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EDOM. History & Prophecy of Esau (PART 1). Our story starts about 3800 yrs ago, with the birth of twin sons. Notice God speaks directly to Rebekah, a woman. He is not a chauvinist.

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genesis 25 21 26

Our story starts about 3800 yrs ago, with the birth of twin sons. Notice God speaks directly to Rebekah, a woman. He is not a chauvinist.

 21 Isaac prayed to the LORD on behalf of his wife, because she was barren. The LORD answered his prayer, and his wife Rebekah became pregnant. 22 The babies jostled each other within her, and she said, "Why is this happening to me?" So she went to inquire of the LORD.

 23 The LORD said to her,        "Two nations are in your womb,        and two peoples from within you will be separated;        one people will be stronger than the other,        and the older will serve the younger."

 24 When the time came for her to give birth, there were twin boys in her womb. 25 The first to come out was red, and his whole body was like a hairy garment; so they named him Esau. 26 After this, his brother came out, with his hand grasping Esau\'s heel (aqeb); so he was named Jacob (yaqeb). Isaac was sixty years old when Rebekah gave birth to them.

Genesis 25:21-26

two nations are within your womb

= ‘Es au; Exact meaning unknown. First born. Red and hairy. We’re told that King David \'was of a ruddy countenance. ‘ David was edom, meaning red or ruddy in skin tone.

Two Nations are within your womb

=Ya’qub; heel grabber. Figuratively, liar, supplanter. (see Gen 27:36, Has 12:3)

the supplanter

The familiar story is in Gen 27. When Esau finally arrived Jacob had already stolen his father\'s blessing. But Esau wasn\'t totally out in the cold, Isaac felt bad that he had given Esau\'s blessing away. He felt a bit responsible, so Esau got what I call a left over blessing.

The Supplanter

genesis 27 38 40

Esau’s Left Over Blessing

38 Esau said to his father, "Do you have only one blessing, my father? Bless me too, my father!" Then Esau wept aloud.

 39 His father Isaac answered him,        "Your dwelling will be        away from the earth\'s richness,        away from the dew of heaven above.

 40 You will live by the sword        and you will serve your brother.        But when you grow restless,        you will throw his yoke        from off your neck."

Genesis 27:38-40

A grown man, the mighty hunter is crying. This is Esau’s left over blessing.


Esau goes away from the richness and the dew. The nation he fathers is called Edom. They are the descendants of Esau. Before I tell you about the land that he goes to, I think we need a little geography lesson on the next slide.

At the time of the Exodus, we are told that Aaron, brother of Moses dies and is buried on Mt Hor. We don\'t know exactly where Mt Hor is located, but it is somewhere in southern Israel or Jordan. Mt. Hor is in Edom.

Seir or Mt Seir- Mountain Range in S. Jordan, probably right on top of Sela

Bible frequently refers to the \'Men of Seir\'- general region of Edom- Seir is synonymous w/ Edom.

There are 3 specific cities to mention. Bozrah, Sela, and Petra

The last is the easiest to identify, Petra along WadiHasa is way down South. It is a beautiful well preserved city. Petra is capital of the Nabateans. They were going strong during the Greco Roman period. Unfortunately, it is not Edomite, it about 1000yrs too late, and really has nothing to do with our study. However, we\'re going to look at Petra anyway. Some people erroneously, I believe, think it is involved in the prophecy that we will be studying. 

Less easy to identify, and not nearly as beautiful or romantic as Petra are Bozrah and Sela. These are however the capital cities of EDOM.

edom map



^ MT. HOR?

^ MT. HOR?




This large valley is almost entirely below sea level. It is very dry and hot. Valley of Aravah is part of Great Rift Valley, it stretches from the Dead Sea, near Masada to Red Sea, near the modern resort town of Eliat.


negev from aravah

Negev is the Hebrew word for dry. It also means the cardinal direction south. It refers to the entire region of Israel south of Beersheba.

Negev from Aravah


was a red broth. The land that he settles in is also very red, Look at these mountains. Rich iron ore deposits would influence the economy of these people for the next 1000yrs. Next week in our prophecy lesson, you\'ll see the Red of Edom may even stand for blood, because in the EndTime a torrent of blood will be spilled in these hills.

Aravah to Edom Highlands. Looking to East from the floor of the valley, you see the big mountains of Jordan. This is the highlands of Edom( 5-6000\' asl), remember the valley is about 1000\' BELOW SL, so the differential is about 7000ft. The word EDOM in Hebrew means RED. We are told that Esau himself was red/ruddy, the lintel soup he craved so much in Genesis 25:30

deut 2 12

Genesis 25 tells us that Easu was a skillful hunter, very accurate with a bow. But after his father\'s partial blessing, he moved to the desert away from the richness and the dew, and I assume away from the bounty of antelope.

