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Eugene p odum

Eugene P. Odum

http://www.biohabitats.com/ndg_newsite/newsletter/images/2008winter/Odum.jpg

“The ecosystem is the basic functional unit with which we must deal since it includes both the organisms and the nonliving environment, each influencing the properties of the other and both necessary for maintenance of life as we have it on Earth.”


Eugene p odum

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Eugene p odum

Early Life

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“Whenever my family visited anybody I’d disappear under the house to study their plumbing.”

http://researchmagazine.uga.edu/summer2002/sum02art/or_old.jpg


Eugene p odum

Variations in the Heart Rate of Birds: A Study in Physiological Ecology

Odum, Eugene P., 1941. Variations in the heart rate of birds: a study in physiological ecology. Ecological Monographs 11: 299-326


Eugene p odum

Variations in the Heart Rate of Birds: A Study in Physiological Ecology

Weight

Heart Rate

Odum, Eugene P., 1941. Variations in the heart rate of birds: a study in physiological ecology. Ecological Monographs 11: 299-326


Eugene p odum

Variations in the Heart Rate of Birds: A Study in Physiological Ecology

Odum, Eugene P., 1941. Variations in the heart rate of birds: a study in physiological ecology. Ecological Monographs 11: 299-326

http://www.photozo.com/album/showphoto.php?photo=48106

“Although the study of physiology quite logically is concerned at first with the study of the functions of various parts, organs, and systems as separate units, the ultimate aim is an understanding of their function in the organism as a whole. Furthermore, it is the physiology of the whole organism that is of the greatest interest to the ecologist in understanding how organisms are related to and function in their environments.”


Eugene p odum

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Eugene p odum

1933

The Land Ethic – Aldo Leopold “…a fountain of energy flowing through a circuit of soils, plants, and animals.”

1935

Ecosystem as a unit of nature – Arthur Tansley. “Is man part of ‘nature’ or not?”

1942

The Trophic Dynamic Aspect of Ecology – Raymond Lindeman. Ecosystems should be examined as “as system composed of physical-chemical-biological-processes.”

“If you want to understand a large scale system, you have to start with the function of the organisms in the system”

-E.P. Odum


Eugene p odum

Fundamentals of Ecology

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Eugene p odum

Research has been directed along 3 distinct but related lines:

trophic structure and metabolism of the early stages of succession on abandoned agricultural lands (i.e. the old-field ecosystem)

experiments in radiation ecology with major emphasis on the use of radio-isotopes as "metabolic tags" (to clarify nutrient cycles and energy flow) and as "population tags" (as, for example, to determine density and turnover of small organisms)

measurements of relative abundance of game vertebrates as indices of the change in the region as a whole as the result of the interaction of the old-fields (one-third of the land area) and the forest areas (two-thirds of the land area).

Odum, E.P., Connell, C.E., Davenport, L.B., 1962. Energy flow of three primary comsumer components of old-field ecosystems. Ecology 43:88-96


Eugene p odum

Forb-Arthropod Food Chains in a One Year Experimental Field

-Used Phosphorus-32 tracers to study plant-arthropod food chains.

-Where Heterothecasubaxillariswas the labeled plant, 32P was transferred readily to a number of phytophagous insects and secondarily to the predator fauna.

-Where only Erigeron canadensiswas tagged, there was little transfer of the isotope to the consumer populations, with the exceptions of the ant Dorymyrmex and the tree cricket Oecanthus.

-Very little 32P was transferred to the detritus eaters during the 43 day period of the study.

Wiegert, R.G., Odum, E.P., Schnell, J.H., 1967. Forb-Arthropod food chains in a one year experimental field. Ecology 48:75-83


Eugene p odum

Forb-Arthropod Food Chains in a One Year Experimental Field

“Results of this study have verified and extended the suggestion made in previous radioisotope food chain studies (Ball and Hooper 1963, Odum and Kuenzler 1963, Marples 1964) that the shape of uptake curves can be indicative of the trophic position of a population of consumers in the field. Thus, populations known to be strictly herbivorous reach a peak of radioactivity very soon after the primary producers have been labeled, while known predators such as spiders show delayed uptake at lower levels.”

