Med Terms Ch. 5 - Cardiology. Heart is located in the thoracic cavity , within the mediastinum . Other structures include the great vessels, thymus, trachea, and the esophagus. Welcome to the Cardiology!. The Cardiovascular (Circulatory) System. Structures: Heart
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Ch. 5 - Cardiology
Heart is located in the thoracic cavity, within the mediastinum.
Other structures include the great vessels, thymus, trachea, and the esophagus.
Welcome to the Cardiology!
Blood Vessels (arteries, capillaries, and veins)
-Moves blood throughout the body
-Transports oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, and wastes in the blood.
-Pumps blood throughout the body
-Controlled by electrical signals from the brain
Myocardium (cardiac muscle)
Figure 5-2 Surface of the heart
Figure 5-3 Chambers and valves of the heart
3. Mitral / Bicuspid
Table 5-1 Layers and Membranes of the Heart
Figure 5-5 Layers and membranes of the heart
2. Blood Vessels
Function: Vascular channels through which blood flows in the body.
Lined with endothelium, a smooth inner layer (intima) that promotes the flow of blood.
Arteries & Arterioles
Veins & Venules
Characteristics of Arteries:
Always carry blood away from the heart to the body.
They carry bright red blood that has a high level of oxygen. Exception: pulmonary arteries
Most arteries lie deep beneath the skin.
- All arteries have smooth muscle in their walls.
Figure 5-7 Vasoconstriction and vasodilation
Arteries of the Body:
Axillary artery (armpit)
Brachial artery (upper arm)
Radial artery (thumb side of the lower arm)
Ulnar artery (little finger side of the lower arm)
Aorta (thoracic and abdominal)
Figure 5-10 Arteries in the body
Characteristics of Capillaries:
-Smallest blood vessels in the body
-The lumen of a capillary is so small that blood cells must pass through in single file.
Characteristics of Veins:
- They carry blood from the body back to the heart.
- They carry dark red-purple blood with a low level of oxygen. Exception: pulmonary veins.
Veins of the body:
-Superior vena cava
-Inferior vena cava
-Saphenous and femoral veins
Figure 5-8 Valves in a vein
Figure 5-9 Arteries and veins around the heart
Patterns of Circulation throughout the body:
-Systemic circulation includes the arteries, capillaries, and veins everywhere in the body, except in the lungs.
-Pulmonary circulation includes the arteries, capillaries, and veins going to, within, and coming from the lungs.
Figure 5-11 Circulation of the blood
The Heart contracts and relaxes in a regular rhythm coordinated by an electrical conduction system
1. Sinoatrial node (SA node), or pacemaker of the heart, initiates the electrical impulse that begins each heartbeat.
2. Atrioventricularnode (AV node) receives the impulse to contract from the SA node.
-Purkinje fibers, a network of nerves, cause both ventricles to contract simultaneously
Figure 5-12 Conduction system of the heart
Question: What are some problems associated with the Sinoatrial Node? How can it be fixed?
-Acute coronary syndrome
-Congestive heart failure (CHF)
-Myocardial infarction (MI)
Heart Valves and Layers of the Heart:
-Mitral valve prolapse (MVP)
-Rheumatic heart disease
Figure 5-15 Vegetation on the mitral valve
Abrahas/Custom Medical Stock Photo, Inc.
Figure 5-16 Arrhythmias on an EKG tracing
-Sick sinus syndrome
-Coronary artery disease (CAD)
-Peripheral artery disease (PAD)
Figure 5-27 An aneurysm
(b) Michael English, M.D./Custom Medical Stock Photo, Inc.
Figure 5-18 Mild atheromatous plaque
SIU BioMed/Custom Medical Stock Photo, Inc.
Figure 5-19 Severe atherosclerotic plaque in an artery
C. Abrahams, M.D./Custom Medical Stock Photo, Inc.
-Peripheral vascular disease (PVD)
Figure 5-23 Severe varicose veins in the leg
SPL/Photo Researchers, Inc.
-C-reactive protein (CRP)
Diagnostic Heart Procedures:
-Cardiac exercise stress test
-Electrocardiography (ECG, EKG)
-Electrophysiologic study (EPS)
Figure 5-22 Electrocardiography
Jupiter Images – PictureArts Corporation/Brand X Pictures-Royalty Free
Figure 5-23 An EKG tracing
-Pharmacologic stress test
Figure 5-21 Treadmill exercise stress test
Fotopic/Miles Simons/Phototake NYC
Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Procedures:
Figure 5-24 Echocardiogram
Custom Medical Stock Photo, Inc.
Figure 5-25 Doppler ultrasonography
Matt Meadows/Science Photo Library/Photo Researchers, Inc.
Figure 5-26 Defibrillation
Pearson Education/PH College
Figure 5-27 Pulse points
Figure 5-28 Carotid pulse
Michal Heron/Pearson Education/PH College
Figure 5-29 Measuring the blood pressure
-Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)
Figure 5-30 Open heart surgery
F. Schussler/PhotoDisc/Getty Images
Figure 5-31 Pacemaker
(left) English/Custom Medical Stock Photo, Inc. (right) Alvis Upitis/Jupiter Images-PictureArts Corporation/Brand X Pictures-Royalty Free
-Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA)
-Radiofrequency catheter ablation
Figure 5-32 Balloon angioplasty
Figure 5-33 Stent
Figure 5-34 Valve replacement surgery
Custom Medical Stock Photo, Inc.