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HOW SHOULD THE UNITED STATES RESPOND TO CHINA’S INCREASING INVESTMENT IN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY?. Kathryn Mohrman School of Public Affairs Colloquium 10 April 2009. Today’s presentation. U.S. competitiveness China’s competitiveness Implications for colleges and universities

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How should the united states respond to china s increasing investment in science and technology

HOW SHOULD THE UNITED STATES RESPOND TO CHINA’S INCREASING INVESTMENT IN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY?

Kathryn Mohrman

School of Public Affairs Colloquium

10 April 2009


Today s presentation
Today’s presentation INVESTMENT IN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY?

  • U.S. competitiveness

  • China’s competitiveness

  • Implications for colleges and universities

  • Recommendations for U.S. science and technology policy



  • Report calls for significant investments predominance in science and technology

    • K-12 education

    • Best and brightest students in STEM fields, especially at the graduate level

    • More funding for science and engineering research

    • Greater attention to innovation

  • Blueprint for “America COMPETES Act” (signed into law in 2007)


International comparisons

International Comparisons predominance in science and technology


Taken from NSF “Asia’s Rising Science and Technology Strength: Comparative Indicators for Asia, the European Union and the United States” NSF Special Report 07-319, August 2007 http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/nsf07319/content.cfm?pubid=1874&id=4


Taken from NSF “Asia’s Rising Science and Technology Strength: Comparative Indicators for Asia, the European Union and the United States” NSF Special Report 07-319, August 2007 http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/nsf07319/content.cfm?pubid=1874&id=4


Taken from NSF “Asia’s Rising Science and Technology Strength: Comparative Indicators for Asia, the European Union and the United States” NSF Special Report 07-319, August 2007 http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/nsf07319/content.cfm?pubid=1874&id=4


Taken from NSF “Asia’s Rising Science and Technology Strength: Comparative Indicators for Asia, the European Union and the United States” NSF Special Report 07-319, August 2007 http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/nsf07319/content.cfm?pubid=1874&id=4


China s competitiveness plan
China’s competitiveness plan Strength: Comparative Indicators for Asia, the European Union and the United States” NSF Special Report 07-319, August 2007

  • 11th Five-Year Plan goal—2.5% of GDP by 2010 (and GDP is scheduled to increase 400% by 2020)

  • 15-year plan for development of science and technology in selected fields


Taken from NSF “Asia’s Rising Science and Technology Strength: Comparative Indicators for Asia, the European Union and the United States” NSF Special Report 07-319, August 2007 http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/nsf07319/content.cfm?pubid=1874&id=4


Taken from NSF report “Asia’s Rising Science and Technology Strength: Comparative Indicators for Asia, the European Union and the United States” NSF Special Report 07-319, August 2007 http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/nsf07319/content.cfm?pubid=1874&id=4


Human capital in science and engineering china india u s

Human Capital in Science and Engineering: Technology Strength: Comparative Indicators for Asia, the European Union and the United States” NSF Special Report 07-319, August 2007 China, India, U.S.


Science engineering graduates
Science & engineering graduates Technology Strength: Comparative Indicators for Asia, the European Union and the United States” NSF Special Report 07-319, August 2007

Annual production of engineers, computer scientists and IT graduates (2004)

China 600,000

India 350,000

U.S. 70,000

Rising Above the Gathering Storm, p.16.


Enrollment by discipline 2004
Enrollment by discipline 2004 Technology Strength: Comparative Indicators for Asia, the European Union and the United States” NSF Special Report 07-319, August 2007


Revised statistics
Revised statistics Technology Strength: Comparative Indicators for Asia, the European Union and the United States” NSF Special Report 07-319, August 2007

China IndiaUS

NAS statistics 600,000 350,000 70,000

4-yr degrees CS, IT, eng351,537 112,000 137,437

1-3 year programs292,569 103,000 84,898

TOTAL644,106 215,000 222,335

Engineering and tech

degrees per 1 million

citizens 497 199 758

Wadhwa, V, et al, “Where the Engineers Are,” Issues in Science and Technology, Spring 2007


Employment of s t graduates
Employment of S&T graduates Technology Strength: Comparative Indicators for Asia, the European Union and the United States” NSF Special Report 07-319, August 2007

Worldwide “talent shortage” despite growing numbers of graduates

Only 10% of Chinese engineering grads are viewed as employable by multinational corporations