Read Deut 2:12 below. The Horites lived around Mt. Hor. They were a primitive early Cannanite people displaced by Edom that lived around Mt. Hor, where Aaron died.

Deut 2:12

12 Horites used to live in Seir, but the descendants of Esau drove them out. They destroyed the Horites from before them and settled in their place, just as Israel did in the land the LORD gave them as their possession

Besides Esau do you know any famous Edomites?

who was caleb

WHO WAS CALEB, son of Jephunneh, the Kenezite? Numb 13:6, Numb 32:12, Jos 14:5

---Caleb had1 of only 2 positive spy reports (out of 12 reports total) given to Moses. Caleb and Joshua were the only men of that generation to cross the Jordan river and possess the promised Land. The spies gathered a cluster of grapes so large that it took two men to carry it. (Numbers 13:23)


caleb an edomite

Kenezite= descendant of Kenaz, Duke of Edom, linage of Esau.

Genesis 36:15 " These [were] dukes of the sons of Esau: the sons of Eliphaz the firstborn [son] of Esau; duke Teman, duke Omar, duke Zepho, duke Kenaz,"

Deut 23:7-8 " Thou shalt not abhor an Edomite; for he [is] thy brother: thou shalt not abhor an Egyptian; because thou wast a stranger in his land. The children that are begotten of them shall enter into the congregation of the LORD in their third generation."

Notice Caleb, himself, is never called a Kenezite.

Jos 15:13 Caleb is given a part among the children of Judah.

Num 13:6 Caleb is from tribe of Judah

His father Jephunneh is a Kenezite (Num 32:12, Jos 14:16, Jos 14:14)

Caleb an Edomite


I believe that Caleb\'s ancestor was a grandson of Esau, named Kenaz. Somehow this guy landed in captivity in Egypt, maybe captured as a slave, just like Joseph. I figure he connected with his cousins the children of Jacob. And eventually Caleb would be adopted into the House of Judah. Caleb is himself never referred to as a Kenezite. His father was a foreigner, a Kenezite. The rule in Deut is that after 3 generations, an Edomite that converts to Judaism is allowed full citizenship. An adopted son is just like a natural son. So Caleb is adopted into the house of Judah, he is an Israelite. If you want further documentation and scriptural references on this or anything I say, see me I\'ll be happy to oblige.

HEBRON- The reason I want to make this point about Caleb is very interestingly, Caleb is granted Hebron as his inheritance by Joshua. Hebron is, of course, the site of the cave of Machpelah. The burial place of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. I find it glorious and refreshing that an adopted foreigner would be entrusted with the tomb of the Patriarchs. I too am an adopted foreigner into the family of God, I hope that He will someday entrust me with something so important.

who was job

Most scholars agree Job was an Edomite. This has been a Jewish tradition for 1000’s of years. In the opening words of the book of Job- he lived in the land of Uz. Job 1:1 “ In the land of Uz there lived a man whose name was Job. “

Lamentations tells us quite clearly that Uz is a poetical name for Edom.

Lam 4:21 “Rejoice and be glad, O Daughter of Edom, you who live in the land of Uz. But to you also the cup will be passed; you will be drunk and stripped naked.” See also Jeremiah 25:20


There is a long tradition of great wisdom in Edom.

Jer 49:7 Concerning Edom: “This is what the LORD Almighty says: "Is there no longer wisdom in Teman? Has counsel perished from the prudent?    Has their wisdom decayed?”

Teman was a grandon of Esau. Jeremiah is referring here to their foolish decision to help Babylon. This tradition of great wisdom in the desert is carried into Psalms, Lamentations and Josephus. I think the wisdom of the Edomite nation may have started with Job himself.

who was job1

One of Job\'s tormentors---I mean friends-- is clearly of Edomite descent. Eliphaz the Temanite, Teman was a grandson of Esau.


Job\'s friends: Eliphaz the Temanite, Bildad the Shuhite and Zophar the Na’amathite.

Gen 36:4 Adah bore Eliphaz to Esau

Gen 36:11 The sons of Eliphaz: Teman, Omar, Zepho, Gatam and Kenaz.

Gen 25:1 Abraham took another wife, whose name was Keturah. 2 She bore him Zimran, Jokshan, Medan, Midian, Ishbak and Shuah.

does job jobab

This is speculative, I can\'t prove it. But maybe Job is Jobab, the 2nd king of Edom. Then that would mean that his story happens during the 400 yrs that Israel is locked up in slavery in Egypt.

An interesting aside note: the kings of Edom are not patrilineal, not a father-son continuum. Apparently these kings must have been elected somehow. See also 1 Chronicles 1.

Does Job= Jobab?

