Introduction to the Book of Kings

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Name. "The Hebrew title of this work is simply $lm or 'Kings,' and like the two books of Samuel it was originally a unity in Hebrew. The division into two books was first introduced in the LXX version, doubtless because the vocalized Greek text occupied considerably more space than the unpointed Heb

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Introduction to the Book of Kings

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1. Introduction to the Book of Kings APTS-BIB509-2006

2. Name "The Hebrew title of this work is simply $lm or 'Kings,' and like the two books of Samuel it was originally a unity in Hebrew. The division into two books was first introduced in the LXX version, doubtless because the vocalized Greek text occupied considerably more space than the unpointed Hebrew." [Harrison]

3. Authorship In Baba Bathra 15a, Jeremiah is said to be the author of both Kings and Lamentations. However there is not evidence to support this statement.

4. Authorship "He [Noth] attributed the composition to a single author who wrote during the exile from Palestine (c.550) in order to demonstrate how Israel's continual disobedience to the laws of God finally caused the nation to be destroyed through divine judgment." [Childs, IOTS, 286]

5. Authorship Dual Redaction Hypothesis: 1. The Idea of a dual redaction of the Dtr has been around since the time of Kuenen. 2. The most important recent proponent has been F. M. Cross who argues for Josianic & Exilic redaction of Kings. 3. Other include Richard Nelson, Brian Peckham, Gray Knopper, etc.

6. The Text of Kings: MT "In addition to the innumerable variations, in large part errors, yet often scribal corrections of impossible or unintelligible Hebrew, occurring in most authoritative MSS, as also the variations between presence and absence of the vowel-letter, or their faulty placement (the simpler form often giving the basis of interpretation by the Versions), there are the many corrections by the vocal K9re=, which have again to be diagnosed for their correctness. There also appear cases of the Seb|=r|=n, instances of 'it is the opinion that it is so and so,' the correction marginally annotated." [Montgomery]

7. The Text of Kings: Special Considerations ". . . parallels between Kings and sections of Chronicles, Isaiah and Jeremiah have to be seriously considered in passing judgment on some readings in Kings. Parallels for 2 Kgs 18-20 are found in Isa 36.1-39.8, for 2 Kgs 24-25 in Jer 52, and for 2 Kgs 25 again in Jer 39; 28; 40-41." [Jones] "The parallel accounts in Chronicles must be used with very great caution owing to the tendentious nature of that work, its particular ecclesiastical bias, and it anachronistic tendency to safeguard he sanctity of the Temple and priestly monopoly of sacral office." [Gray]

8. The Text of Kings: LXX "The LXX varies from the MT in both arrangement and content; compare the order of 1 Kgs 4-11 and 20-21 (LXX). The LXX account of the Jeroboam I and the division of the United Monarchy (1 Kgs 12.24a-z) supplies novel and sometimes contradictory information to the account found in the MT and elsewhere in the LXX. The summarizing 'miscellanies' regarding Solomon's reign found after 1 Kgs 2.35 and 2.46 (LXX) have no consecutive counterparts in the MT." [Holloway, ABD] "The chronological notes of eh accessions and reigns of kings of Israel and Judah are also a notable point of divergence . . . ." [Gray]

9. The Text of Kings: LXX "These discrepancies and transpositions of text in Kings alone indicate that the tradition of the Hebrew text was fairly fluid when G was made. . . ." [Gray] "Apart from earlier fragmentary evidence of G, as in citations in Philo in the first half of the first century AD and Josephus (c. AD 70-100), the oldest MSS of the Old Testament approaching fullness are the great uncials Sinaiticus (a) and Vaticanus (B) from the first part of fourth century AD. Of these only B contains Kings, which is also attested in Codex Alexandrinus (A) from the following century." [Gray]

10. The Text of Kings: Qumran "Only three manuscripts of Kings . . . were found in the various Judean Desert caves: one each on leather in Cave 4 and Cave 5, and papyrus manuscript in Cave 6." [Dead Sea Scroll Bible] Cave 5Q = 1 Kgs 1.1, 16-17, 27-37; Cave 6Q = 1 Kgs 3.12-14; 12.28-31; 22.28-31; 2 Kgs 5.26; 6.32; 7.8-10; 7.20-8.5; 9.1-2; 10.19-21; Cave 4Q = portions of 1 Kgs 7 and 8.

