Organic chemistry
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Organic Chemistry. Chemistry 2013-2014. Organic chemistry is the chemistry of carbon compounds. Carbon can form 4 covalent bonds with other atoms. This allows it to make millions of different compounds. Carbon can form single, double and triple bonds.

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Organic Chemistry

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Organic chemistry

Organic Chemistry

Chemistry 2013-2014


Organic chemistry is the chemistry of carbon compounds

Organic chemistryis the chemistry of carbon compounds

  • Carbon can form 4 covalent bonds with other atoms. This allows it to make millions of different compounds.

  • Carbon can form single, double and triple bonds.


A hydrocarbon is a compound that only contains hydrogen and carbon atoms

A hydrocarbon is a compound that only contains hydrogen and carbon atoms.

Saturated hydrocarbons contain no double or triple bonds.

Unsaturated hydrocarbons contain double and/or triple bonds.

Can be straight or branched.

Boiling point increases as number of carbon atoms increases.


Hydrocarbons alkanes

Hydrocarbons: Alkanes

  • Definition/Functional group: single bonds only; saturated; nonpolar

  • Suffix: -ane

  • Examples

    • MethaneEthane


Hydrocarbons alkenes

Hydrocarbons: Alkenes

Definition/Functional group: at least one double bond; unsaturated; nonpolar

Suffix: -ene

Example: ethene, C2H4


Hydrocarbons alkynes

Hydrocarbons: Alkynes

  • Definition/Functional group: at least one triple bond; unsaturated; nonpolar

  • Suffix: -yne

  • Examples

    • Ethyne, C2H2Butyne, C4H6


Benzene rings

Benzene Rings

  • Definition/Functional group: contain at least one benzene ring, often with other groups added (“substituted” for hydrogen). Benzene exists as a resonance structure. It is also a carcinogen.

  • Prefix: Benz-

  • Examples

    • BenzeneBenzaldehyde


Alcohols

Note: not all alcohols are safe to drink (ethanol is the “alcohol” in all alcoholic beverages). The “alcohol” family is large and its members have many properties. For example, methanol is highly toxic!

Alcohols

  • Definition/Functional group: contain an –OH group, called a “hydroxyl” group.

  • Suffix: -ol

  • Examples

    • MethanolEthanolPropanol


Aldehydes

Aldehydes

  • Definition/Functional group: contain an oxygen atom double-bonded to a carbon atom at the end of a hydrocarbon chain.

  • Suffix: -anal

  • Examples: Methanal, CH2OEthanal, C2H4O


Ketones

Ketones

  • Definition/Functional group: contain an oxygen atom double-bonded to a carbon atom NOT at the end of a hydrocarbon chain.

  • Suffix: -none

  • Examples

    • Propanone, C3H6O


Ethers

Ethers

  • Definition/Functional group: a hydrocarbon chain in which one of the links is an oxygen atom, bonded to a carbon atom on either side.

  • Suffix: -ether

  • Examples


Esters

Esters

  • Definition/Functional group: a hydrocarbon where one carbon atom is bonded to another carbon and two oxygen atoms, one through a single bond and one through a double bond. That sounds pretty confusing, but esters are easy to recognize. They all have the same basic shape as the picture above, where the letter “R” means carbon atoms or other “organic” groups.

  • Suffix: -ate

  • Examples


Cyclic alkanes

Cyclic Alkanes

Definition/Functional group: these are alkanes that are cyclic, meaning that the ends are connected to form a regular geometric shape. Ex. triangle, square, pentagon, hexagon, etc. Benzene is not a cyclic alkane due to its double bonds and resonance.

Prefix: Cyclo-

Examples: Cyclopropane, C3H6Cyclobutane, C4H8


Nomenclature

Nomenclature

We’re going to focus on naming the simplest kinds of organic molecules—alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, alcohols, and aldehydes.

However, you will have to be able to classify the names and structures of each type of organic molecule in these notes, or to pick a name from a list that most closely fits a structure.


Prefixes stand for number of carbon atoms in chain

Prefixes (stand for number of carbon atoms in chain):


What type of organic molecules are these prefixes and suffixes used for

What type of organic molecules are these prefixes and suffixes used for?

Alkene

Alcohol

Ester

Benzene ring

Ketone

Alkane


What kind of prefix or suffix matches each of these structures

What kind of prefix or suffix matches each of these structures?

-none

-yne

Cycl0-

-ane

Benz-

-ane


Organic chemistry

To determine the name of an organic molecule, first classify it by type. Then count the number of carbon atoms in the molecule.

For example, the following structure has one double bond, so its suffix is –ene. There are six carbon atoms in the chain, so its root is hex-. The name of this structure is hexene.


Organic chemistry

Prop-

Propene

-ene

Cyclo-

-hept-

-ane

Cycloheptane

Pent-

-yne

Pentyne


Organic chemistry

Propanal

Prop-

-anal

Pent-

-ol

Pentanol


Draw the following

Draw the following:

PropanolCyclobutanePentanal


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