Gen 36:31 These were the kings who reigned in Edom before any Israelite king reigned :

 32 Bela son of Beor became king of Edom. His city was named Dinhabah.

33 When Bela died, Jobab son of Zerah from Bozrah succeeded him as king.

 34 When Jobab died, Husham from the land of the Temanites succeeded him as king.


Here is another interesting aside: Gen. 36 gives the generations of Esau, his sons and grandsons. KJV calls each of them Dukes of Edom, NIV calls them Chiefs of their nation. The Hebrew word Aluf, translated Duke by KJV and Chief by NIV, has been reborn in the 20th century. The Israeli military, the IDF, doesn’t have ‘generals’, they call their head military captain Aluf.

= Aluf, Allufim (pl) = Duke (KJV), Chief (NIV)

Gen 36:15-19 (NIV) These were the chiefs among Esau\'s descendants: The sons of Eliphaz the firstborn of Esau: Chiefs Teman, Omar, Zepho, Kenaz, Korah, Gatam and Amalek. These were the chiefs descended from Eliphaz in Edom; they were grandsons of Adah. The sons of Esau\'s son Reuel: Chiefs Nahath, Zerah, Shammah and Mizzah. These were the chiefs descended from Reuel in Edom; they were grandsons of Esau\'s wife Basemath. The sons of Esau\'s wife Oholibamah:Chiefs Jeush, Jalam and Korah. These were the chiefs descended from Esau\'s wife Oholibamah daughter of Anah. These were the sons of Esau (that is, Edom), and these were their chiefs.

by the time of the exodus edom is quite well established numbers 20 14 21

 Moses sent messengers from Kadesh to the king of Edom, saying:  "This is what your brother Israel says: You know about all the hardships that have come upon us. Our forefathers went down into Egypt, and we lived there many years. The Egyptians mistreated us and our fathers, but when we cried out to the LORD, he heard our cry and sent an angel and brought us out of Egypt. "Now we are here at Kadesh, a town on the edge of your territory. Please let us pass through your country. We will not go through any field or vineyard, or drink water from any well. We will travel along the king\'s highway and not turn to the right or to the left until we have passed through your territory." But Edom answered: "You may not pass through here; if you try, we will march out and attack you with the sword."  The Israelites replied: "We will go along the main road, and if we or our livestock drink any of your water, we will pay for it. We only want to pass through on foot—nothing else."   Again they answered: "You may not pass through."  Then Edom came out against them with a large and powerful army. Since Edom refused to let them go through their territory, Israel turned away from them.

By the time of the Exodus, Edom is quite well established. Numbers 20:14-21


The King’s Highway is a well used caravan trade route. Greatly improved the by the Romans, and was continually used up until fairly modern times. It runs straight up the Aravah Valley, along the Jordanian side.

edom map1

The dotted line is the King’s Hwy. It goes right up the gut, straight to the Dead Sea. But Edom said ‘Nooo’, so Israel had to go South, the WRONG way, then cut across the mountains, all the way around the backside of Edom. Don\'t you know the Israelites were hacked.




^ MT. HOR?


edom highlands

A probable Israelite comment:

“We SHOULD be going right up the flat valley path on a paved road.

But no-oo, Look at those stinking mountains, where Moses, that jerk, is taking us.”

Edom Highlands

snow in edom

These mountains are high enough to get snow in the winter. The Israelites are wearing sandals and their light fabric clothes from hot, semi-tropical Egypt.



Bozrah Remember Jobab, the 2nd king of Edom ruled from Bozrah. This is near the southern end of the dead sea in the Valley of Salt. Bozrah was the first capital of Edom and was one of the most important cities. Unfortunately, there isn\'t much archaeologically of interest left. I have very little to show you. On top of this flattop hill site is the modern Jordanian village of Beisurra.

sheep pen bozrah

The name Bozrah, means \'sheepfold\'- like a pen where you keep the flock safe at night away from the lions and wolves. Remember that because later, Bozrah is going to come back in a big way.

Sheep pen = Bozrah

bozrah basra

If you listen to the news, you may have heard about the 3rd largest city in Iraq, BASRA.

It is the same name, but a different place. In Hebrew/Edomite/ and even Arabic the word Bozrah means “sheepfold.” Like a pen to keep the sheep safe at night from lions or thieves.




edom map2


Bozrah of Edom is just south of Sela. Sela was the second capital of Edom. Sela is a Hebrew/Edomite word for "the Rock.“ It is probably built upon Mt Seir.



^ MT. HOR?



obadiah 1 3 4

Sela was located on top of the small mountain in the center of this picture. The mountain has very steep cliffs on all sides, and is separated from the rear mountain by a tremendous gorge with sheer rock sides. Up there, it is a breath taking view. Sela later eclipsed Bozrah and became the main capital of Edom. Obadiah speaks poetically of the mountainous geography.

