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Lunar Space Missions for Ultrahigh-energy Cosmic Rays and Neutrinos Observation G. A. Gusev , V. A. Chechin, and V. A. Ryabov. P. N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences.

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Lunar Space Missions for Ultrahigh-energy Cosmic Rays

and Neutrinos Observation

G. A. Gusev, V. A. Chechin,

and V. A. Ryabov.

P. N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences

ARENA2012, Erlangen 19-22 June


Two stages of a lunar experiment with the regolith as a target for the interaction of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays and neutrinos are considered. The first stage deals with the LORD experiment within the framework of the Luna-Glob space mission scheduled for 2016. The current status of the LORD-instrumentation development is discussed. The aperture of the lunar orbital radio detector exceeds all existing ground-based arrays. Successful realization of the LORD experiment will make it possible to start the second stage of the program. Multi-satellite lunar orbital systems are proposed to increase the aperture and the measurement informativity and accuracy.

ARENA2012, Erlangen 19-22 June


Outlook of presentation
Outlook of Presentation target for the interaction of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays and neutrinos are considered. The first stage deals with the LORD experiment within the framework of the Luna-Glob space mission scheduled for 2016. The current status of the LORD-instrumentation development is discussed. The aperture of the lunar orbital radio detector exceeds all existing ground-based arrays. Successful realization of the LORD experiment will make it possible to start the second stage of the program. Multi-satellite lunar orbital systems are proposed to increase the aperture and the measurement informativity and accuracy.

  • Problems of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays and neutrinosobservation.

  • LORD spaceexperiment and design of apparatus

  • Multi-satellite circumlunar array, the results of Monte Carlo simulation

  • Conclusion

ARENA2012, Erlangen 19-22 June


The main goal of the lord experiment
The Main Goal of the target for the interaction of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays and neutrinos are considered. The first stage deals with the LORD experiment within the framework of the Luna-Glob space mission scheduled for 2016. The current status of the LORD-instrumentation development is discussed. The aperture of the lunar orbital radio detector exceeds all existing ground-based arrays. Successful realization of the LORD experiment will make it possible to start the second stage of the program. Multi-satellite lunar orbital systems are proposed to increase the aperture and the measurement informativity and accuracy. LORD Experiment

The primary goal of the LORD experiment is the detection of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays and neutrinos.

An investigation of the nature and spectra of cosmic particles with energies E ≥ 1020 eV (“ultra-high energies”, UHE) is one of the most challengingproblems of modern physics and astrophysics.

Information on these particles is important for solving fundamental problems of astrophysics and particle physics relating to cosmic ray sources and acceleration mechanisms.

ARENA2012, Erlangen 19-22 June


Currently we have a very target for the interaction of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays and neutrinos are considered. The first stage deals with the LORD experiment within the framework of the Luna-Glob space mission scheduled for 2016. The current status of the LORD-instrumentation development is discussed. The aperture of the lunar orbital radio detector exceeds all existing ground-based arrays. Successful realization of the LORD experiment will make it possible to start the second stage of the program. Multi-satellite lunar orbital systems are proposed to increase the aperture and the measurement informativity and accuracy. controversial and paradoxical situation in UHE region. We know neither the nature of UHE particles, nor their sources or processes where they were accelerated to such extremely high energies.

The many facts of the experimental observations at different CR detectors contradicts to the current understanding of the Universe, because a flux of these energetic particles must be suppressed, owing to the GZK CR spectrum cutoff (EGZK ≈ 7∙1019 eV, Pierre Auger Observatory (PAO) spectrum extrapolation dN/dE ~ E-4.3 ) caused by the interaction with microwave cosmic background.

For resolving these contradictions, new independent measurements are necessary.

ARENA2012, Erlangen 19-22 June


Currently target for the interaction of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays and neutrinos are considered. The first stage deals with the LORD experiment within the framework of the Luna-Glob space mission scheduled for 2016. The current status of the LORD-instrumentation development is discussed. The aperture of the lunar orbital radio detector exceeds all existing ground-based arrays. Successful realization of the LORD experiment will make it possible to start the second stage of the program. Multi-satellite lunar orbital systems are proposed to increase the aperture and the measurement informativity and accuracy. radiomethod is used as the basis for a number of experiments and projects on the ultrahigh-energy particle detection in such radio-transparent media as the atmosphere, salt domes and ice sheets of Antarctic and Greenland.

