Woody Ornamentals Insect and Mite Update – 2003-2004
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Woody Ornamentals Insect and Mite Update – 2003-2004. David J. Shetlar, Ph.D. The “BugDoc”. The Ohio State University, OARDC & OSU Extension Columbus, OH. © February, 2004, D.J. Shetlar, all rights reserved. Bulletin 504 – revised in February, 2003 (2005 - next)

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Woody Ornamentals Insect and Mite Update – 2003-2004

David J. Shetlar, Ph.D.

The “BugDoc”

The Ohio State University,

OARDC & OSU Extension

Columbus, OH

© February, 2004, D.J. Shetlar, all rights reserved


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Bulletin 504 – revised in February, 2003 (2005 - next)

Available at: http://ohioline.osu.edu


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Come visit the BugDoc at:

http://bugs.osu.edu


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Major Insect and Mite Groups

  • Can kill plants – critical pests: borers!, some scales, some defoliators.

  • Can disfigure plants – major pests: leafhoppers, defoliators, leafminers, some mites.

  • Temporary damage – mainly nuisances: aphids, lace bugs, most soft scales, most caterpillars, mites, etc.


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Borers Continue –

Agrilis species

Bronze birch borer


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Borers Continued –

Agrilis species

Twolined chestnut borer

Honeylocust borer


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Bark Beetles (Scolytidae)

(also called engraver or ambrosia beetles)

Cedar bark beetle adult.

Cedar bark beetle larvae.

Pine Ips beetle and emergence hole. These beetles are sometimes called shothole beetles.


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Borers Continue –

White Pine Weevil – white pine & SPRUCE


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Clearwing Borers (Sesiidae)

This group is commonly listed as the Aegeriidae

Lesser peachtree borer adult.

Ash/lilac borer larva in lilac branch.

Maple callus borer adult.

Peachtree borer larva in sand plum.


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Traditional

Dursban

Lindane

DiSyston (disulfoton)

Cygon (dimethoate)

Bidrin injection

Orthene injection (Professional only)

Alternatives

Tempo, Talstar (Onyx), Deltagard, Scimitar, Astro

Merit injection (beetles only!)

Flagship? (nursery)

???

Borer Insecticides

X

X

??


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Borer Control Approaches

Cultural –

Use plants that are not prone to borer attack!

Plant health care – plants in good growing conditions can usually repel borer attacks.

Avoid Plant Damage – damaged plants are prone to attack.

Biological –

Usually not effective because they attack after infestation.


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Scales (armored) –

Oystershell Scale

Oystershell scale attacks a variety of deciduous trees. The crawlers emerge about the time that black locust trees are in full bloom.

This scale often kills smaller trees and branches if not controlled!


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Pine needle scale females. Note pinkish eggs at end of scale test (shell) and a settled crawler at upper left.

Group of pine needle scale settled crawlers (tan) and a couple of fresh crawlers (pinkish) in color.


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Traditional scale test (shell) and a settled crawler at upper left.

Diazinon

Dursban

Sevin

Orthene (Professional only)

Malathion

Cygon

DiSyston (disulfoton)

Alternatives

Tempo, Talstar, Deltagard, Scimitar, Astro

Merit (soft scales)

Flagship (nursery)

Soaps & Oils

Scale Control (crawlers)

X

X

??


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Caterpillars – scale test (shell) and a settled crawler at upper left.

The Gypsy Moth


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Bagworm larva extending from bag. scale test (shell) and a settled crawler at upper left.

Bagworms on spruce.

Male bagworm adult.

Female bagworms remain in the bag as a pupa that contains the fertilized eggs.


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Traditional scale test (shell) and a settled crawler at upper left.

Dursban

Sevin

Orthene (Professional only)

Malathion

Alternatives

Tempo, Talstar, Deltagard, Scimitar, Astro

Conserve

Merit (???)

Flagship? (nursery)

Bt

Soaps or Oils

Caterpillar Insecticides

X


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Typical leaf speckling from rose leafhoppers. scale test (shell) and a settled crawler at upper left.