11. The Text of Kings: Qumran "Despite the limited scope of text on most fragments, however, there are enough indications of text significantly divergent form the traditional Masoretic Text to suggest that the text of Kings was pluriform in antiquity, . . . In addition to numerous small variants, sometimes in agreement with the Greek text, there are more significant variants . . . . Just as 4QSama recovers bits of text thought to be lost, so too 4QKgs preserves a passage (1 Kings 8:16) lost form the Masoretic Text when a scribe's eye skipped from one phrase below." [Dead Sea Scroll Bible]

12. 4QKgs: 1 Kgs 8.16 MT Since the day that I brought my people Israel out of Egypt, I have not chosen a city from any of the tribes of Israel in which to build a house, that my name might be there; but I chose David to be over my people Israel. LXX Since the day that I brought my people Israel out of Egypt, I have not chosen in a city, in one scepter of Israel, to build a house for my name to be there; but I chose in Ierousalem for my name to be there and I chose Dauid to be over my people Israel

13. Outline of Kings: Childs 1 Kgs 1-11 = Solomon 1 Kgs 12-2 Kgs 17 = History of the Kings of Israel and Judah until the Destruction of the Northern Kingdom 2 Kgs 18-25 = History of the Kings of Judah [Childs, IOTS]

14. I. The Reign of Solomon (1 Kgs 1.1-11.43) A. Solomon's Securing of the Throne and the Death of David (1 Kgs 1.1-2.46) B. Solomon's Reign ( 1 Kgs 3.1-11.43) II. Synoptic History of the Divided Monarchy to the Fall of Northern Kingdom (1 Kgs 12.1-2 Kgs 17.41) A. Division of Solomon's Kingdom (1 Kgs 12.1-14.20) B. Synchronized History of the Divided monarchy to the Elijah Stories (1 Kgs 14.21-16.34) C. The Elijah Cycle (1 Kgs 17.1-2 Kgs 1.18) D. The Elisha Cycle (2 Kgs 2.1-8.29) E. Synchronized History of the Divided Monarchy to the Fall of Israel (2 Kgs 9.1-17.41) III. The Kingdom of Judah from Hezekiah to the Babylonian Exile (2 Kgs 18.1-25.30) [Holloway]

15. Sources "The Book of Kings differs from all the preceding historical books, in the fact that the compiler refers habitually to certain authorities for particulars not contained in his own work." [S. R. Driver]

16. Sources 1. "Book of the Acts of Solomon" [1 Kgs 11.41] "The extent and character of this work are difficult to assess, . . . . I would suggest that it is a collection of the records of Solomon's reign, especially inscriptions, that were extant in the time of the compiler. It is reasonable to suppose that a commemorative or memorial inscription would mention the building of the Temple and palace, possibly with dates (although this would be unusual), and would provide a few details about their construction." [van Seters, In Search of History, 301]

17. Sources 2. "Book of the Chronicles of the Kings of Israel" [1 Kgs 14.19-2 Kgs 15.31] and "The Book of the Chronicles of the Kings of Judah" [1 Kgs 14.29-2 Kgs 24.5] "Those texts most closely associated with the chronicles of the kings of Israel/Judah include accounts of military campaigns and building activities, information that could have been taken from memorial inscriptions." [van Seters, 301] N.B. The Assyrian and Babylonian Chronicles (A. K. Grayson)

18. Sources 3. Prophetic Stories Sources: 3.1 Elijah Cycle = 1 Kgs 17-19, 21; 2 Kgs 1-2. 3.2 Elisha Cycle = 2 Kgs 2; 4-10. 3.3 Isaiah = 2 Kgs 18.13-20.19 (Isa 36-39) 3.4 Ahijah of Shiloh = 1 Kgs 11.29-39; 14.1-18; 15.29. 3.5 Shemaiah = 1 Kgs 12.21-24. 3.6 Un-named = 1 Kgs 12.32-13.32 3.7 Jehu, son of Hanani = 1 Kgs 16.1-4. 3.8 Micaiah, son of Imlah = 1 Kgs 22 3.9 Un-named = 2 Kgs 21.10-15

