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Med Terms Ch. 5 - Cardiology. Heart is located in the thoracic cavity , within the mediastinum . Other structures include the great vessels, thymus, trachea, and the esophagus. Welcome to the Cardiology!. The Cardiovascular (Circulatory) System. Structures: Heart

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Med Terms Ch. 5 - Cardiology

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Med terms ch 5 cardiology

Med Terms

Ch. 5 - Cardiology


Med terms ch 5 cardiology

Heart is located in the thoracic cavity, within the mediastinum.

Other structures include the great vessels, thymus, trachea, and the esophagus.

Welcome to the Cardiology!


The cardiovascular circulatory system

The Cardiovascular (Circulatory) System

Structures:

Heart

Blood Vessels (arteries, capillaries, and veins)

Function:

-Moves blood throughout the body

-Transports oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, and wastes in the blood.


Anatomy of the cardiovascular system

Anatomy of the Cardiovascular System

Heart:

-Pumps blood throughout the body

-Controlled by electrical signals from the brain

Four chambers:

2 atria

2 ventricles

Septum

Myocardium (cardiac muscle)

Valves


Med terms ch 5 cardiology

Figure 5-2 Surface of the heart


Med terms ch 5 cardiology

Figure 5-3 Chambers and valves of the heart


Med terms ch 5 cardiology

Heart Valves:

1. Tricuspid

2. Pulmonary

3. Mitral / Bicuspid

4. Aortic

Chordae tendineae


Med terms ch 5 cardiology

Table 5-1 Layers and Membranes of the Heart


Med terms ch 5 cardiology

Figure 5-5 Layers and membranes of the heart


Med terms ch 5 cardiology

2. Blood Vessels

Function: Vascular channels through which blood flows in the body.

Lined with endothelium, a smooth inner layer (intima) that promotes the flow of blood.

Types:

Arteries & Arterioles

Capillaries

Veins & Venules


Med terms ch 5 cardiology

Characteristics of Arteries:

Always carry blood away from the heart to the body.

They carry bright red blood that has a high level of oxygen. Exception: pulmonary arteries

Most arteries lie deep beneath the skin.

- All arteries have smooth muscle in their walls.


Med terms ch 5 cardiology

Figure 5-7 Vasoconstriction and vasodilation


Med terms ch 5 cardiology

Arteries of the Body:

Coronary artery

Carotid artery

Subclavian artery

Axillary artery (armpit)

Brachial artery (upper arm)

Radial artery (thumb side of the lower arm)

Ulnar artery (little finger side of the lower arm)

Aorta (thoracic and abdominal)

Renal

Iliac

Femoral

Popliteal

Tibial

Peroneal


Med terms ch 5 cardiology

Figure 5-10 Arteries in the body


Med terms ch 5 cardiology

Characteristics of Capillaries:

-Smallest blood vessels in the body

-The lumen of a capillary is so small that blood cells must pass through in single file.


Med terms ch 5 cardiology

Characteristics of Veins:

- They carry blood from the body back to the heart.

- They carry dark red-purple blood with a low level of oxygen. Exception: pulmonary veins.

  • Veins have valves.

  • Many veins are near the surface of the body; bluish; bulging lines.


Med terms ch 5 cardiology

Veins of the body:

-Superior vena cava

-Inferior vena cava

-Jugular vein

-Portal vein

-Saphenous and femoral veins


Med terms ch 5 cardiology

Figure 5-8 Valves in a vein


Med terms ch 5 cardiology

Figure 5-9 Arteries and veins around the heart


Med terms ch 5 cardiology

Patterns of Circulation throughout the body:

-Systemic circulation includes the arteries, capillaries, and veins everywhere in the body, except in the lungs.

-Pulmonary circulation includes the arteries, capillaries, and veins going to, within, and coming from the lungs.


Med terms ch 5 cardiology

Figure 5-11 Circulation of the blood


Physiology of a heartbeat

Physiology of a Heartbeat

The Heart contracts and relaxes in a regular rhythm coordinated by an electrical conduction system

1. Sinoatrial node (SA node), or pacemaker of the heart, initiates the electrical impulse that begins each heartbeat.

2. Atrioventricularnode (AV node) receives the impulse to contract from the SA node.

-Purkinje fibers, a network of nerves, cause both ventricles to contract simultaneously


Med terms ch 5 cardiology

Figure 5-12 Conduction system of the heart


Med terms ch 5 cardiology

Pacemaker

  • Abnormal heartbeats can be controlled by an artificial pacemaker that is run on batteries


Med terms ch 5 cardiology

Heartbeat

  • Each heartbeat is called a cardiac cycle: two atria contract then two ventricles contract (systole), and the entire heart relaxes (diastole)

  • A normal heart beats 70 times per minute.


Med terms ch 5 cardiology

Electrocardiogram

(ECG orEKG)

  • A test that records the electrical activity of the heart.

  • The P wave represents contraction (systole) of the atria.