“This is what the Sovereign LORD says about Edom--the pride of your heart has deceived you, you who live in the clefts of the rocks and make your home on the heights, you who say to yourself,   \'Who can bring me down to the ground?\' ‘Though you soar like the eagle and make your nest among the stars, from there I will bring you down,’ declares the LORD. “

Obadiah 1:3-4


The entrance to Sela is by a giant staircase. See the man standing here in black pants. This is the bottom of the massive stairway that leads up to the top of Sela. While much of the stairs are in ruins, it is possible to scramble up to the top. There are dams/reservoirs built into the wall of these stairs. Probably a defense system. They stored massive quantities of sand or gravel behind these dams, that could be released to literally sweep an attacking army off their feet and bury them alive.

Man in black pants for scale

sela s clifftop

There is a famous Assyrian inscription located on the top of this mountain. This cliff in its day would have been plastered smooth, with statues that hung over the edge.

Sela’s Clifftop

highplace 1

Highplace 1

There are two very well preserved \'high places’ on Sela. A highplace is an ancient platform for altars where sacrifices were made to the gods.

highplace 2

The second highplace is in the north west corner of town , and it commands a spectacular view of the nearby mountains. Can you picture an Edomite priest with his arms up in the air, sacrificing a goat, to his pagan idol?

Highplace 2

copper smelting

We mentioned that iron ore makes these mountains red.

Copper smelting

There is also a lot of copper in these mountains. It was an extremely valuable resource in antiquity.

khirbat en nahas

Khirbat en-Nahas

This town had dozens of copper smelt pits and mining operations from a very early period, about the time of the Exodus. This could very well be one of the industrial strategic cities that the king of Edom did not want the Israelites getting close too. Copper production is big money, and he certainly didn\'t want a bunch of ex-slaves from Egypt trying to cash in on his deal.

saul 1050 1010 bc

Our history picks back up in the 11th Century BC. After Saul became king, he fought the Edomites, and wherever he turned he inflicted punishment on them.

Saul – 1050-1010 BC

Saul Fights and defeats Edom

1 Samuel 14:47 After Saul had assumed rule over Israel, he fought against their enemies on every side: Moab, the Ammonites, Edom, the kings of Zobah, and the Philistines. Wherever he turned, he inflicted punishment on them.

david 1010 970 bc

But it wasn\'t until David that Edom was fully conquered, and as Isaac had prophesied the older would serve the younger.

David 1010- 970 BC

David Subdues Edom

2 Samuel 8:13 And David became famous after he returned from striking down eighteen thousand Edomites in the Valley of Salt.

 14 He put garrisons throughout Edom, and all the Edomites became subject to David. The LORD gave David victory wherever he went.


David’s Psalm of Victory

Psalm 60: 6-8 God has spoken from his sanctuary:        "In triumph I will parcel out Shechem        and measure off the Valley of Succoth.

 7 Gilead is mine, and Manasseh is mine; Ephraim is my helmet,        Judah my scepter.  8 Moab is my washbasin, upon Edom I toss my sandal; over Philistia I shout in triumph."

That idiom may not make much sense to us today. But in Biblical times to hand your sandal to another man is the seal of a binding contract. See Ruth 4:7. So to toss your sandal over Edom is to own it.

solomon 970 930 bc

Solomon had wives from Edom, his navy is based from the red sea port of Ezion Geber (modern Eliat), which is in Edom.

1 Kings 11:1 King Solomon, however, loved many foreign women besides Pharaoh\'s daughter—Moabites, Ammonites, Edomites, Sidonians and Hittites.

Solomon –970 -930 BC

 1 Kings 9:26-28 King Solomon also built ships at Ezion Geber, which is near Elath in Edom, on the shore of the Red Sea.

During the Solomnic period the copper mining at Kirbet en-Nahas and nearby site of Timna reach their peak of productivity spawning the legends of King Solomon’s Mines.

Solomon’s Pillars

at Timna National Park in Negev

solomon 970 930 bc1
Solomon –970 -930 BC

Solomon still controls Edom as his father David had, but there start to be problems. These political tensions would continue for the next 100 years.

1 Kings 11:14 Then the LORD raised up against Solomon an adversary, Hadad the Edomite, from the royal line of Edom.

freedom under jehoram 850bc

After 5 generations down from Solomon, in the days of Jehoram, Edom rebelled and King Jehoram was lucky to escape with his own life.

Freedom under Jehoram –850BC

2 Kings 8: 20-22 In the time of Jehoram, Edom rebelled against Judah and set up its own king. So Jehoram went to Zair with all his chariots. The Edomites surrounded him and his chariot commanders, but he rose up and broke through by night; his army, however, fled back home. To this day Edom has been in rebellion against Judah.

REMEMBER ISAAC’S LEFTOVER BLESSING FOR ESAU? Genesis 27: 40 “You will live by the sword and you will serve your brother. But when you grow restless, you will throw his yoke from off your neck."

amaziah 796 771 bc

Drop down another 50 yrs. (pun intended) King Amaziah tries to recapture Edom.

Amaziah 796- 771 BC

2 Chron 25: 11 Amaziah then marshaled his strength and led his army to the Valley of Salt, where he killed ten thousand men of Seir. 12 The army of Judah also captured ten thousand men alive, took them to the top of a cliff and threw them down so that all were dashed to pieces.