19. Synchronic Annals "Although the Northern and Southern notices differ in some significant details, the general structure is as follows:      A. Introductory formula 1. Date when reign commenced and length of reign 2. Place of reign 3. Theological assessment      B. Concluding formula 1. Mention of most notable deeds 2. Reference to further sources 3. Notice of death and burial. " [DeVries]

20. Synchronic Annals 1. "One special feature of the Judahite notices is that they record the name of the king’s mother—important because this made her the hrybg, the official queen-mother, with important powers (e.g., Bathsheba, Jezebel)." [DeVries]

21. Synchronic Annals 2. "Another feature is that in the theological assessment, the northern kings get unalleviated condemnation while the southern kings generally receive some approval. When Judahite kings are condemned, it is because they have somehow tolerated or abetted idolatry, but this is seldom the charge against the kings of the North (exception: Ahab; cf. 16:30–33). They are uniformly berated for participating in “the sin of Jeroboam the son of Nebat,” which may mean no more than that they did not suppress the Yahweh-shrines at Bethel, Dan, and elsewhere." [DeVries]

22. Two Themes of Cross's Dtr1 "The two themes in the Deuteronomistic Book of Kings appear to reflect two theological stances, one stemming from the old Deuteronomic covenant theology which regarded destruction of dynasty and people as tied necessarily to apostasy, and a second, drawn from the royal ideology in Judah: the eternal promises to David. In the second instance, while chastisement has regularly come upon Judah in her season of apostasy, hope remains in the Davidic house to which Yahweh has sworn fidelity for David's sake, and for Jerusalem, the city of God. A righteous scion of David has sprung from Judah." [Cross, (1973), 284]

23. Two Themes of Cross's Dtr1 1. "One theme is summed up in the following saying: "This thing became the sin of the house of Jeroboam to crush (it) and to destroy (it) from the face of the earth." The crucial event in the history of the Northern King was the sin of Jeroboam." [279] 1.1 I Kings 12:26-33 1.2 "Against each of king of Israel in turn the judgment comes, "[he] did evil in the eyes of Yahweh, doing evil above all who were before him, and he walked in the way of Jeroboam." [280]

24. Two Themes of Cross's Dtr1 2. "The second theme we wish to analyze begins in 2 Samuel 7 and runs through the book of Kings. It may be tersely put in the refrain-like phrase: for the sake of David my servant and for the sake of Jerusalem which I have chosen." [281] 2.1 "While the kings of Israel were always condemned, each having done "that which was evil in the eyes of Yahweh," judgment does not come automatically upon the kings of Judah. Certain kings, Asa, Jehoshaphat, Joash, Hezekiah, and above all Josiah "did that which was right in the eyes of Yahweh, as did David his father." Even King David and Hezekiah had peccadilloes. Josiah alone escaped all criticism. Josiah "did that which was right in the eyes of Yahweh and walked in all the ways of David his father and did not turn aside to the right or to the left." [282]

25. The Themes of Cross's Dtr2 – Exilic Edition "There is to be found in the Deuteronomistic history a subtheme . . . . We should attribute this subtheme to the Exilic editor (Dtr2) who retouched or overwrote the Deuteronomistic work to bring it up to date in the Exile, to record the fall of Jerusalem, and to reshape the history, with a minimum of reworking, into a document relevant to exiles for whom the bright expectations of the Josianic era were hopelessly past. This subtheme is found articulated most clearly in the pericope dealing with Manasseh and the significance of his sins of syncretism and idolatry, in 2 Kings 21:2-15. The section is modeled almost exactly on the section treating the fall of Samaria." [285]

26. The Prophetic Tradition Royal Oracles: 1 Kgs 11.29-39; 12.15-20; 2 Kgs 8.7-15) Oracles of Judgment: 1 Kgs 14.7-11; 16.1-4, 7, 12; 20.40-43; 21.19-22; 22.1-37; 2 Kgs 9.6-10; 1.2-4 War Oracles: 1 Kgs 20.13-15, 28ff.; 2 Kgs 2.12; 13.14 Prophetic Narratives: 1 Kgs 13.7-32; 20.35ff.

