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An unusual new neosauropod dinosaur from the Lower Cretaceous Hastings Beds Group of East Sussex, England Michael P. Taylor and Darren Naish School of Earth and Environmental Sciences University of Portsmouth Portsmouth PO1 3QL <[email protected]>. freaky.

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An unusual new neosauropod dinosaur from the

Lower Cretaceous Hastings Beds Group of

East Sussex, England

Michael P. Taylor and Darren Naish

School of Earth and Environmental Sciences

University of Portsmouth

Portsmouth PO1 3QL

<[email protected]>


freaky

An unusual new neosauropod dinosaur from the

Lower Cretaceous Hastings Beds Group of

East Sussex, England

Michael P. Taylor and Darren Naish

School of Earth and Environmental Sciences

University of Portsmouth

Portsmouth PO1 3QL

<[email protected]>


Where to discover new dinosaurs (I)

Mike Benton at SVPCA 2005

suggested countries such as

Mongolia and Argentina ...


Where to discover new dinosaurs (II)

... but the best unexplored territory is still

the basement of the Natural History Museum.


Meet BMNH R2095

A single, partial mid-to-posterior dorsal vertebra.

That's not much material, but:

Sauropod dorsals are very diagnostic.

This specimen is highly apomorphic.

Briefly described by Lydekker

(1893) when no-one knew

anything about sauropods.

Subsequently overlooked.


Where it's from

Precise locality information is not preserved (if it was ever recorded).

Lydekker (1893) just said “from the Wealden of Hastings”.

But: known to have been collected by Rufford.

Better documented Rufford specimens are known to be from

East Cliff and Ecclesbourne Glen (both east of Hastings)

R2095


Age

  • Stratigraphic information is not preserved.

  • Units exposed both East Cliff and

  • Ecclesbourne Glen are part of the

  • Ashdown Beds Formation

  • R2095 probably from Ecclesbourne Glen:

  • It is closer to Hastings than is East Cliff

  • Most of Rufford's specimens are from

  • Ecclesbourne Glen.

  • Ashdown Beds Formation exposure at

  • Ecclesbourne Glen is Berriasian

R2095


A long-overdue closer look at the specimen

Left and right lateral

200 mm

Anterior





So what is it? 2. Eusauropoda


So what is it? 3. Neosauropoda



Similarities between sides


Similarities and differences between sides


Similarities and differences between sides


Reconstruction

Parapophysis can be

identified at junction of

laminae.

Positions of diapophysis

and zygapophyses can be

deduced from trajectories

of laminae.

Condyle curvature

inferred from cotyle.

High location of parapophysis

indicates posterior position.


So what kind of Neosauropod is it?

“Classic” diplodocoids

(Diplodocidae+

Dicraeosauridae)

?

?

Diplodocoidea

Rebbachisauridae

Neosauropoda

Camarasauridae

Brachiosauridae

Macronaria

Titanosauria


Is it a classic diplodocoid?

Diplodocus carnegii holotype CM 84, dorsal 8

(Hatcher 1901, Plate VII, reversed)


Is it a classic diplodocoid?

Diplodocus carnegii holotype CM 84, dorsal 8

(Hatcher 1901, Plate VII, reversed)


Is it a classic diplodocoid?

Diplodocus carnegii holotype CM 84, dorsal 8

(Hatcher 1901, Plate VII, reversed)


Is it a rebbachisaur?

Rebbachisaurus garasbae holotype, posterior

dorsal (photo by Fabio Dalla Vecchia, reversed)


Is it a rebbachisaur?

Rebbachisaurus garasbae holotype, posterior

dorsal (photo by Fabio Dalla Vecchia, reversed)


Is it a rebbachisaur?

Rebbachisaurus garasbae holotype, posterior

dorsal (photo by Fabio Dalla Vecchia, reversed)

Prezygapophyses close together

Laterally diverging prezygapophyses


Is it a camarasaur?

Camarasaurus grandis holotype YPM 1901,

posterior dorsal (Ostrom & McIntosh 1966, Plate 25)


Is it a camarasaur?