Dropping enemy POWs from a cliff, very well might have been that big cliff that we looked at a few minutes ago right in Sela. He captured the city. These people were decimated right at the high place of their own gods in their own city. The gods could not protect them, because they are made of wood and stone.

destruction of jerusalem 586 bc

The next big appearance of Edom in Bible history is at the time of Nebuchadnezzar\'s sack of Jerusalem. Babylonians totally destroyed the holy city of Jerusalem and raze the temple of Yahweh.

Destruction of Jerusalem 586 BC


The Temple is leveled. Everything is burned or torn apart. The Edomites help the Babylonians. Easu and Jacob were brothers, but the Edomites show no compassion for their cousins. Because of their actions they incur the wrath of God and curse of Obadiah.

obadiah 1 11 15

 11 On the day you stood aloof while strangers carried off his wealth and foreigners entered his gates and cast lots for Jerusalem, you were like one of them.  12 You should not look down on your brother in the day of his misfortune, nor rejoice over the people of Judah in the day of their destruction, nor boast so much in the day of their trouble. 13 You should not march through the gates of my people in the day of their disaster, nor look down on them in their calamity in the day of their disaster, nor seize their wealth in the day of their disaster.  14 You should not wait at the crossroads to cut down their fugitives, nor hand over their survivors in the day of their trouble. 15 "The day of the LORD is near for all nations. As you have done, it will be done to you; your deeds will return upon your own head.  

Obadiah 1:11-15

obadiah 1 6 8

6 But how Esau will be ransacked, his hidden treasures pillaged! 7 All your allies will force you to the border; your friends will deceive and overpower you; those who eat your bread will set a trap for you, but you will not detect it.  8 "In that day," declares the LORD, "will I not destroy the wise men of Edom, men of understanding in the mountains of Esau?

Obadiah 1:6-8

Note the legendary wisdom of the Edomites.

Obadiah\'s prophecy came to pass and Nebuchadnezzar soon destroyed Edom too.


Remember, Edom is Hebrew for RED. In this map red is the extent of the Edomite Kingdom. It was destroyed about 550BC, 35 yrs after the destruction of Jerusalem. Nebuchadnezzar hauled them into exile as well. The vacuum of a vacant land was soon filed by nomadic Arabs, who moved in to live in the empty cities. They became the Nabatean empire. Green color of this map. Nabateans were the founders of Petra. There was also a remnant of Edomites that remained in the land. They became Idumeans, the ruddy brown color on this map.

IDUMEA is a Greek word, it came during the Roman period. Can you see the root word Edom in that spelling? During the Greek Hellenistic period they were forced to convert to Judaism by John Hyrcannus, Hasmonean King of the Jews about 120BC.

herod the great

The most famous Idumean is

HEROD the great, ruler of Judea at the time of Jesus’ birth.

He wasn\'t Jewish at all, he was Idumean. By Herod\'s time, the Idumeans were fully integrated, I\'m sure Herod was permitted to enter the Temple as a 3rd Generation adoptee. “You shall not abhor an Edomite.” Deut 23:7

Herod the Great

Stone bust of Herod, Caesarea

great or wicked
Great or Wicked?

We call him Herod the Great according to his Greco-Roman title. After all, he built cities. He greatly enlarged and remodeled the Temple compound. He created jobs, and was a great patron of the arts. He was personal friends with Caesar. His resume and accomplishments are impressive.

However, to this very day, Jews call him Herod the Wicked.


Wadi Hasa is in Southern Jordan. This is the Nabatean capital of Petra. It is a beautiful area, but very deserty.


There is a natural cleft in one of the mountains, called the Siq. This is where the Nabateans built their capital, Petra. It is about 250 ft down the crevice to the valley floor. It opens up into a real nice valley, about 400 acres. - big enough to house 30,000 people at its peak in Roman times. It is completely surrounded by cliffs.

siq entry to petra

Siq, Entry to PETRA

The only way in & out to the city of Petra is the very narrow entryway called the siq.

the treasury

Once you step out of the siq you are faced with the tremendous scale of this monument. It is several stories high, and especially spectacular in the morning sunlight. Of all the tombs in Petra, the Kazneh is the most famous. Its name Kazneh is Arabic for treasury.

The Treasury


The name comes from the Bedouin belief that there is treasure hid in the urn at the top of the monument. However, it is solid rock. These buildings are façade only. Carved into solid face of the rock they only go back about 10-20 feet deep to a burial chamber.

street of tombs

There are 800 rock carved tombs in Petra. “Petra” is the Greek word for “rock.” The apostle Peter\'s name in Greek \'Petros‘ is the diminutive form, it means little rock.

