • What ways of effective supervision have I experienced/read about that would work better here?


Evaluating professional development

  • A principal observes an elaborate hands-on math lesson in a veteran teacher’s classroom and notices that the teacher is confusing the terms mean, median, and mode. The principal notes this error in his mostly positive evaluation, and, in the post-observation conference, the teacher suddenly begins to cry. Ten years later, at his retirement party, the principal asks the teacher what lesson she took away from this incident. “Never to take a risk,” she replies.

    • What barriers are preventing effective supervision?

    • What ways of effective supervision have I experienced/read about that would work better here?


Evaluating professional development

  • A principal gets complaints from several parents about a history teacher’s problems with discipline but is so overwhelmed that she rarely visits his classroom. When she does her required observation of his class, she sees a carefully planned lesson featuring an elaborate Power Point presentation and well behaved students. The principal feels she has no choice but to do a positive write-up of this lesson and give the teacher a satisfactory rating.

    • What barriers are preventing effective supervision?

    • What ways of effective supervision have I experienced/read about that would work better here?


Evaluating professional development

  • A principal boasts that he spends two hours a day in classrooms. And it’s true — he really does visit his school’s 17 teachers daily, chatting with students and occasionally chiming in on a lesson. But when teachers are asked what kind of feedback they get, they say the principal rarely talks to them about what he sees when he strolls through their classes.

    • What barriers are preventing effective supervision?

    • What ways of effective supervision have I experienced/read about that would work better here?


Evaluating professional development

  • A well-regarded veteran teacher hasn’t been evaluated in five years and rarely sees the principal in her classroom. She takes this as a compliment — her teaching must be “okay.” And yet she feels lonely and isolated with her students and wishes the principal would pay an occasional visit and tell her what he thinks.

    • What barriers are preventing effective supervision?

    • What ways of effective supervision have I experienced/read about that would work better here?


Evaluating professional development

  • A principal spends four entire weekends in April and May completing teacher evaluations just before the deadline. He puts the evaluations into teachers’ mailboxes with a cover note attached that reads, “Please let me know if you have any concerns and would like to talk. Otherwise, sign and return by tomorrow.” All the teachers sign, nobody requests a meeting, and there is no further discussion.

    • What barriers are preventing effective supervision?

    • What ways of effective supervision have I experienced/read about that would work better here?


Final questions

  • How must teacher supervision change in order to become an effective method of improving teaching?

  • Some teachers may already have a negative perspective about supervision. What can be done to help these teachers change their perspective?

Final Questions


Marshall 10 problems with current system of supervision

  • Too little teaching time evaluated

  • Micro-evaluating one lesson has little value

  • Evaluated lessons are atypical

  • Isolated lessons give incomplete picture

  • Evaluation not focused on student learning

  • High-Stakes evaluation shuts down adult learning

  • Supervision can reinforce teacher isolation

  • Measuring instruments can get in the way

  • Measurements can get in the way of “judgments”

  • Principals too busy to supervise properly.

Marshall: 10 Problems with Current System of Supervision


Marshall shifts in supervision

  • from periodically evaluating teaching to continuously analyzing learning

  • from inspecting teachers one by one to energizing the work of teacher teams

  • from evaluating individual lessons to supervising curriculum units

  • from occasional announced classroom visits to frequent unannounced visits

  • from detailed scripting of single lessons to quick sampling of multiple lessons

  • from faking it with distorted data to conducting authentic conversations based on real data

  • from year-end judgments to continuous suggestions and redirection

  • from comprehensive, written evaluations to focused, face-to-face feedback

  • from guarded, inauthentic conversations to candid give-and-take

  • from teachers saying, “Let me do it my way” to everyone asking, “Is it working?”

  • from employing rigid evaluation criteria to continuously looking at new ideas and practices

  • from focusing mainly on bad teachers to improving teaching in every classroom

  • from cumbersome, time-consuming evaluations to streamlined rubrics

  • from being mired in paperwork to orchestrating school-wide improvement.

Marshall: Shifts in Supervision


References

  • Birman, B. F., Desimone, L., Poter, A. C., & Garet, M. S. (2000). Designing professional development that works. Educational Leadership(May), 28-33.

  • Guskey, T. R. (2002). Does it make a difference? Evaluating professional development. Educational Leadership, 45-51.

  • Marshall, K. (2005). It's Time to Rethink Teacher Supervision and Evaluation. Phi Delta Kappan, 86(10), 727. Retrieved from EBSCOhost

  • Scott, S., & Webber, C. F. (2008). Evidence-based leadership development: The 4L framework. Journal of Educational Administration, 46(6), 762-776.

References


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