Camarasaurus grandis holotype YPM 1901,

posterior dorsal (Ostrom & McIntosh 1966, Plate 25)

Stupid

and

ugly

Stupid

and

ugly


Is it a brachiosaur?

Brachiosaurus brancai holotype HMN SII, D7

(Janensch 1950, Figure 56, reversed)


Is it a brachiosaur?

Brachiosaurus brancai holotype HMN SII, D7

(Janensch 1950, Figure 56, reversed)

?

?

?

?


Is it a brachiosaur?

Brachiosaurus brancai holotype HMN SII, D7

(Janensch 1950, Figure 56, reversed)

?

?

?

?


Is it a titanosaur?

Neuquensaurus autralis MCS-5/20-22, D9

(Salgado et al. 2005, Figure 4)


Is it a titanosaur?

Neuquensaurus autralis MCS-5/20-22, D9

(Salgado et al. 2005, Figure 4)


Is it a titanosaur?

Neuquensaurus autralis MCS-5/20-22, D9

(Salgado et al. 2005, Figure 4)

Internal

structure

camerate

Camellate



So what is it?

It seems to represent a completely new group

(or a very highly derived member of a known group)

... what we used to call a new “family”


How big was R2095?

Centrum proportions are similar to Brachiosaurus brancai holotype HMN SII, D7

B. brancai is estimated 25m long (Paul 1988)

If isometrically similar, R2095 would be 15m.

B. brancai is estimated 35000 kg (average of

several sensible published estimates).

R2095 would be 7500 kg.

(About the mass of a big elephant)


How big was R2095?

Longer and lighter if similar to Diplodocus carnegii CM 84

D. carnegii is 27m long and 1200 kg (Wedel 2005).

Centrum proportions differ, so:

– assume length proportional to centrum length

=> R2095 is 20m long

– assume mass propotional to centrum length x cotyle height x width

=> R2095 masses 2300 kg


Sauropods of the Hastings Beds Group

Humerus

“Cetiosaurus” brevis = Pelorosaurusconybeari (pending ICZN petition)

“Pelorosaurus” becklesi (actually generically distinct and titanosaurian)

Humerus

Ulna

Radius


Sauropod diversity goes nuts!

Dorsal vertebrae of Tendaguria tanzaniensis holotype MB.R.2092.1-2, NB4, NB5

(Bonaparte, Heinrich and Wild 2000)


Sauropod diversity goes nuts!

Agustinia ligabuei Bonaparte 1999

Reconstruction by Mudyryknow J.R., from The Dinosauricon

http://dino.lm.com/images/display.php?id=2268

It might be some kind of titanosaur ...


Sauropod diversity goes nuts!

Agustinia ligabuei Bonaparte 1999

Reconstruction by Mudyryknow J.R., from The Dinosauricon

http://dino.lm.com/images/display.php?id=2268

It might be some kind of titanosaur ...

... but Titanosauria is the new Cetiosauridae



I'd like to thank everyone who's

made tonight possible ...

* My co-author Doctor Darren Naish

* Philip James Rufford for finding and donating the specimen

* Everyone who's ignored it for 113 years

* Sandra D. Chapman (Natural History Museum) for access to the specimen.

* Nick Pharris (University of Michigan) for etymological assistance.

* We used English translations of several papers from the very useful

Polyglot Paleontologist web-site

http://ravenel.si.edu/paleo/paleoglot/index.cfm

Thanks are due specifically to the following translators:

* Sebastián Apesteguía (Bonaparte 1999a),

* Matthew T. Carrano (Bonaparte 1986b),

* William R. Downs (Young and Zhao 1972),

* Matthew C. Lamanna (Bonaparte and Coria 1993, del Corro 1975 and Lavocat 1954)

* Jeffrey A. Wilson (Salgado and Coria 1993).

* In addition, portions of Janensch 1914 were translated by Gerhard Maier.

* David M. Martill (University of Portsmouth) reviewed the manuscript.

* Mathew J. Wedel (UCMP) reviewed this presentation.


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