How should the united states respond to china s increasing investment in science and technology
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 33

HOW SHOULD THE UNITED STATES RESPOND TO CHINA’S INCREASING INVESTMENT IN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY? PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 82 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

HOW SHOULD THE UNITED STATES RESPOND TO CHINA’S INCREASING INVESTMENT IN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY?. Kathryn Mohrman School of Public Affairs Colloquium 10 April 2009. Today’s presentation. U.S. competitiveness China’s competitiveness Implications for colleges and universities

Download Presentation

HOW SHOULD THE UNITED STATES RESPOND TO CHINA’S INCREASING INVESTMENT IN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY?

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


How should the united states respond to china s increasing investment in science and technology

HOW SHOULD THE UNITED STATES RESPOND TO CHINA’S INCREASING INVESTMENT IN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY?

Kathryn Mohrman

School of Public Affairs Colloquium

10 April 2009


Today s presentation

Today’s presentation

  • U.S. competitiveness

  • China’s competitiveness

  • Implications for colleges and universities

  • Recommendations for U.S. science and technology policy


How should the united states respond to china s increasing investment in science and technology

  • The United States is in danger of losing its global predominance in science and technology

  • National Academy of Sciences, RisingAbove the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Future (2005)


How should the united states respond to china s increasing investment in science and technology

  • Report calls for significant investments

    • K-12 education

    • Best and brightest students in STEM fields, especially at the graduate level

    • More funding for science and engineering research

    • Greater attention to innovation

  • Blueprint for “America COMPETES Act” (signed into law in 2007)


International comparisons

International Comparisons


How should the united states respond to china s increasing investment in science and technology

Taken from NSF “Asia’s Rising Science and Technology Strength: Comparative Indicators for Asia, the European Union and the United States” NSF Special Report 07-319, August 2007 http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/nsf07319/content.cfm?pubid=1874&id=4


How should the united states respond to china s increasing investment in science and technology

Taken from NSF “Asia’s Rising Science and Technology Strength: Comparative Indicators for Asia, the European Union and the United States” NSF Special Report 07-319, August 2007 http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/nsf07319/content.cfm?pubid=1874&id=4


How should the united states respond to china s increasing investment in science and technology

Taken from NSF “Asia’s Rising Science and Technology Strength: Comparative Indicators for Asia, the European Union and the United States” NSF Special Report 07-319, August 2007 http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/nsf07319/content.cfm?pubid=1874&id=4


How should the united states respond to china s increasing investment in science and technology

Taken from NSF “Asia’s Rising Science and Technology Strength: Comparative Indicators for Asia, the European Union and the United States” NSF Special Report 07-319, August 2007 http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/nsf07319/content.cfm?pubid=1874&id=4


China s competitiveness plan

China’s competitiveness plan

  • 11th Five-Year Plan goal—2.5% of GDP by 2010 (and GDP is scheduled to increase 400% by 2020)

  • 15-year plan for development of science and technology in selected fields


How should the united states respond to china s increasing investment in science and technology

Taken from NSF “Asia’s Rising Science and Technology Strength: Comparative Indicators for Asia, the European Union and the United States” NSF Special Report 07-319, August 2007 http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/nsf07319/content.cfm?pubid=1874&id=4


How should the united states respond to china s increasing investment in science and technology

Taken from NSF report “Asia’s Rising Science and Technology Strength: Comparative Indicators for Asia, the European Union and the United States” NSF Special Report 07-319, August 2007 http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/nsf07319/content.cfm?pubid=1874&id=4


Human capital in science and engineering china india u s

Human Capital in Science and Engineering: China, India, U.S.


Science engineering graduates

Science & engineering graduates

Annual production of engineers, computer scientists and IT graduates (2004)

China600,000

India350,000

U.S. 70,000

Rising Above the Gathering Storm, p.16.


