Measurement and modelling of motor vehicle related air toxics along urban streets
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MEASUREMENT AND MODELLING OF MOTOR VEHICLE RELATED AIR TOXICS ALONG URBAN STREETS. Deniz Karman Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Carleton University Lisa Graham Emissions Research and Mesurement Division Environment Canada TSRI Regional Conference - Urban Air

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Measurement and modelling of motor vehicle related air toxics along urban streets
MEASUREMENT AND MODELLING OF MOTOR VEHICLE RELATED AIR TOXICS ALONG URBAN STREETS

Deniz Karman

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

Carleton University

Lisa Graham

Emissions Research and Mesurement Division

Environment Canada

TSRI Regional Conference - Urban Air

Vancouver, 16-17 November 2001


Outline
Outline TOXICS ALONG URBAN STREETS

  • Objectives

  • Methodology

  • Summary of findings

    • Roadside

      • VOC

      • PM

    • In-Vehicle

  • The Ottawa Microenvironment Database http://www.carleton.ca/~dkarman/OMDB.htm

  • Conclusion


Acknowledgements

1994 TOXICS ALONG URBAN STREETS

Lisa Graham

Moin El Herraoui

Dale Braun

Lo Cheng

Kinny Wong

Arlene Whitmore

Greg Rideout

Fred Hendren

Health Canada

Air and Waste Issues Section

Environment Canada

MSED, Environmetal Technology Centre

2000

Lisa Graham

Danny Wang

Lianne Noseworthy

Oznur Oguz

Gultekin Akay

Sandra Bayne

Norm Meyer

Mod Keetile

Health Canada, TSRI

Environment Canada

ERMD Environmetal Technology Centre

TUBITAK & METU

Acknowledgements


Objectives
Objectives TOXICS ALONG URBAN STREETS

  • To establish a database of motor vehicle related toxic substance concentrations and PM2.5 mass concentrations at nose-level along a busy downtown street by measurements in the two extremes of weather (Summer and Winter) in a typical Canadian city.


Objectives1
Objectives TOXICS ALONG URBAN STREETS

  • To compare and correlate the short term (2 hour periods of peak traffic volume) concentrations of toxic substances and fine particulate matter measured at nose-level with the regional air quality monitoring data of longer duration (24 hours) measured at other urban sites.


Objectives2
Objectives TOXICS ALONG URBAN STREETS

  • To compare and correlate the short term concentrations of toxic substances measured at nose-level with the in-vehicle concentrations on typical commuting trips.

  • To determine the contribution of motor vehicle traffic to the measured toxic substance concentrations and fine particulate matter by comparisons with motor vehicle emission data.


Summary of experimental work
Summary of experimental work TOXICS ALONG URBAN STREETS

1994 Summer Roadside, 2 stations

  • 2 hour sampling periods

    (7:30-9:30, 11:30-13:30,15:30-17:30)

  • 6 L SUMMA canisters for VOCS (2 stations)

  • 2,4 DNPH cartridges for carbonyl compounds (2 stations)

  • TSP mass, SOF, and trace metals (3 stations)

  • PAH on TSP and PUF cartridges (stations)


Summary of experimental work1
Summary of experimental work TOXICS ALONG URBAN STREETS

2000 Winter and Summer

Roadside

  • 2, 6, 24 hour roadside sampling periods

  • 6 L SUMMA canisters for VOCs, Tenax cartridges for SVOCs

  • 2,4 DNPH cartridges for carbonyl compounds

  • PM2.5 mass, EC/OC, and trace metals

    Rooftop (limited)

  • VOC and SVOC

    Passenger car and transit bus (a.m and p.m. commuting trips)

  • 1 L SUMMA canisters, DNPH cartridges


1994 slater 1 and slater 2 stations
1994 Slater-1 and Slater-2 stations TOXICS ALONG URBAN STREETS



  • Winter 2000 TOXICS ALONG URBAN STREETS

    Nose-level sampling station constructed at ETC for roadside measurement of VOC, SVOC, PM2.5, and carbonyl compounds




Summary of findings
Summary of findings pressure gauge

Over 100 compounds were quantified in the gas phase samples obtained at the roadside and in-vehicle micro-environments

40 elemental species quantified in the PM2.5 samples obtained at the roadside micro-environment.

These compounds were also quantified in the source emission samples from vehicles operated at the ERMD laboratories


Summary of findings1
Summary of findings pressure gauge

  • The temporal variation from day to day of pollutant concentrations observed in micro-environments is much higher than the spatial variation observed among diverse micro-environments.


Summary of findings2
Summary of findings pressure gauge

  • Despite the large temporal variations, the median values of 24 hr average concentrations recorded at the ambient monitoring station on Slater street at a height of 4 m are in general agreement with the median values of 2 hour average concentrations recorded at nose-level along the same street.


Summary of findings3
Summary of findings pressure gauge

  • There are noticeable differences between 2 hour average concentrations recorded at nose level and 24 hour average concentrations recorded at a height of 10 m, on the roof of an adjacent parking structure. Nearly all of the difference is due to the sample averaging time since the comparison of 24 hr average concentrations at these two locations shows reasonably close agreement.





In vehicle sampling program for voc and carbonyl compounds
In-vehicle sampling program for VOC and carbonyl compounds pressure gauge

  • 15 Winter days (January-February 2000)

  • 15 Summer days (July-August 2000)

  • 2 sampling periods, 8-9 A.M. and 4-5 P.M.

  • Routes and vehicles:

    • Bus: 30-45 min route along main “downtown” streets, different bus for different sessions

    • Car: 30-45 commute along an arterial route that combines rural and urban settings. ~ 10 year old vehicles Nissan (Winter) and Aries (Summer)



Omdb ottawa micro environment database for motor vehicle related air pollutants
OMDB microenvironmentsOTTAWA MICRO-ENVIRONMENT DATABASEFOR MOTOR VEHICLE RELATED AIR POLLUTANTS

  • Data in Excel files:

    • Gas phase (VOC, SVOC, carbonyl compounds)

    • Particulate matter(TSP, PM2.5 mass concentrations, chemical analysis)

    • Weather and traffic

      Identified by:

    • Year, season, date, sampling station, sampling time

  • Exploratory analysis (S-PLUS and Powerpoint files)

  • Descriptive access through html and graphic files


Conclusion the ottawa micro environment database for motor vehicle related air pollutants
Conclusion microenvironmentsTHE OTTAWA MICRO-ENVIRONMENT DATABASE FOR MOTOR VEHICLE RELATED AIR POLLUTANTS

  • Available: A database of motor vehicle related toxic substance concentrations and PM2.5 mass concentrations at nose-level along a busy downtown street and in commuter vehicles in the two extremes of weather (Summer and Winter) in a typical Canadian city.

  • http://www.carleton.ca/~dkarman/OMDB.htm

  • Comments, criticism, collaboration welcome at:

  • [email protected]


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