27. The Temple & Temple Theology Introduction: 1. The Story of the Temple may very well begin in the Tabernacle 2. Shiloh Temple? 2.1 1 Sam 1.9 & 3.3 "Now Eli the priest was sitting on the seat beside the doorpost of the temple of Yahweh" "and Samuel lying down in the temple of Yahweh, where the Ark of God was." 2.2 Jer 7.121-5; 26.6 2.3 Ps 78.56-72

28. The Temple & Temple Theology Introduction: 3. David & the Temple: 3.1 The Dance and its Politics (2 Sam 6.1-23 [I Chr 13.1-14; 15.25-16.3]) 3.2 The House for the Ark (2 Sam 7 [1 Chr 17; Ps 78; 132]) 3.3 Purchasing the Property (2 Sam 24 [1 Chr 21]) 3.4 Gathering Materials (1 Kgs 7.51; 1 Chr 23-26; 28-29]) 3.5 Cultic Preparation (1 Chr 23-26)

29. The Temple & Temple Theology Solomon & the Temple: 1. Solomon Prepares to Build (1 Kgs 5.1-32) 2. Temple Construction: 2.1 Size – 60 cu. long, 20 cu. wide, 30 cu. high (I Kgs 6.2, compare Ezek 41.13-14) 2.2 Triparite Temple or "long temple" vs. "wide temple"

31. The Temple & Temple Theology Solomon & the Temple: 2.3 Porch - )ulam (1 Kgs 6.3; 7.12) 2.4 Jachin & Boaz (1 Kgs 7.14-21)

32. The Temple & Temple Theology Solomon & the Temple: 2.5 Hekal (1 Kgs 7.4-7, 33-36) 2.6 Windows (1 Kgs 6.4)

33. The Temple & Temple Theology 2.7 Small altar (1 Kgs 6.4) 2.8 10 lamp Stands (1 Kgs 6.20) 2.9 Small Tables for the "bread of the presence" (1 Kgs 7.48)

34. The Temple & Temple Theology 2.10 Inner Sanctuary (debir – 1 Kgs 6.15-22) 2.11 Two Cherubim (1 Kgs 6.23.28)

38. Zion-Sabaoth Theology 1. YHWH is King [Pss 48.3; 46.5; 47.3 (“of all the earth”)] 1.1 Earliest statement = Ex 15.18 “YHWH will reign forever and ever”; following this text is Deut 33.4-5 1.2 Problems of Kingship = revolt motif in Ps 2.1-3 2. YHWH’s Choice of Jerusalem 2.1 Explicit: Pss 78.68; 132.13 (for dwelling) 2.2 Implicit: Pss 46.5; 48.2-3, 8-9; 87.2 2.3 Topography: high mountain and river 2.4 Security: Pss 46.7,8; 48.4 (“stronghold”)

39. Zion-Sabaoth Theology 3. Enemy 3.1 Ps 46.2-4 “unruly sea” 3.2 Pss 46.7; 48.5-7; 76.6-8 “kings and nations” [Also note Isa 17.12-14 and Isa 8] 3.3 Shift in Isa 2.1-5; Mic 4.1-3 4. YHWH’s Rebuke: Pss 46.7; 76.7, 9 (Amos 1.2; Joel 4.16)

40. Zion-Sabaoth Theology 5. Implications for Inhabitants 5.1 Only those who meet God’s righteous standards can live in his presence: Isa 33.13-16; Ps 24.3-4 5.2 Inhabitants and King have a duty to building God’s house: Hag 1.2-11 5.3 Those inhabitants who are fit to live with God will rejoice in the security and abundant life that YHWH’s presence brings: Pss 48.12-14; 132.13-18. [J. J. M. Roberts]

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