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Hundred Years War. HH World Studies 2012-2013. Series of conflicts between England and France that were fought on and off over a hundred years and have become known as the Hundred Years War. The Hundred Years War (1337-1453). Causes of the war. French king died without an heir

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hundred years war

Hundred Years War

HH World Studies


the hundred years war 1337 1453

Series of conflicts between England and France that were fought on and off over a hundred years and have become known as the Hundred Years War

The Hundred Years War (1337-1453)

French king died without an heir

  • Two claims to the throne
    • Edward III of England (direct claim to the throne)
    • Philip of Valois (the French choice)
french lands

The King of England is a vassal to the French king

  • The proximity of France to England and the overlapping political and economic interests set the two nations on a collision course.
French Lands
french lands1
English monarchs owned lands in Normandy (since the conquest) and Aquitaine (through marriage)

France was not a united country. The king only controlled about half of his own lands.

French lands
national unity

In the absence of feudal lords, peasants looked to strong kings with sovereign power for protection and security. Loyalty to sovereign kings gave Europeans a sense of national identity.

  • This is a large factor in the decline of feudalism
National Unity
economic rivalry

Flanders: area in Northern France was the leading industrial center in Europe

  • Heavily involved in trade with England
  • When France tried to exert its control over Flemish wealth, they turned to the English for help
Economic Rivalry
french advantages

Larger population (about 16,000,000)

  • Home-field advantage
  • Far richer than England
  • At one point, the French fielded an army of over 50,000  at most, Britain mustered only 32,000.
French Advantages
english advantages

Strong Central Government

  • Military discipline
  • Technological/weapons superiority
  • Relied on strategy rather than numbers
    • Avoided pitched battles
    • Preferred quick raids
English Advantages
the longbow

One of the greatest English technological advantages was the use of the longbow.

  • Could pierce an inch of wood or the armor of a knight at 200 yards!
  • A longbow could be fired more rapidly.
    • 6 arrows per minute.
The Longbow
the hundred years war in 3 parts
The Hundred Years War in 3 Parts

English Advances into France

Internal Struggles

French Rally, Joan of Arc

i english advances

England army seizes Calais on the French mainland

  • France suffers from internal conflict
    • Aristocracy demand political rights
    • Peasants revolt in 1358
  • English momentum ends with the death of Edward III
I. English Advances

Early English Victories

Height of English dominance

ii internal struggles

Both nations experience peasant revolts (peasants were taxed most heavily to pay for the war)

  • Resulted in a temporary truce
II. Internal Struggles
iii the french rally

French rally around Charles VII

  • Joan inspires the French to a series of victories
  • 1453, French expel English from the mainland (except for port city of Calais)
III. The French Rally
joan of arc

French peasant girl

  • Received a revelation from God
  • Mission to restore the heir to the throne
  • Captured and executed as a heretic
  • Became an inspiration to the French Resistance and a symbol of national identity
Joan of Arc
french outcomes

Awakened French nationalism

  • Helped the state become more centralized
  • Heavy taxes fell on the peasantry
French Outcomes
english outcomes

War of the Roses – Civil War between two nobles houses competing for the throne

  • Develop their own clothing industry
English Outcomes
larger impacts

Burden falls hardest on peasants

  • Downfall of feudalism
  • Revolution in European warfare
    • English longbow meant the end of knights
    • Gunpowder and cannons could take down castle walls
  • Allowed strong and wealthy king to centralize power at the expense of rebellious nobles
Larger Impacts