Street of Tombs


Petra is not really what we need to study today, but I thought you would be disappointed if I didn\'t have some pictures of Petra. The Nabateans and their city Petra are not mentioned in Scripture. There is no Biblical history, and no prophecy relevant to this place.

But it is very beautiful and worthy of a visit if you get the chance.


This tomb is called \'Monastery\' is the largest façade in Petra, over 130\' high, like a 12 story building. It is chisled out of a solid mountain of rock. This is a beautiful place. Very romantic setting, however it s a 1000 yr too late and not settled by Esau. It has nothing to do with Edom, the Nabateans were Arabs that filled the void after Nebuchadnezzar destroyed Edom.

prophecy of esau


Please come back next week, because the story of Esau is not over. The strife with his brother Jacob will play a key role in the Great Tribulation under the Anti-Christ. We will study some fascinating prophecies about the Bozrah Deliverance.

Prophecy of Esau


(PART 2)


Welcome back to the study of Esau. As a refresher course, recall from last week, that the nation of Edom is cousins to the nation of Israel. They were both the offspring of the twin sons of Isaac. Isaac prophesied in a left over blessing for Esau, that he shall serve his younger brother Jacob, until he grows restless and in that day Edom will throw off the yoke of Israel. Then we followed the history and saw how that happened. We also looked at Obadiah\'s prophecy of the destruction of Edom because they rejoiced over the Babylonian disaster that befell their brother.

Isaac and Obadiah- These prophecies are fulfilled.

God is true and He will always fulfill his word. Today were going look at several prophecies that haven\'t happened yet. Edom is not a dead, far away, unimportant footnote to history. The modern day country of Jordan, has an important role in the Great Tribulation of the near future.


Last week we started by going back in time, 2-3000 yrs. This week we\'re going to start by forwarding in time. I don\'t know how much, maybe 2-3000 days? Maybe weeks? I couldn\'t tell you. We start at the beginning of the Great Tribulation. Jeremiah 30 calls this the time of Jacob\'s Trouble. It\'s called the 70th Week in Daniel 9. I think most pre-mil Bible students agree these passages are referring to the Great Tribulation. This time is God\'s judgment for the nations and refining for all Israel. During this time the Anti-Christ tries to annihilate the saints. There is a massive campaign of genocide to kill Jews and Christians. All of God\'s wrath shown in Revelation is directed toward the wicked sinful world. God does not judge the righteous. Paul tells us in Romans 8 "There is no condemnation in Christ Jesus." Look at the last stanza of the Jeremiah passage. \'but Jacob- he will be saved out of it.\' What I\'m going to show you is that even during this terrible time, as has never been before, God will protect his righteous people, the believers in Jesus.

jacob s trouble the 70 th week

Jer 30:7 How awful that day will be!        None will be like it.        It will be a time of trouble for Jacob,        but he will be saved out of it.

Jacob’s Trouble & The 70th Week

 Daniel 9: 24 "Seventy \'sevens\' are decreed for your people and your holy city to finish transgression, to put an end to sin, to atone for wickedness, to bring in everlasting righteousness, to seal up vision and prophecy and to anoint the most holy.”

daniel 12 1 righteous delivered

NIV 12:1 "At that time Michael, the great prince who protects your people, will arise. There will be a time of distress such as has not happened from the beginning of nations until then. But at that time your people—everyone whose name is found written in the book—will be delivered.”

Daniel 12:1 Righteous Delivered

Delivered = , Malat= escape, slip away. From root smooth, slippery, as fish skin

isa 26 20 21 hiding the righteous

20 Go, my people, enter your rooms        and shut the doors behind you;        hide yourselves for a little while        until his wrath has passed by.

 21 See, the LORD is coming out of his dwelling        to punish the people of the earth for their sins.        The earth will disclose the blood shed upon her;        she will conceal her slain no longer.

ISA 26:20-21 Hiding the Righteous

All this wrath is directed toward the "people of the earth.“ God doesn\'t judge his own family. During the Great Tribulation, righteous Jews (Messianic) and gentile Christians- all of God’s people will be supernaturally protected. Remember the Passover night in Egypt? God told them in Ex 12 to stay in their rooms until His judgment has passed over. God hides his people from the terror of His judgment.


hiding of saints here s a couple of hints

Rev 12: 13-14 “When the dragon saw that he had been hurled to the earth, he pursued the woman who had given birth to the male child. The woman was given the two wings of a great eagle, so that she might fly to the place prepared for her in the desert, where she would be taken care of for a time, times and half a time, out of the serpent\'s reach. “

Hiding of Saints Here\'s a couple of hints:

Matthew 24:15 “So when you see standing in the holy place \'the abomination that causes desolation,\' spoken of through the prophet Daniel—let the reader understand— then let those who are in Judea flee to the mountains. “ See also Mark 13:14 & Luke 21:20

The place of refuge will be somewhere in the desert and in the mountains. It will be within fleeing distance of Judea.

israel given wings of eagle

Israel given Wings of Eagle

Just as Elijah was given a place of safety hiding from Ahab in 1 Kings 17.