LORD EXPERIMENT

ARENA2012, Erlangen 19-22 June


Cosmic rays, neutrino interact with regolith and produce target for the interaction of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays and neutrinos are considered. The first stage deals with the LORD experiment within the framework of the Luna-Glob space mission scheduled for 2016. The current status of the LORD-instrumentation development is discussed. The aperture of the lunar orbital radio detector exceeds all existing ground-based arrays. Successful realization of the LORD experiment will make it possible to start the second stage of the program. Multi-satellite lunar orbital systems are proposed to increase the aperture and the measurement informativity and accuracy. coherent Cherenkov radiation pulse, which after refraction on the Moon surface goes out to vacuum. It can be observed by the LORD apparatus, amplitude, polarization, frequency spectrum being measured.

Its aperture is more than one order comparatively PAO one.

ARENA2012, Erlangen 19-22 June


Limits for cr and neutrino fluxes and lord performance
Limits for CR and Neutrino target for the interaction of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays and neutrinos are considered. The first stage deals with the LORD experiment within the framework of the Luna-Glob space mission scheduled for 2016. The current status of the LORD-instrumentation development is discussed. The aperture of the lunar orbital radio detector exceeds all existing ground-based arrays. Successful realization of the LORD experiment will make it possible to start the second stage of the program. Multi-satellite lunar orbital systems are proposed to increase the aperture and the measurement informativity and accuracy. Fluxes and LORD Performance

ARENA2012, Erlangen 19-22 June


LORD apertures target for the interaction of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays and neutrinos are considered. The first stage deals with the LORD experiment within the framework of the Luna-Glob space mission scheduled for 2016. The current status of the LORD-instrumentation development is discussed. The aperture of the lunar orbital radio detector exceeds all existing ground-based arrays. Successful realization of the LORD experiment will make it possible to start the second stage of the program. Multi-satellite lunar orbital systems are proposed to increase the aperture and the measurement informativity and accuracy. for UHECR & UHEN detection are higher than in all ongoing experiments (with one exception for neutrino detection by LOFAR in the energy range more, than 1022 eV)

and for energy 1021 eV are about3·105 km2 sr for UHECRand 4·103 km2 sr for UHEN (AUGER aperture for UHENabout 100 km^2 sr)

ARENA2012, Erlangen 19-22 June


Lay-out of Luna-Glob Apparatus target for the interaction of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays and neutrinos are considered. The first stage deals with the LORD experiment within the framework of the Luna-Glob space mission scheduled for 2016. The current status of the LORD-instrumentation development is discussed. The aperture of the lunar orbital radio detector exceeds all existing ground-based arrays. Successful realization of the LORD experiment will make it possible to start the second stage of the program. Multi-satellite lunar orbital systems are proposed to increase the aperture and the measurement informativity and accuracy.

ARENA2012, Erlangen 19-22 June


Flight Module of Luna-Glob target for the interaction of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays and neutrinos are considered. The first stage deals with the LORD experiment within the framework of the Luna-Glob space mission scheduled for 2016. The current status of the LORD-instrumentation development is discussed. The aperture of the lunar orbital radio detector exceeds all existing ground-based arrays. Successful realization of the LORD experiment will make it possible to start the second stage of the program. Multi-satellite lunar orbital systems are proposed to increase the aperture and the measurement informativity and accuracy.

ARENA2012, Erlangen 19-22 June


Block Diagram of LORD Detector target for the interaction of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays and neutrinos are considered. The first stage deals with the LORD experiment within the framework of the Luna-Glob space mission scheduled for 2016. The current status of the LORD-instrumentation development is discussed. The aperture of the lunar orbital radio detector exceeds all existing ground-based arrays. Successful realization of the LORD experiment will make it possible to start the second stage of the program. Multi-satellite lunar orbital systems are proposed to increase the aperture and the measurement informativity and accuracy.

Flight Payload Controller

RF-1

Scientific instruments

Data Acquisition System

2 Gsps, 10 bit, 2 x 4096 samples

Calibration

RF-2

Antenna System

Spacecraft

27 V

Power Supply

16 Mbyte memory

Commands

Data

ARENA2012, Erlangen 19-22 June


LORD DEVICE target for the interaction of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays and neutrinos are considered. The first stage deals with the LORD experiment within the framework of the Luna-Glob space mission scheduled for 2016. The current status of the LORD-instrumentation development is discussed. The aperture of the lunar orbital radio detector exceeds all existing ground-based arrays. Successful realization of the LORD experiment will make it possible to start the second stage of the program. Multi-satellite lunar orbital systems are proposed to increase the aperture and the measurement informativity and accuracy.

