ANCIENT CHINA. Hongshan. Yangshao/ Longshan. Liangzhu. Yangshao, Central Plains of Yellow River. Farming villages 5200-3000 BC (Covered on Test 1). Yangshao village of Banbo. Longshan Culture, central plains of the Yellow River.
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Yangshao village of
Hongshan platform with central burial at Niuheliang
Northeastern China, 4700-2900 BC
from Drennan and Peterson 2005
Spirit temple of
Palace compound at
Erlitou, Xia Dynasty
Zhengzhou, Early Shang Dynasty capital
Yinxu (“Ruins of Yin”), the last capital of China’s Shang Dynasty (1500-1045 BC). Capital served 12 kings over 8 generations. Discovered in 1899 in the northwest outskirts of Anyang.
Anyang (Yinxu site)
Tomb excavation at Yinxu in 1920s
Fu Hao Tomb at Yinxu
(Anyang), lesser member
of the royal house
Remains from Yinxu Xibeigang royal necropolis
Human sacrifice was common practice in Shang Dynasty. Slaves or captured enemies, were sometimes slaughtered or buried alive as offerings to recently deceased elite. Even living wives were known to join their husbands upon burial. Dogs, horses, chariots, and other animals would also sacrificed.
Bronze, the wealth of kings and nobles
Tens of thousands of Chinese characters, widely understood across spoken dialects, which was critical to administration of early imperial states
Burial remains of beheaded
people sacrificed at death of
member of royal class
Changjiang culture, 1700-1200 BC, was a complex state society that rivaled the Shang culture in SW China
Craftspeople made spectacular bronze sculptures, such as trees and heads
Sanxingdui was a walled
city 450 ha (1112 acres),
with surrounding occupied
area at least 15 square km
Silk manuscript from
late first millennium BC
Confucius (551-479 BC) strongly disapproved of the absolutism and self-interest of rulers during the Warring States period
Siddhārtha Gautama (Buddha), 563-483 BC?
Buddhism in imperial China by Qin empire, but apparently suppressed by emperor, Qin Shi Huang Di
Whereas Shang rulers buried human sacrifices in their tombs, the Qin emperor amassed an army of 1000s of terra cotta soldiers, horses, and chariots to accompany him in death
Qin Dynasty, 221-207 BC
Han Dynasty, 206 BC – AD 220
Many secondary states developed through trade, benefiting from their location between East and West, such as Khotan along the Silk Road in Tarim Basin
Southeast Asian Khmer Civilization