Wiegert, R.G., Odum, E.P., Schnell, J.H., 1967. Forb-Arthropod food chains in a one year experimental field. Ecology 48:75-83


Eugene p odum

Population Energy Flow of Three Primary Consumer Components of Old-Field Ecosystems

Odum, E.P., Connell, C.E., Davenport, L.B., 1962. Energy flow of three primary comsumer components of old-field ecosystems. Ecology 43:88-96


Eugene p odum

Population Energy Flow of Three Primary Consumer Components of Old-Field Ecosystems

Sparrow

Field mice

Grasshoppers/Crickets

Odum, E.P., Connell, C.E., Davenport, L.B., 1962. Energy flow of three primary comsumer components of old-field ecosystems. Ecology 43:88-96


Eugene p odum

Worlds first hydrogen bomb explosion, Eniwetok Atoll, 1952


Eugene p odum

Trophic Structure and Productivity of a Windward Coral Reef Community on Eniwetok Atoll


Eugene p odum

Trophic Structure and Productivity of a Windward Coral Reef Community on Eniwetok Atoll

“All in all there is no better way to become impressed with the functional operation of a community than to put on a face mask and explore a coral reef.” –E. Odum, Fundamentals of Ecology


Eugene p odum

Trophic Structure and Productivity of a Windward Coral Reef Community on Eniwetok Atoll

- Total plant tissue exceeds animal tissue by about 3 to 1

-Filamentous green algae have more biomass than zooxanthellae by about 16 to 1

Odum, H.T., Odum, E.P., 1955. Trophic structure and productivity of a windward coral reef community on Eniwetok Atoll. Ecological Monographs 25:291-320


Eugene p odum

Trophic Structure and Productivity of a Windward Coral Reef Community on Eniwetok Atoll

  • Quantitative trophic structure of the reef community set out as a pyramid of mass

  • The single coral is first a producer, to a lesser extent an herbivore, and somewhat a carnivore, thus giving something of a pyramid within one coral head

Odum, H.T., Odum, E.P., 1955. Trophic structure and productivity of a windward coral reef community on Eniwetok Atoll. Ecological Monographs 25:291-320


Eugene p odum

Trophic Structure and Productivity of a Windward Coral Reef Community on Eniwetok Atoll

“…As an open system , the construction of self regulating interactions has led by selective process to the survival of the stable.”

  • Quantitative trophic structure of the reef community set out as a pyramid of mass

  • The single coral is first a producer, to a lesser extent an herbivore, and somewhat a carnivore, thus giving something of a pyramid within one coral head

Odum, H.T., Odum, E.P., 1955. Trophic structure and productivity of a windward coral reef community on Eniwetok Atoll. Ecological Monographs 25:291-320


Eugene p odum

Trophic Structure and Productivity of a Windward Coral Reef Community on Eniwetok Atoll

  • Linked application of ecosystems ecology with nuclear technologies

  • Mutualism and stability

  • System characterized not by competition and growth, but by cooperation and stability


Eugene p odum

The ecosystem is the basic unit of nature with which ecologists must ultimately deal

  • President of ESA in 1964

  • Announced in Bioscience the establishment of a “new ecology” that had risen “to a front line position in man’s thinking as a consequence of the exploitation of atomic energy, the exploration of outer space, and the human population explosion.”

  • Defined the new ecology as a “Systems Ecology” that deals with “the structure and function of levels of organization beyond that of the individual and species”


Eugene p odum

The Strategy of Ecosystem Development

-Published in 1969 in Science


Eugene p odum

The Strategy of Ecosystem Development

P/R = Index of relative maturity of ecosystem

Decrease in energy relegated to production

Increase in energy relegated to maintenance

http://ykonline.yksd.com/distanceedcourses/Courses/Biology/lessons/FourthQuarter/Chapter%2012/12-1/images/succession.jpg


Eugene p odum

The Strategy of Ecosystem Development

k-selected

r-selected

Decrease in energy relegated to production

Increase in energy relegated to maintenance

http://ykonline.yksd.com/distanceedcourses/Courses/Biology/lessons/FourthQuarter/Chapter%2012/12-1/images/succession.jpg


Eugene p odum

The Strategy of Ecosystem Development

P/R Approaches 1

P/B is Low

P/R is < or > 1

P/B is High

http://ykonline.yksd.com/distanceedcourses/Courses/Biology/lessons/FourthQuarter/Chapter%2012/12-1/images/succession.jpg


Eugene p odum

The Strategy of Ecosystem Development

Weblike, predominantly detritus

Linear, predominantly grazing

http://ykonline.yksd.com/distanceedcourses/Courses/Biology/lessons/FourthQuarter/Chapter%2012/12-1/images/succession.jpg


Eugene p odum

The Strategy of Ecosystem Development

http://ykonline.yksd.com/distanceedcourses/Courses/Biology/lessons/FourthQuarter/Chapter%2012/12-1/images/succession.jpg


Eugene p odum

The Strategy of Ecosystem Development

-“In the pioneer society, as in the pioneer ecosystem, high birth rates, rapid growth, high economic profits, and exploitation of accessible and unused resources are advantageous, but, as the saturation level is approached, these drives must be shifted to considerations of symbiosis(that is, civil rights, law and order, education, and culture), birth control, and the recycling of resources.”