306

Registration system

Antenna 1

328

500

480

1514

306

dimensions are in millimeters

Antenna 2

500

1514

ARENA2012, Erlangen 19-22 June


Antenna system of LORD device target for the interaction of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays and neutrinos are considered. The first stage deals with the LORD experiment within the framework of the Luna-Glob space mission scheduled for 2016. The current status of the LORD-instrumentation development is discussed. The aperture of the lunar orbital radio detector exceeds all existing ground-based arrays. Successful realization of the LORD experiment will make it possible to start the second stage of the program. Multi-satellite lunar orbital systems are proposed to increase the aperture and the measurement informativity and accuracy.

Frequency band – 200-800 MHz

Gain ~ 7.5 dB

Polarization - LP & RP

Length =1515 mm

Diameter= 500 mm

ARENA2012, Erlangen 19-22 June


Antenna with low noise preamplifier (LNA) target for the interaction of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays and neutrinos are considered. The first stage deals with the LORD experiment within the framework of the Luna-Glob space mission scheduled for 2016. The current status of the LORD-instrumentation development is discussed. The aperture of the lunar orbital radio detector exceeds all existing ground-based arrays. Successful realization of the LORD experiment will make it possible to start the second stage of the program. Multi-satellite lunar orbital systems are proposed to increase the aperture and the measurement informativity and accuracy.

  • LNA 40 dB, NF=1.1dB, TN = 30K

ARENA2012, Erlangen 19-22 June


Registration block of the LORD equipment target for the interaction of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays and neutrinos are considered. The first stage deals with the LORD experiment within the framework of the Luna-Glob space mission scheduled for 2016. The current status of the LORD-instrumentation development is discussed. The aperture of the lunar orbital radio detector exceeds all existing ground-based arrays. Successful realization of the LORD experiment will make it possible to start the second stage of the program. Multi-satellite lunar orbital systems are proposed to increase the aperture and the measurement informativity and accuracy.

L×W×H = 420 mm ×320 mm×80 mm,

Weight= 12 kg, Power Supply = 27 V, 60 W

ARENA2012, Erlangen 19-22 June


Low noise amplifier for the LORD equipment target for the interaction of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays and neutrinos are considered. The first stage deals with the LORD experiment within the framework of the Luna-Glob space mission scheduled for 2016. The current status of the LORD-instrumentation development is discussed. The aperture of the lunar orbital radio detector exceeds all existing ground-based arrays. Successful realization of the LORD experiment will make it possible to start the second stage of the program. Multi-satellite lunar orbital systems are proposed to increase the aperture and the measurement informativity and accuracy.

ARENA2012, Erlangen 19-22 June


E-cards target for the interaction of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays and neutrinos are considered. The first stage deals with the LORD experiment within the framework of the Luna-Glob space mission scheduled for 2016. The current status of the LORD-instrumentation development is discussed. The aperture of the lunar orbital radio detector exceeds all existing ground-based arrays. Successful realization of the LORD experiment will make it possible to start the second stage of the program. Multi-satellite lunar orbital systems are proposed to increase the aperture and the measurement informativity and accuracy. for the LORD equipment

ARENA2012, Erlangen 19-22 June


Currently, all electronic components are investigated with a view to develop performance in order to improve the accuracy of determining the physical parameters in the experiment LORD

ARENA2012, Erlangen 19-22 June


  • Main characteristics of broadband (200-800 MHz) antennas view to develop performance in order to improve the accuracy of determining the physical parameters in the experiment LORD

  • Voltage Standing Wave Ratio of Antenna (VSWR)

  • - Directivity diagrams at different frequencies

  • Cross polarization directivity diagrams at different frequencies

  • - 3-D directivity diagramsat different frequencies

ARENA2012, Erlangen 19-22 June


Voltage Standing Wave Ratio of Antenna (VSWR) view to develop performance in order to improve the accuracy of determining the physical parameters in the experiment LORD

VSWR = (1+γ)/ (1-γ) , where γ is reflection coefficient. In our antenna 0.09≥ γin the frequency band 200-800 MHz