  • The QRS waverepresents the contraction of the ventricles.

  • The T wave represents the relaxation of the heart muscle (diastole).

Question: What are some problems associated with the Sinoatrial Node? How can it be fixed?


Diseases and conditions start of test 2 material

Diseases and ConditionsStart of Test 2 Material

Myocardium:

-Acute coronary syndrome

-Angina pectoris

-Cardiomegaly


Med terms ch 5 cardiology

-Cardiomyopathy

-Congestive heart failure (CHF)

-Myocardial infarction (MI)


Med terms ch 5 cardiology

Heart Valves and Layers of the Heart:

-Endocarditis

-Mitral valve prolapse (MVP)

-Murmur

-Pericarditis

-Rheumatic heart disease


Med terms ch 5 cardiology

Figure 5-15 Vegetation on the mitral valve

Abrahas/Custom Medical Stock Photo, Inc.


Med terms ch 5 cardiology

Conduction System:

-Arrhythmia

-Bradycardia

-Fibrillation

-Flutter

-Heart block


Med terms ch 5 cardiology

Figure 5-16 Arrhythmias on an EKG tracing


Med terms ch 5 cardiology

-Premature contraction

-Sick sinus syndrome

-Tachycardia

-Asystole

-Palpitation


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Blood Vessels:

-Aneurysm

-Arteriosclerosis

-Bruit

-Coronary artery disease (CAD)


Med terms ch 5 cardiology

-Hyperlipidemia

-Hypertension (HTN)

-Hypotension

-Peripheral artery disease (PAD)


Med terms ch 5 cardiology

Figure 5-27 An aneurysm

(b) Michael English, M.D./Custom Medical Stock Photo, Inc.


Med terms ch 5 cardiology

Figure 5-18 Mild atheromatous plaque

SIU BioMed/Custom Medical Stock Photo, Inc.


Med terms ch 5 cardiology

Figure 5-19 Severe atherosclerotic plaque in an artery

C. Abrahams, M.D./Custom Medical Stock Photo, Inc.


Med terms ch 5 cardiology

-Peripheral vascular disease (PVD)

-Phlebitis

-Raynaud’s disease

-Varicose veins


Med terms ch 5 cardiology

Figure 5-23 Severe varicose veins in the leg

SPL/Photo Researchers, Inc.


Laboratory and diagnostic procedures

Laboratory and Diagnostic Procedures

Blood Tests:

-Cardiac enzymes

-C-reactive protein (CRP)

-Homocysteine

-Lipid profile

-Troponin


Med terms ch 5 cardiology

Diagnostic Heart Procedures:

-Cardiac catheterization

-Cardiac exercise stress test

-Electrocardiography (ECG, EKG)

-Electrophysiologic study (EPS)


Med terms ch 5 cardiology

Figure 5-22 Electrocardiography

Jupiter Images – PictureArts Corporation/Brand X Pictures-Royalty Free


Med terms ch 5 cardiology

Figure 5-23 An EKG tracing


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-Holter monitor

-Pharmacologic stress test

-Telemetry


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Figure 5-21 Treadmill exercise stress test

Fotopic/Miles Simons/Phototake NYC


Med terms ch 5 cardiology

Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Procedures:

-Angiography

-Echocardiography


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Figure 5-24 Echocardiogram

Custom Medical Stock Photo, Inc.


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Figure 5-25 Doppler ultrasonography

Matt Meadows/Science Photo Library/Photo Researchers, Inc.


Medical and surgical procedures

Medical and Surgical Procedures

Medical Procedures:

-Auscultation

-Cardioversion

-Sclerotherapy

-Vital signs


Med terms ch 5 cardiology

Figure 5-26 Defibrillation

Pearson Education/PH College


Med terms ch 5 cardiology

Figure 5-27 Pulse points


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Figure 5-28 Carotid pulse

Michal Heron/Pearson Education/PH College


Med terms ch 5 cardiology

Figure 5-29 Measuring the blood pressure


Med terms ch 5 cardiology

Surgical Procedures:

-Aneurysmectomy

-Cardiopulmonary bypass

-Carotid endarterectomy


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-Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)

-Heart transplantation

-Pacemaker insertion


Med terms ch 5 cardiology

Figure 5-30 Open heart surgery

F. Schussler/PhotoDisc/Getty Images


Med terms ch 5 cardiology

Figure 5-31 Pacemaker

(left) English/Custom Medical Stock Photo, Inc. (right) Alvis Upitis/Jupiter Images-PictureArts Corporation/Brand X Pictures-Royalty Free


Med terms ch 5 cardiology

-Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA)

-Pericardiocentesis

-Valve replacement

-Valvoplasty

-Radiofrequency catheter ablation


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Figure 5-32 Balloon angioplasty


Med terms ch 5 cardiology

Figure 5-33 Stent


Med terms ch 5 cardiology

Figure 5-34 Valve replacement surgery

Custom Medical Stock Photo, Inc.


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