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VOCAL VAMOS Ocean – Cloud – Atmosphere - Land study. VOCAL THEME. The theme of VOCAL is to better understand and simulate how marine boundary layer cloud systems surrounding the Americas interact with the coupled ocean-atmosphere-land system on diurnal to interannual timescales.

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VOCAL

VAMOS Ocean – Cloud – Atmosphere - Land study


Vocal theme
VOCAL THEME

The theme of VOCAL is to better understand and simulate how marine boundary layer cloud systems surrounding the Americas interact with the coupled ocean-atmosphere-land system on diurnal to interannual timescales.


VOCAL Scientific Issues

  • On what time and space scales does continental heating/mechanical forcing impact boundary layer cloud/radiative forcing?

  • How sensitive is the overall tropical circulation and ENSO to variations of Eastern Pacific cloud topped boundary layer properties and why?

  • What are dominant S/I feedbacks among Sc clouds, surface winds, upwelling, coastal currentsand SST in E Pacific?

  • Does natural and anthropogenic aerosol variability significantly modulate the Sc?


VOCAL STRATEGIES

  • Global and mesoscale model evaluation and improvement (e.g parameterization development) using multiscale data sets.

  • Model sensitivity studies to refine hypotheses and target observations.

  • Science by synthesis/use of existing data sets, enhancement through targeted instrument procurement, algorithm evaluation and development, and enhanced observation periods.

  • Co-ordination with oceanographic, aerosol, cloud process communities, including CLIVAR CPT, CLOUDSAT, etc.


Progress hypothesis generation
Progress/hypothesis generation

  • Cloud microphysics/drizzle (polynyas)

  • Diurnal cycle (role of Andes, Sc dynamics)

  • Role of Andes/flow blocking in influencing Sc.

  • WHOI buoy/ocean energy budget

  • Interest in coastal oceanography of region, including O-A interactions thru trapped coastal (e.g. Kelvin) waves.

  • Implementation of some VPM5 plans


Galapagos I.

Lima

Arica

WHOI buoy

San Felix I.


Recommendations

  • Major continuing efforts in diagnostic, sensitivity, parameterization studies of SE Pac stratocumulus and variability based on past field studies, satellite/model products, and observational enhancements.

  • Add an ocean diagnostic study component based on ARGO/ODA, cruises, WHOI buoy aimed at better understanding of ocean upwelling/lateral heat transport processes and their reln. to atmospheric variability.

  • Global atm./coupled, mesoscale atm., and regional ocean modeling.

  • VOCAL ‘radiator fin’ coupled O-A-L expt. (Oct 06)


  • Augment San Felix Island instrumentation with wind profiler, radiation, microwave LWP, and aerosol sampler.

  • NOAA/ETL sfc/remote sensing instrumentation on Pacific and Atlantic buoy maintenance cruises, as well as in RICO.

  • Develop a VOCAL data set through a distributed satellite/model/in situ data archive maintained by JOSS. Archive ECMWF and NCEP hi-res column data at WHOI buoy, SFI in co-ordination with CEOP.

  • Coordinate with proposed US CLIVAR cloud-climate sensitivity “climate process team” to feed into coupled model development.


VEPIC Timeline radiation, microwave LWP, and aerosol sampler.

  • 2003-2010

  • diagnostic/modeling work 2003 ETL-enhanced cruises

  • SFI profiler

  • VEPIC data archive

  • 2004/11 Cloudsat

  • 2005/01 RICO

  • 2006/10 Radiator expt.

Modeling, empirical, and satellite studies


Diurnal subsidence wave radiation, microwave LWP, and aerosol sampler.

Cld microphys. gradient

Coastal jet

Ocn heat transport


Science Issues radiation, microwave LWP, and aerosol sampler.

Cloud/drizzle/aerosol interactions

Further offshore, usually larger cloud drop radius

  • Why? More aerosol near the coast? Pollution? Ocean productivity, DNS? Salt/wind?

  • How does this feedback on mean Sc albedo? Vertical PBL structure?


Ocean 1
OCEAN (1) radiation, microwave LWP, and aerosol sampler.

  • Ekman .vs. eddy heat transport to the west .vs. air-sea interaction

  • Vertical mixing at buoy: role of “sagging trades”, comparison with ocean GCMs

  • Horizontal extent of nutrients and relation to offshore transport mechanisms


Ocean 2
OCEAN (2) radiation, microwave LWP, and aerosol sampler.

  • Space/time nature of eddy heat transport offshore

  • Vertical ocean (and atmosphere) cross-section along a latitude line

  • Regional ocean modeling of 1500 km nearest South American coast

  • Coastal wind jet and relation with coastal upwelling and clouds


Cloud pbl dynamics
CLOUD-PBL DYNAMICS radiation, microwave LWP, and aerosol sampler.

  • Space/time nature of eddy heat transport offshore

  • Vertical ocean (and atmosphere) cross-section along a latitude line

  • Regional ocean modeling of 1500 km nearest South American coast

  • Coastal wind jet and relation with coastal upwelling and clouds


Coupled issues
COUPLED ISSUES radiation, microwave LWP, and aerosol sampler.

  • Seasonal cycle of SST

  • Continental influence on long timescales

  • Cloud feedbacks on ENSO


Implementation 1
IMPLEMENTATION (1) radiation, microwave LWP, and aerosol sampler.

  • San Felix (Rene, Bruce, Bob):

    Now: Met., ceilometer (funded 1,5y), SST

    Plan: Drizzle detection, sonic

    Need: Profile ($20K+), radiation, aerosols

    Cloud radar (?)

  • RH Brown (or other US ship, Chris Fairall)

    Covered already by PACS/other NOAA (250K/y)

    Student for analysis (Bretherton/Student, 100k/y)


Implementation 2
IMPLEMENTATION (2) radiation, microwave LWP, and aerosol sampler.

  • RICO/trade Cu: (Graciela Raga, aerosol)

  • Satellite observations

    • JOSS: Coordinate sat. obs. for RICO site

    • Diagnostic studies, analysis, post-processing

  • SCM/LES of diurnal cycle/drizzle in Scu


Implementation 3
IMPLEMENTATION (3) radiation, microwave LWP, and aerosol sampler.

  • Mesoscale modeling:

    UCH (Rene et al.), synoptic scale/diurnal variability, parameterization, connection to Andes heating.

  • Global modeling:

    UCLA/UR-Uruguay: mean circulation, ENSO feedbacks, interaction with orography on seasonal timescale.

    CAM-UW: PBL


Implementation 4
IMPLEMENTATION (4) radiation, microwave LWP, and aerosol sampler.

  • Ocean diagnostic studies:

    • Ken T., Bob W., Ted Strub, Pilar C.

    • O. Pizarro, A. Miller

    • Ocean data assimilation, ECCO .vs. buoy

    • Horizontal heat transport via eddies


Implementation 5
IMPLEMENTATION (5) radiation, microwave LWP, and aerosol sampler.

  • Ocean regional modeling

    • Patrick M. (France), coastal E.P, Bibliography

    • Oscar Pizarro’s colleague @ Concepcion

    • Pablo Lagos (Princeton ocean model)

    • Art Miller (Scripps)

  • CPT

  • Field Experiment “SE Pacific Radiator” (Oct. 06)



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