  • 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000

  • Frequency (MHz)

ARENA2012, Erlangen 19-22 June


Directivity diagram for 200 MHz (Right polarisation) view to develop performance in order to improve the accuracy of determining the physical parameters in the experiment LORD

Main lobe magnitude = 8,4 dB Angular width (3dB) = 68,8 deg. Side lobe level = -10,2 dB

-200 -150 -100 -50 0 50 100 150 200

Theta (Degree)

ARENA2012, Erlangen 19-22 June


3-D directivity diagram 200MHz view to develop performance in order to improve the accuracy of determining the physical parameters in the experiment LORD

ARENA2012, Erlangen 19-22 June


Cross polarization directivity diagram 200 MHz view to develop performance in order to improve the accuracy of determining the physical parameters in the experiment LORD

Main lobe magnitude = -4.7 dB Angular width(3 dB) = 74.6 deg Side lobe level = -6.3 dB

-200 -150 -100 -50 0 50 100 150 200

Theta (Degree)

ARENA2012, Erlangen 19-22 June


Directivity diagram 300 MHz view to develop performance in order to improve the accuracy of determining the physical parameters in the experiment LORD(Right polarisation)

Main lobe magnitude = 9,2 dB Angular width (3dB) = 71,8 deg. Side lobe level = -35,9 dB

-200 -150 -100 -50 0 50 100 150 200

Theta (Degree)

ARENA2012, Erlangen 19-22 June


3-D directivity diagram 300MHz view to develop performance in order to improve the accuracy of determining the physical parameters in the experiment LORD

ARENA2012, Erlangen 19-22 June


Cross polarization directivity diagram 300 MHz view to develop performance in order to improve the accuracy of determining the physical parameters in the experiment LORD

Main lobe magnitude =-13,1 dB; angular width(3 dB) =42,5deg; side lobe level=-11,7 dB

-200 -150 -100 -50 0 50 100 150 200

Theta (Degree)

ARENA2012, Erlangen 19-22 June


Directivity diagram 500 MHz (Right polarisation) view to develop performance in order to improve the accuracy of determining the physical parameters in the experiment LORD

Main lobe magnitude =9,2 dB; angular width(3 dB) =70,9 deg; side lobe level=-38,9 dB

-200 -150 -100 -50 0 50 100 150 200

Theta (Degree)

ARENA2012, Erlangen 19-22 June


3-D directivity diagram 500MHz view to develop performance in order to improve the accuracy of determining the physical parameters in the experiment LORD

ARENA2012, Erlangen 19-22 June


Cross polarization directivity diagram 500 MHz view to develop performance in order to improve the accuracy of determining the physical parameters in the experiment LORD

Main lobe magnitude =-13,5 dB; angular width(3 dB) =43,7deg;

side lobe level=-7,4 dB

-200 -150 -100 -50 0 50 100 150 200

Theta (Degree)

ARENA2012, Erlangen 19-22 June


Directivity diagram 800 MHz view to develop performance in order to improve the accuracy of determining the physical parameters in the experiment LORD

Main lobe magnitude =6 dB; angular width(3 dB) =112 deg; side lobe level=-20,1 dB

ARENA2012, Erlangen 19-22 June


3-D directivity diagram 800MHz (Right polarisation) view to develop performance in order to improve the accuracy of determining the physical parameters in the experiment LORD

ARENA2012, Erlangen 19-22 June


Cross polarization directivity diagram 800 MHz view to develop performance in order to improve the accuracy of determining the physical parameters in the experiment LORD

Main lobe magnitude =-2,7 dB; angular width(3 dB) = 57deg; side lobe level = -7,7 dB

-200 -150 -100 -50 0 50 100 150 200

Theta (Degree)

ARENA2012, Erlangen 19-22 June


Some simulation results for an array view to develop performance in order to improve the accuracy of determining the physical parameters in the experiment LORDof circumlunar radio detectors as the LORD

ARENA2012, Erlangen 19-22 June


Sketch of four satellite circumlunar array, using LORD detectors

1

2

3

4

ARENA2012, Erlangen 19-22 June


P detectorsrinciples of construction of the lunar satellite system for radio detection of ultrahigh-energy particles

