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Med Terms Ch. 5 - Cardiology. Heart is located in the thoracic cavity , within the mediastinum . Other structures include the great vessels, thymus, trachea, and the esophagus. Welcome to the Cardiology!. The Cardiovascular (Circulatory) System. Structures: Heart

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Med Terms

Ch. 5 - Cardiology


Heart is located in the thoracic cavity, within the mediastinum.

Other structures include the great vessels, thymus, trachea, and the esophagus.

Welcome to the Cardiology!


The cardiovascular circulatory system
The Cardiovascular (Circulatory) System

Structures:

Heart

Blood Vessels (arteries, capillaries, and veins)

Function:

-Moves blood throughout the body

-Transports oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, and wastes in the blood.


Anatomy of the cardiovascular system
Anatomy of the Cardiovascular System

Heart:

-Pumps blood throughout the body

-Controlled by electrical signals from the brain

Four chambers:

2 atria

2 ventricles

Septum

Myocardium (cardiac muscle)

Valves


Figure 5-2 Surface of the heart


Figure 5-3 Chambers and valves of the heart


Heart Valves:

1. Tricuspid

2. Pulmonary

3. Mitral / Bicuspid

4. Aortic

Chordae tendineae


Table 5-1 Layers and Membranes of the Heart


Figure 5-5 Layers and membranes of the heart


2. Blood Vessels

Function: Vascular channels through which blood flows in the body.

Lined with endothelium, a smooth inner layer (intima) that promotes the flow of blood.

Types:

Arteries & Arterioles

Capillaries

Veins & Venules


Characteristics of Arteries:

Always carry blood away from the heart to the body.

They carry bright red blood that has a high level of oxygen. Exception: pulmonary arteries

Most arteries lie deep beneath the skin.

- All arteries have smooth muscle in their walls.


Figure 5-7 Vasoconstriction and vasodilation


Arteries of the Body:

Coronary artery

Carotid artery

Subclavian artery

Axillary artery (armpit)

Brachial artery (upper arm)

Radial artery (thumb side of the lower arm)

Ulnar artery (little finger side of the lower arm)

Aorta (thoracic and abdominal)

Renal

Iliac

Femoral

Popliteal

Tibial

Peroneal


Figure 5-10 Arteries in the body


Characteristics of Capillaries:

-Smallest blood vessels in the body

-The lumen of a capillary is so small that blood cells must pass through in single file.


Characteristics of Veins:

- They carry blood from the body back to the heart.

- They carry dark red-purple blood with a low level of oxygen. Exception: pulmonary veins.

  • Veins have valves.

  • Many veins are near the surface of the body; bluish; bulging lines.


Veins of the body:

-Superior vena cava

-Inferior vena cava

-Jugular vein

-Portal vein

-Saphenous and femoral veins


Figure 5-8 Valves in a vein


Figure 5-9 Arteries and veins around the heart


Patterns of Circulation throughout the body:

-Systemic circulation includes the arteries, capillaries, and veins everywhere in the body, except in the lungs.

-Pulmonary circulation includes the arteries, capillaries, and veins going to, within, and coming from the lungs.


Figure 5-11 Circulation of the blood


Physiology of a heartbeat
Physiology of a Heartbeat

The Heart contracts and relaxes in a regular rhythm coordinated by an electrical conduction system

1. Sinoatrial node (SA node), or pacemaker of the heart, initiates the electrical impulse that begins each heartbeat.

2. Atrioventricularnode (AV node) receives the impulse to contract from the SA node.

-Purkinje fibers, a network of nerves, cause both ventricles to contract simultaneously


Figure 5-12 Conduction system of the heart


Pacemaker

  • Abnormal heartbeats can be controlled by an artificial pacemaker that is run on batteries


Heartbeat

  • Each heartbeat is called a cardiac cycle: two atria contract then two ventricles contract (systole), and the entire heart relaxes (diastole)

  • A normal heart beats 70 times per minute.


Electrocardiogram

(ECG orEKG)

  • A test that records the electrical activity of the heart.