  • -The use of nonchemical pest control agriculture

  • The implementation of a compartment model for landscape zoning to be supported by landscape lawyers

  • A reorientation of societies goals to be accomplished by instruction in ecosystems ecology beginning in elementary school.


Eugene p odum

Criticism of The Strategy of Ecosystem Development

-1973, William Drury and Ian Nesbit published an article called succession that challenged Odums ecosystem concept

-Promoted Glesonian concept of succession


Eugene p odum

Criticism of The Strategy of Ecosystem Development

-Drury and Nesbit: “Most of the phenomenon of succession can be understood as a consequences of differential growth, differential survival of species adapted to growth at different points on environmental gradients. There is no strategy of ecosystem development because there is no community control over succession.”


Eugene p odum

Criticism of The Strategy of Ecosystem Development


Eugene p odum

Criticism of The Strategy of Ecosystem Development

-Ecosystems do not function through feedbacks and are not integrated wholes.


Eugene p odum

Criticism of The Strategy of Ecosystem Development


Eugene p odum

The Pulsing Paradigm

  • -Abandoned the term homeostasis

  • Began using the term homeorhesis

    • - derived from the Greek word rheos for “stream” or “current” and means maintenance of flow


Eugene p odum

Non-Set-Point Control


Eugene p odum

Non-Set-Point Control

Solar Radiation

Oxygen

Vegetation

Decomposers

Ecosystem


Eugene p odum

Set-Point Control


Eugene p odum

Set-Point Control

Information

Hormones

Thyroid Gland

Metabolism


Eugene p odum

Retirement

-Retired from the University of Georgia in 1984


Eugene p odum

Retirement

-Retired from the University of Georgia in 1984


Eugene p odum

Retirement

-Retired from the University of Georgia in 1984


Eugene p odum

Retirement

-The ecosystem is a thermodynamically open system

-Ecosystems maintain stability by internal feedback

-Natural selection can occur at the level of the group and it involves mutualism as well as interorganismal competition

-Mutualism increases when resources are scarce

-Ecosystem development is a 2 phase process, where in the 2nd stage the ecosystem is self organized

-Since the beginning of life on earth, organisms have not only adapted to physical conditions, but have modified the environment in ways that have proven beneficial to life in general


Eugene p odum

Books

-Fundamentals of Ecology

-Ecology

-Basic Ecology

-Ecology and Our Endangered Life Support Systems

-Ecological Vignettes: Ecological

-Approaches to Dealing with Human Predicament

-Essence of Place (co-authored with Martha Odum)

-Microsoft academic search lists 65 publications and 6756 author citations


Eugene p odum

References

Craige, Betty Jean 2002. Eugene Odum: Ecosystems Ecologist and Environmentalist. University of Georgia Press, ISBN-10: 0820324736

Engelberg, J., Boyarsky, L.L., 1979. The Noncybernetic Nature of Ecosystems. The American Naturalist 114:317-324

Odum, Eugene P., 1941. Variations in the heart rate of birds: a study in physiological ecology. Ecological Monographs 11: 299-326

Odum, E.P., Connell, C.E., Davenport, L.B., 1962. Energy flow of three primary comsumer components of old-field ecosystems. Ecology 43:88-96

Odum, H.T., Odum, E.P., 1955. Trophic structure and productivity of a windward coral reef community on Eniwetok Atoll. Ecological Monographs 25:291-320

Odum, E.P., 1969. The Strategy of Ecosystem Development. Science 164: 262-270

Odum, E.P., 1992. Great Ideas in Ecology for the 1990’s. Bioscience 42: 542-545

Patten, B.C., Odum, E.P., 1981. The Cybernetic Nature of Ecosystems. The American Naturalist 118:886-895

Wiegert, R.G., Odum, E.P., Schnell, J.H., 1967. Forb-Arthropod food chains in a one year experimental field. Ecology 48:75-83


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