Isa 33:15-16 He who walks righteously and speaks what is right, who rejects gain from extortion and keeps his hand from accepting bribes, who stops his ears against plots of murder and shuts his eyes against contemplating evil- This is the man who will dwell on the heights, whose refuge will be the mountain fortress. His bread will be supplied, and water will not fail him.

The righteous man will be delivered, he will slip away, like a slimy fish to an arid mountain fortress.

Matzad = Fortress,

500 yrs later- Herod would name his fortress Masada

Sela = mountain rock,

Name of capital Edomite city

matzad sela
Matzad sela

Isa 33 actually gives us a name-Mountain Fortress-in Hebrew= Matzad sela. You might recognize matzad- as Masada. 500 yrs later Herod the Great would name his great fortress Masada.

And Sela- maybe you remember from last week. Sela means Rock. We looked at pictures of the giant staircase, highplace altars, and the cliff from which Amaziah probably threw the10,000 prisoners. That\'s Sela, the capital city of the Edomites.

A sad footnote to prophetic history, in the year 73AD the zealots of Masada were convinced that this passage applied to them. However, this prophecy has never been literally fulfilled.

jordan escapes antichrist

In Daniel we have a curious passage:


Daniel 11:40-41 "At the time of the end the king of the South will engage him in battle, and the king of the North will storm out against him with chariots and cavalry and a great fleet of ships. He will invade many countries and sweep through them like a flood. 41 He will also invade the Beautiful Land. Many countries will fall, but Edom, Moab and the leaders of Ammon will be delivered from his hand.

The historic lands of Edom, Moab and Ammon are today the Kingdom of Jordan.

jordan escapes antichrist1

Little Jordan escapes the Beast! How can a little pipsqueak country like Jordan, escape the Assyrian of Micah 5? I don’t know, but it plays right in with Israel having a place of safety in the desert and in the mountains.


His Majesty King Abdullah II

Sovereign of the Hashemite

Kingdom of Jordan

a 43rd-generation direct descendant of the Prophet Muhammad.

King Abdullah’s land somehow manages to avoid the power of the Beast. Let’s recap what we know so far: During the Great Tribulation, the Anti-Christ will be attacking Israel, slaughtering Jews and Christians. God will give his people a hiding place, believers will flee from the Antichrist, They will go to a place of refuge. It is deserty, it\'s mountainous, it’s not too far away from Jerusalem, yet it\'s away from the grasp of the Beast.

micah 2 12

Here\'s the give away verse. For me, this one\'s a clincher. Again, the capital city of Edom is actually named.

Micah 2:12 "I will surely gather all of you, O Jacob;        I will surely bring together the remnant of Israel.        I will bring them together like sheep at Bozrah,        like a flock in its pasture;        the place will throng with people. “

Micah 2: 12

Some bible teachers think that this was already fulfilled with Nehemiah’s third return after the exile, around 445BC. However, according to all ancient sources, the population of returnees was small. Many or most Jews remained in Babylon. This passage has never been literally fulfilled.



That\'s Bozrah, near the valley of salt, South of the Dead Sea. In the mountains of Seir, on the edge of the Aravah Valley. Remember the name of this city actually means “sheep pen.” Isn\'t that ironic, God appointed men, Edomite men, 1000’s of yrs ago to name this town Bozrah. How appropriate, how prophetic.

sheep pen bozrah1

Sheep pen = Bozrah

The purpose of a sheep pen is to corral up the livestock over night, to protect the helpless lambs from lions and wolves.

helpless docile sheep

Helpless Docile Sheep

God\'s people are docile, as helpless and gentle as a lamb.


The passage in Micah continues. V 13 is jumping ahead of myself. Right now, I\'m still trying to establish that during the Great Tribulation, saints will take refuge in Edom. V 13 is about Christ delivering them, breaking them out of the pen. This happens after the great tribulation, when Christ returns, at the 2nd coming. But since we\'re right here, I prefer to read it all within context.

Micah 2:12 "I will surely gather all of you, O Jacob;        I will surely bring together the remnant of Israel.        I will bring them together like sheep at Bozrah,        like a flock in its pasture;        the place will throng with people.

13 One who breaks open the way will go up before them;        they will break through the gate and go out.        Their king will pass through before them,        the LORD at their head."

sheep eager to get out

Sheep eager to get out

The imagery here is of sheep locked up in a tight pen. They are restless and cramped. They would much rather be out in the pasture grazing on green grass. Sheep are stupid, they probably don’t understand why their master- their shepherd has them locked up in this little pen. They don’t understand much about wolves and lions, until they see one right there on his own neck.