Problems: outdated courses, little experience with teamwork, lack of loyalty, weak on creativity, poor English skills


Institutional perspectives

Institutional Perspectives Technology Strength: Comparative Indicators for Asia, the European Union and the United States” NSF Special Report 07-319, August 2007


Case study universities
Case study universities Technology Strength: Comparative Indicators for Asia, the European Union and the United States” NSF Special Report 07-319, August 2007

  • China

    • Sichuan University (58,764)

    • Tianjin University (24,691)

    • Beijing Normal University (17,528)

    • Peking University (32,014)

    • Tsinghua University (25,404)

  • U.S.

    • Massachusetts Institute of Technology(8,366)

    • University of California, Berkeley (34,953)

    • University of Michigan (38,833)


Sources: Ministry of Education of China; University Financial Statements 2007 for MIT, Berkeley, and Michigan.


985 project grant as of total university expenditures 2007
985 Project Grant as % of Total University Expenditures 2007 Financial Statements 2007 for MIT, Berkeley, and Michigan.


Table 10. Financial Statements 2007 for MIT, Berkeley, and Michigan.

Sources: Ministry of Education of China; U.S. National Science Foundation, Survey of Research and Development Expenditures at Universities and Colleges, 2007.


Sources: Ministry of Education of China, Common Data Set; U.S. Department of Education, Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System; U.S. National Science Foundation, Survey of Research and Development Expenditures at Universities and Colleges


Sources: Science Citation Index 2003 and 2007; Social Science Citation Index 2003 and 2007; Arts and Humanities Citation Index 2003 and 2007.


Sources: Ministry of Education of China; Science Citation Index; Social Science Citation Index; Art and Humanities Citation Index 2007.


R d expenditures in u s dollars using ppp per cited publication
R&D Index; Social Science Citation Index; Art and Humanities Citation Index 2007.Expenditures in U.S. Dollars (using PPP) per Cited Publication


Academic ranking of world universities shanghai jiaotong university
Academic Ranking of World Universities Index; Social Science Citation Index; Art and Humanities Citation Index 2007.(Shanghai Jiaotong University)


Implications

Implications Index; Social Science Citation Index; Art and Humanities Citation Index 2007.


Competitiveness and autonomy
Competitiveness and autonomy Index; Social Science Citation Index; Art and Humanities Citation Index 2007.

  • Philip Altbach (2004) Characteristics of world class universities

    • Excellence in research

    • Good facilities

    • Adequate and predictable funding

    • Academic freedom, intellectual excitement

    • Faculty self-governance

  • D.M. Lampton (2008) Free societies have an inherent advantage for innovation and creative research


Recommendations from rising above the gathering storm
Recommendations from “Rising Above the Gathering Storm” Index; Social Science Citation Index; Art and Humanities Citation Index 2007.

  • Increase federal investment in basic research by 10% each year for 7 years

  • High-risk high-payoff research

  • Advanced Research Projects-Energy

  • Improve teaching in K-12 to raise students’ competitiveness internationally

  • Increase % of S&T college students

  • More graduate fellowships in S&T

  • Tax incentives for innovation

  • Public-private collaboration (SEMATECH)


Stimulus and fy2010 budget
Stimulus and FY2010 Budget Index; Social Science Citation Index; Art and Humanities Citation Index 2007.

  • Stimulus package

    • $21.4B for science and research (NSF, NIH, Energy, NASA, NIST, NOAA)

  • FY2010 budget proposal

    • Double federal support for S&T in 10 years

    • Support for high-risk promising research

    • Triple graduate fellowships in science

    • Expand Pell grants and reform student loans

    • Prepare and reward effective teachers and principals

    • Promote reforms in K-12 education


How worried should we be about china s s t investment
How worried should we be about China’s S&T investment? Index; Social Science Citation Index; Art and Humanities Citation Index 2007.

  • Today China is not competitive internationally

  • Faculty and students don’t stack up as high cited scholars and very employable graduates

  • But China’s ambitions are great

  • And it’s not just China


Recommendations
Recommendations Index; Social Science Citation Index; Art and Humanities Citation Index 2007.

  • Long term strategies

  • Clearer priorities

  • K-12 education is critical

  • Policy changes because they are the right things to do for America—not out of fear of China


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