- Minimum number of detectors - 3

- spatial separation - latitude, longitude, altitude

- recording time synchronization

of signals in different detectorsallowsto localize the source

- maximum distance of separation - 400 km

- minimum distance of separation - 100 km

ARENA2012, Erlangen 19-22 June


Why do detectorswe need many satellite system radio detection in the context of the LORDexperiment? First, the spatial separation of detectors, even at small distances provided synchronization allows us to localize the source of radio emission. This makes it possible to solve the inverse problem of recovering the cascade energy, a large number of measured data being significant. For example, in the case of the four detectors, each event is recorded in 8 channels, so that there are 8 amplitudes and 8 signal spectra in a wide band. In the favorable case,when the scattering is not significant, it becomes also possible to determine the polarization of the electric field in each detector. This allows to discriminate more efficientlythe cascade signal from the accidental signals. Second, there is the trivial possibility of using several widely separated and hence independent satellites to increase the aperture of the event logging.

ARENA2012, Erlangen 19-22 June


When it comes to choosing the main parameters of the array of lunar satellites, the main they are the height and spacing between them.

As for the spacing in height, it is always due to the inaccuracy of the satellite into orbit.

These discrepancies enough to a spacing in height, sufficient to determine the elevation angle of the beam recorded as antenna spacing in height by several meters provides sufficient accuracy of the elevation.

ARENA2012, Erlangen 19-22 June


δθ of lunar satellites, the main they are the height and spacing between them.

δθ

δφ

Fig.

Satellite spacing in latitude and longitude must be such that the «radiation spot" at an altitude satellites was comparable with the distances between satellites, as in this case, all measured at various satellite parameters: amplitude, polarization, angles of escape of radiation from the surface of the moon, time of arrival signals - will be significantly different, allowing us to increase the chances of solving the inverse problem of determining the energy cascade.

For this purpose, we used simulation the registration of Cerenkov radiation from the cascade in an array of four satellites spaced as follows: three satellites are spaced in latitude (at the angle δθ) and one in longitude (at the angle δφ) at the same angular distances (see. Fig.)

ARENA2012, Erlangen 19-22 June


Parameters of radio detector array, used in simulations of lunar satellites, the main they are the height and spacing between them.

Frequency band 200 – 400 MHz

Satellite altitudes 200 – 2000 km

Latitude and longitude separation 2 – 15 degrees

electric fieldthresholds 0.1 – 0.2 μV/m MHz

Exposure time 1 year

ARENA2012, Erlangen 19-22 June


AUGER CR spectrum, used in simulations of lunar satellites, the main they are the height and spacing between them.

ARENA2012, Erlangen 19-22 June


CR registration. Altitude –1000km. Separation – 2 degrees. Threshold – 0.1mkV

One satellite – 233

Two satellites – 196

Three satellites – 172

Four satellites – 168

ARENA2012, Erlangen 19-22 June


CR registration. Altitude –1000km. Separation – 12 degrees. Threshold – 0.2mkV

One satellite – 223

Two satellites – 73

Three satellites – 12

Four satellites – 8

ARENA2012, Erlangen 19-22 June


CR registration. Altitude –1000km. Separation – 2 degrees. Threshold – 0.2mkV

One satellite – 28

Two satellites – 24

Three satellites – 20

Four satellites – 19

ARENA2012, Erlangen 19-22 June


CR registration. Altitude –1000km. Separation – 12 degrees. Threshold – 0.2mkV

One satellite – 23

Two satellites – 3

Three satellites – 0

Four satellites – 0

ARENA2012, Erlangen 19-22 June


We can see that for 4 satellites cosmic ray array (CRA) a large separation of satellites results in fast decreasing array aperture. It means that for separations more than 12 degrees CRA transforms in 4 autonomous LORD detectors, therefore the total aperture of the system of four independent detectors is increased 4-fold. Technical implementation presents no difficulties.

ARENA2012, Erlangen 19-22 June


Neutrino spectrum from decay of massive particle with mass 1025 ev

ARENA2012, Erlangen 19-22 June


Results of joint neutrino event registration by four satellites, having the latitude and longitude differenceof 10 degrees

One satellite – 40

Two satellites – 34

Three satellites – 27

Four satellites – 22

NNS/NCR = 22/8 ≈ 3

ARENA2012, Erlangen 19-22 June


Interestingly, in the case of registration of neutrinos from the decay of superheavy particles with masses 1025 eV, a significant separation of satellites at 12 degrees of latitude does not lead to a marked decrease in statistics (losses 45%, for CR – 97%) as comparing with one detector.