Rose leafhopper nymph.

Rose leafhopper adult.


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Elm cockscomb galls are a type of bladder or purse gall produced by an aphid.

The Cooley spruce gall adelgid produces a pinecone shaped gall that is formed by swollen bases of needles. The young gall is on the left and the opened gall is on the right.


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Galls – produced by an aphid.

Bladder & spindle galls (eriophyid mites)


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Oaks have over 300 different kinds of galls! This is a small sample – oak apple galls (upper left), oak bullet galls (above) and oak spangle galls (left). These are produced by gall wasps.


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Scales – small sample – oak apple galls (upper left), oak bullet galls (above) and oak spangle galls (left). These are produced by gall wasps.

Lecanium (several) & Calico

Calico scales, mature females.

Soft scale nymphs usually settle on the undersurface of leaves for the first two instars. They can be controlled here!


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Tent caterpillars following web trail. small sample – oak apple galls (upper left), oak bullet galls (above) and oak spangle galls (left). These are produced by gall wasps.

Eastern tent caterpillar nest in roadside cherry tree.

Mature larva and cocoon.

Egg mass.


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Fall webworm adult male. small sample – oak apple galls (upper left), oak bullet galls (above) and oak spangle galls (left). These are produced by gall wasps.

Early fall webworm nest.

Purpleleaf plum with dozens of fall webworm nests in September.


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Honeylocust spider mites inhabit leaf undersurfaces. small sample – oak apple galls (upper left), oak bullet galls (above) and oak spangle galls (left). These are produced by gall wasps.

Oak mites inhabit the upper leaf surface.

European red mites clustering to balloon to new plants.

European red mite overwintering eggs


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Cool-Season Pests – small sample – oak apple galls (upper left), oak bullet galls (above) and oak spangle galls (left). These are produced by gall wasps.

Spruce Spider Mite – inactive most of summer!


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Hemlock rust mites are microscopic eriophyids that cause the foliage to appear yellowish or rust colored.


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Traditional foliage to appear yellowish or rust colored.

Kelthane

Morestan

Cygon

Orthene ? (Professional only)

Alternatives

Avid

Hexygon (eggs & larvae only, spider mites only)

Floramite (spider mites only)

Sanmite (spider mites only)

Conserve

Pyrethroids??

Soaps or Oils

Miticides

X

X

??


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Azalea lace bug damage. Note conspicuous leaf speckling. foliage to appear yellowish or rust colored.

Typical lace bug adult. Note tar spots.


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Lace Bug Control with foliage to appear yellowish or rust colored.

imidacloprid (Merit):

Some Issues

  • Imidacloprid foliar sprays and soil drenches – work great, can provide season long lace bug control!

  • Spider mites, especially twospotted, seem to flair up after imidacloprid applications.

  • Appears that predators of spider mites also “sample” host plants and are killed by the imidacloprid!


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Pine tortoise scale mature females on stem. foliage to appear yellowish or rust colored.

Pine needle scale second instar nymphs and male “pupae” on needles.


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Mimosa webworm nest in honeylocust. foliage to appear yellowish or rust colored.

Mimosa webworm adult.


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Black Vine Weevil Management foliage to appear yellowish or rust colored.

What’s Lost?

Ficam (Turcam)

Orthene is professional only!

What are the Alternatives?

Merit! (home owner product available, apply to soil, NOT mulch, not for adults!)

Pyrethroids for Adults

DiSyston (disulfoton) (home owner products available, BVW not named on label, apply to soil!)


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Emerald Ash Borer foliage to appear yellowish or rust colored.

Discovered in Detroit area, now in over 1000 square miles in southeastern Michigan. Infestations found in Toledo area, far northwestern Ohio, and in Columbus area in November!

Watch for declining ash trees – tops dying out downward. If D-shaped holes are present, then emerald ash borer is likely the only cause! Larger, round or oval holes are from other native borers.


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Periodical Cicada – Brood X foliage to appear yellowish or rust colored.

This large brood will emerge in May and adults will persist through June.


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