Organic Chemistry. Chemistry 2013-2014. Organic chemistry is the chemistry of carbon compounds. Carbon can form 4 covalent bonds with other atoms. This allows it to make millions of different compounds. Carbon can form single, double and triple bonds.
Saturated hydrocarbons contain no double or triple bonds.
Unsaturated hydrocarbons contain double and/or triple bonds.
Can be straight or branched.
Boiling point increases as number of carbon atoms increases.
Definition/Functional group: at least one double bond; unsaturated; nonpolar
Example: ethene, C2H4
Note: not all alcohols are safe to drink (ethanol is the “alcohol” in all alcoholic beverages). The “alcohol” family is large and its members have many properties. For example, methanol is highly toxic!
Definition/Functional group: these are alkanes that are cyclic, meaning that the ends are connected to form a regular geometric shape. Ex. triangle, square, pentagon, hexagon, etc. Benzene is not a cyclic alkane due to its double bonds and resonance.
Examples: Cyclopropane, C3H6Cyclobutane, C4H8
We’re going to focus on naming the simplest kinds of organic molecules—alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, alcohols, and aldehydes.
However, you will have to be able to classify the names and structures of each type of organic molecule in these notes, or to pick a name from a list that most closely fits a structure.
To determine the name of an organic molecule, first classify it by type. Then count the number of carbon atoms in the molecule.
For example, the following structure has one double bond, so its suffix is –ene. There are six carbon atoms in the chain, so its root is hex-. The name of this structure is hexene.