This means that an array (NA) of radio detectors at a large spatial separation of detectors about 15 degrees of latitude is mainly to detect neutrinos.

ARENA2012, Erlangen 19-22 June


Further simulations aiming the detection of neutrino the decay of superheavy particles with masses 10

Separation 13 degrees,

altitude 1200 km NNS/NCR = 19/4 ≈ 4.8

Separation 13 degrees,

altitude 1500 km NNS/NCR = 5/1=5

Separation 13 degrees,

altitude 1700 km NNS/NCR = 15/2.5 ≈ 6

Separation 13 degrees,

altitude 1800 km NNS/NCR = 15/2 ≈ 7.5

ARENA2012, Erlangen 19-22 June


Further simulations aiming the detection of neutrino the decay of superheavy particles with masses 10

Separation 15 degrees,

altitude 500 km NNS/NCR = 4/0

Separation 14 degrees,

altitude 500 km NNS/NCR = 4/0

Separation 13 degrees,

altitude 500 km NNS/NCR = 9/1

Separation 13 degrees,

altitude 700 km NNS/NCR = 14/1.5 = 9

Separation 13 degrees,

altitude 800 km NNS/NCR = 7/1 ≈ 7

ARENA2012, Erlangen 19-22 June


Thus, the results of modeling cosmic ray and neutrino multi-satellite system (CRA and NA) (small terrestrial analog arrays) has shown that on the one hand it is possible to create a radio detector, which registers neutrinos with a small admixture of cosmic rays (NA), and on the other hand – the cosmic rays with small admixture of neutrinos (CRA). CRA (4 satellites)aperture exceeds LORD aperture 4-fold. NA aperture is smaller about two times than LORD aperture, but there is no problem of discrimination CR’s and neutrinos. Maximum CRA (24 satellites)aperture may exceed LORD aperture 24-fold.It is impossible

to realize array for CR with such aperture in futureon the Earth.

ARENA2012, Erlangen 19-22 June


Conclusion multi-satellite system (CRA and NA) (small terrestrial analog arrays) has shown that on the one hand it is possible to create a radio detector, which registers neutrinos with a small admixture of cosmic rays (NA), and on the other hand – the cosmic rays with small admixture of neutrinos (CRA). CRA (4 satellites)

- Main electronic modules and antennas of the LORD are elaborated and now under construction

- Simulation results for circumlunarcosmic rayarray(CRA)show the possibility of aperture increasing for cosmic ray registration proportionally the number of satellites, neutrino events being background.

- It is possible to realize neutrino array(NA) with small background of cosmic ray events, its aperture being smaller than LORD’s (1 satellite) one.

ARENA2012, Erlangen 19-22 June


Thank you multi-satellite system (CRA and NA) (small terrestrial analog arrays) has shown that on the one hand it is possible to create a radio detector, which registers neutrinos with a small admixture of cosmic rays (NA), and on the other hand – the cosmic rays with small admixture of neutrinos (CRA). CRA (4 satellites)

for attention

ARENA2012, Erlangen 19-22 June


South Georgia (Atlantic Ocean) 1985 multi-satellite system (CRA and NA) (small terrestrial analog arrays) has shown that on the one hand it is possible to create a radio detector, which registers neutrinos with a small admixture of cosmic rays (NA), and on the other hand – the cosmic rays with small admixture of neutrinos (CRA). CRA (4 satellites)

Academic council with owners of Antarcticabefore Antarctic radio background measurements

ARENA2012, Erlangen 19-22 June


Background Processes for Radio Antarctic Muon multi-satellite system (CRA and NA) (small terrestrial analog arrays) has shown that on the one hand it is possible to create a radio detector, which registers neutrinos with a small admixture of cosmic rays (NA), and on the other hand – the cosmic rays with small admixture of neutrinos (CRA). CRA (4 satellites)

and Neutrino Detector (RAMAND)

A.F. Bogomolov, V.V. Bogorodsky, G.A. Gusev et al.

Proc. 20 ICRC, v. 6, p.472 (1987)

The curve 1 corresponds to radio pulse background spectrum at the Russian Vostok station, the curve 2 – at the Mirnii station (20 km from the cost) during good whether, the curve 3 – at the Mirnii during storm (23 m/sec). Here the σ is thermal noise rms for temperature about 3000ºC.

ARENA2012, Erlangen 19-22 June


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