Enrollment by discipline 2004

Enrollment by discipline 2004


Revised statistics

Revised statistics

China IndiaUS

NAS statistics 600,000 350,000 70,000

4-yr degrees CS, IT, eng351,537 112,000 137,437

1-3 year programs292,569 103,000 84,898

TOTAL644,106 215,000 222,335

Engineering and tech

degrees per 1 million

citizens 497 199 758

Wadhwa, V, et al, “Where the Engineers Are,” Issues in Science and Technology, Spring 2007


Employment of s t graduates

Employment of S&T graduates

Worldwide “talent shortage” despite growing numbers of graduates

Only 10% of Chinese engineering grads are viewed as employable by multinational corporations

Problems: outdated courses, little experience with teamwork, lack of loyalty, weak on creativity, poor English skills


Institutional perspectives

Institutional Perspectives


Case study universities

Case study universities

  • China

    • Sichuan University (58,764)

    • Tianjin University(24,691)

    • Beijing Normal University (17,528)

    • Peking University (32,014)

    • Tsinghua University (25,404)

  • U.S.

    • Massachusetts Institute of Technology(8,366)

    • University of California, Berkeley (34,953)

    • University of Michigan (38,833)


How should the united states respond to china s increasing investment in science and technology

Sources: Ministry of Education of China; University Financial Statements 2007 for MIT, Berkeley, and Michigan.


985 project grant as of total university expenditures 2007

985 Project Grant as % of Total University Expenditures 2007


How should the united states respond to china s increasing investment in science and technology

Table 10.

Sources: Ministry of Education of China; U.S. National Science Foundation, Survey of Research and Development Expenditures at Universities and Colleges, 2007.


How should the united states respond to china s increasing investment in science and technology

Sources: Ministry of Education of China, Common Data Set; U.S. Department of Education, Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System; U.S. National Science Foundation, Survey of Research and Development Expenditures at Universities and Colleges


How should the united states respond to china s increasing investment in science and technology

Sources: Science Citation Index 2003 and 2007; Social Science Citation Index 2003 and 2007; Arts and Humanities Citation Index 2003 and 2007.


How should the united states respond to china s increasing investment in science and technology

Sources: Ministry of Education of China; Science Citation Index; Social Science Citation Index; Art and Humanities Citation Index 2007.


R d expenditures in u s dollars using ppp per cited publication

R&D Expenditures in U.S. Dollars (using PPP) per Cited Publication


Academic ranking of world universities shanghai jiaotong university

Academic Ranking of World Universities(Shanghai Jiaotong University)


Implications

Implications


Competitiveness and autonomy

Competitiveness and autonomy

  • Philip Altbach (2004) Characteristics of world class universities

    • Excellence in research

    • Good facilities

    • Adequate and predictable funding

    • Academic freedom, intellectual excitement

    • Faculty self-governance

  • D.M. Lampton (2008) Free societies have an inherent advantage for innovation and creative research


Recommendations from rising above the gathering storm

Recommendations from “Rising Above the Gathering Storm”

  • Increase federal investment in basic research by 10% each year for 7 years

  • High-risk high-payoff research

  • Advanced Research Projects-Energy

  • Improve teaching in K-12 to raise students’ competitiveness internationally

  • Increase % of S&T college students

  • More graduate fellowships in S&T

  • Tax incentives for innovation

  • Public-private collaboration (SEMATECH)


Stimulus and fy2010 budget

Stimulus and FY2010 Budget

  • Stimulus package

    • $21.4B for science and research (NSF, NIH, Energy, NASA, NIST, NOAA)

  • FY2010 budget proposal

    • Double federal support for S&T in 10 years

    • Support for high-risk promising research

    • Triple graduate fellowships in science

    • Expand Pell grants and reform student loans

    • Prepare and reward effective teachers and principals

    • Promote reforms in K-12 education


How worried should we be about china s s t investment

How worried should we be about China’s S&T investment?

  • Today China is not competitive internationally

  • Faculty and students don’t stack up as high cited scholars and very employable graduates

  • But China’s ambitions are great

  • And it’s not just China


Recommendations

Recommendations

  • Long term strategies

  • Clearer priorities

  • K-12 education is critical

  • Policy changes because they are the right things to do for America—not out of fear of China


  • Login