  • The P wave represents contraction (systole) of the atria.

  • The QRS waverepresents the contraction of the ventricles.

  • The T wave represents the relaxation of the heart muscle (diastole).

Question: What are some problems associated with the Sinoatrial Node? How can it be fixed?


Diseases and conditions start of test 2 material
Diseases and ConditionsStart of Test 2 Material

Myocardium:

-Acute coronary syndrome

-Angina pectoris

-Cardiomegaly


-Cardiomyopathy

-Congestive heart failure (CHF)

-Myocardial infarction (MI)


Heart Valves and Layers of the Heart:

-Endocarditis

-Mitral valve prolapse (MVP)

-Murmur

-Pericarditis

-Rheumatic heart disease


Figure 5-15 Vegetation on the mitral valve

Abrahas/Custom Medical Stock Photo, Inc.


Conduction System:

-Arrhythmia

-Bradycardia

-Fibrillation

-Flutter

-Heart block


Figure 5-16 Arrhythmias on an EKG tracing


-Premature contraction

-Sick sinus syndrome

-Tachycardia

-Asystole

-Palpitation


Blood Vessels:

-Aneurysm

-Arteriosclerosis

-Bruit

-Coronary artery disease (CAD)


-Hyperlipidemia

-Hypertension (HTN)

-Hypotension

-Peripheral artery disease (PAD)


Figure 5-27 An aneurysm

(b) Michael English, M.D./Custom Medical Stock Photo, Inc.


Figure 5-18 Mild atheromatous plaque

SIU BioMed/Custom Medical Stock Photo, Inc.


Figure 5-19 Severe atherosclerotic plaque in an artery

C. Abrahams, M.D./Custom Medical Stock Photo, Inc.


-Peripheral vascular disease (PVD)

-Phlebitis

-Raynaud’s disease

-Varicose veins


Figure 5-23 Severe varicose veins in the leg

SPL/Photo Researchers, Inc.


Laboratory and diagnostic procedures
Laboratory and Diagnostic Procedures

Blood Tests:

-Cardiac enzymes

-C-reactive protein (CRP)

-Homocysteine

-Lipid profile

-Troponin


Diagnostic Heart Procedures:

-Cardiac catheterization

-Cardiac exercise stress test

-Electrocardiography (ECG, EKG)

-Electrophysiologic study (EPS)


Figure 5-22 Electrocardiography

Jupiter Images – PictureArts Corporation/Brand X Pictures-Royalty Free


Figure 5-23 An EKG tracing


-Holter monitor

-Pharmacologic stress test

-Telemetry


Figure 5-21 Treadmill exercise stress test

Fotopic/Miles Simons/Phototake NYC


Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Procedures:

-Angiography

-Echocardiography


Figure 5-24 Echocardiogram

Custom Medical Stock Photo, Inc.


Figure 5-25 Doppler ultrasonography

Matt Meadows/Science Photo Library/Photo Researchers, Inc.


Medical and surgical procedures
Medical and Surgical Procedures

Medical Procedures:

-Auscultation

-Cardioversion

-Sclerotherapy

-Vital signs


Figure 5-26 Defibrillation

Pearson Education/PH College


Figure 5-27 Pulse points


Figure 5-28 Carotid pulse

Michal Heron/Pearson Education/PH College


Figure 5-29 Measuring the blood pressure


Surgical Procedures:

-Aneurysmectomy

-Cardiopulmonary bypass

-Carotid endarterectomy


-Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)

-Heart transplantation

-Pacemaker insertion


Figure 5-30 Open heart surgery

F. Schussler/PhotoDisc/Getty Images


Figure 5-31 Pacemaker

(left) English/Custom Medical Stock Photo, Inc. (right) Alvis Upitis/Jupiter Images-PictureArts Corporation/Brand X Pictures-Royalty Free


-Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA)

-Pericardiocentesis

-Valve replacement

-Valvoplasty

-Radiofrequency catheter ablation


Figure 5-32 Balloon angioplasty



Figure 5-34 Valve replacement surgery

Custom Medical Stock Photo, Inc.


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