In the morning, the shepherd opens the gate and calls his sheep. The sheep press up against his thigh, pushing to get through that gate. They\'re anxious to get out. At the glorious 2nd coming Christ will break them out. This is the Bozrah Deliverance.

bozrah sela

Remember these are the archeological sites of Bozrah & Sela. I\'m not saying that the people will all live actually on and only on the archaeological mound of the ancient city. I suppose they will be spread out for 20 miles in every direction, but in this general vicinity, is where I think Israel/saints will be protected.

Who exactly are we talking about?

Bozrah & Sela



exactly who is israel

When we speak of Israel, I mean God’s chosen saints. This includes believing Jews and Christian gentiles all grafted into the olive tree per Romans 11. All are one in Christ, the true and faithful Israel per Eph 2.

For a complete explanation of the unity in Christ see my Olive Tree study: http://www.deadsoulsyndrome.com/church%20israel.htm

Exactly who is “Israel”?

144,000 saints of Israel

In Rev 7:3-4 an angel decries: “ ‘Do not harm the land or the sea or the trees until we put a seal on the foreheads of the servants of our God.’ 4Then I heard the number of those who were sealed: 144,000 from all the tribes of Israel.”

The sealing of these tribulation saints indicates the protection of these tribulation saints. I propose that these servants of God are those whom He protects in Edom. This would exclude traditional, non-believing Jews. They shall receive wrath for their unbelief. The 144,000 includes gentile Christians and many Messianic Jews, who will have the spiritual hardening removed towards the end of this age.


Why 144,000?

Rev 7:5-8 enumerates 12,000 individuals from each tribe. Although curiously, it excludes Dan. Is the 144k to be taken literally as a hard number? Probably not. Remember, this is a book of symbols. There were 12 tribes of Jacob in the OT and likewise there were 12 apostles of Christ in the NT. The product of 12x12=144. The product of God’s OT saints and God’s NT saints is 144. This numerology is repeated in Rev 21. The vision of the full bride of Christ is represented metaphorically as the city of new Jerusalem. Into the city gates and slabs are chiseled both the names of the tribes and the names of the apostles, showing that both reside within. 144 should be understood as the full and complete content of God’s people.

10x10x10 =1000. Ten to the third power makes a perfect cube, representing all three complete dimensions and the perfect geometry of the Holy of Holies. 144x 1000 is a perfect and huge geometry of the fullness of saints. It is beyond counting on fingers, but probably not literal or a limited capped quota.

what do the 144k do

Many people assume that these servants of God are evangelists, spreading the gospel during the reign of the Beast. However, the Word never makes that claim. The angel in chapter 7 instructs other angels not to pour out God’s wrath until these individuals are protected. In Rev 14 (non-chronological) we find the same group of sealed righteous saints alive with Christ on Mt Zion, after the 2nd Coming. God’s seal of protection is secure. These saints survive the G-Trib without death.

What do the 144k do?


-He who walks righteously

-who speaks with sincerity

-who rejects unjust gain

-who accepts no bribes

-who will not listen to stories of bloodshed

-who shuts his eyes against everything evil

Does this mean that every believer will be protected? Probably not. The righteous man will be delivered in Isa 33:15-16

I think this is the cream of the crop. The best and most spiritual Christians will not see death by the beast, but will be protected in Edom. God will preserve a remnant. A small portion of the whole will slip away into the wilderness. Unfortunately, this means that the balance of the whole body of Christ will be handed over to martyrdom by the Anti-Christ. Do you qualify with the above criteria?

from every tribe of the sons of israel

Rev 7:4 And I heard the number of those who were sealed: 144,000 from every tribe of the sons of Israel.

From every tribe of the sons of Israel

“From every tribe” implies that the total number of tribe members is greater then the number sealed. There exist some Israelites (people of God-not just ethnically Hebrew) who are not so sealed. This sealing is NOT the baptism of the Holy Spirit with which every believer is sealed per Eph 1:13. This appears to be a special Great Tribulation sealing for the remnant to live, or else no flesh would be saved (Mat 24:22).

revelation 14 1 5 nasv

“Then I looked, and behold, the Lamb was standing on Mount Zion, and with Him 144,000, having His name and the name of His Father written on their foreheads... 4 These are the ones who have not been defiled with women, for they have kept themselves chaste. These are the ones who follow the Lamb wherever He goes. These have been purchased from among men as first fruits to God and to the Lamb. 5 And no lie was found in their mouth; they are blameless.”

Revelation 14:1-5 (NASV)

When Jesus returns they are standing with him on mount Zion. These guys did not die in the Great Trib. None sealed by God will be lost. Not defiled with women and being chaste is probably an allusion to mental purity, not a doctrine about marital relations. The 144k probably includes females, I doubt it is a boys only club. Sex and idolatry have long been associated in Scripture, so this is likely a statement that these individuals have exemplary morals and thoughts. They represent a smaller subset of the total population of saints. This is the cream of the crop.

a promise to philadelphia

Rev 3:10 (NKJV) “Because you have kept My command to persevere, I also will keep you from the hour of trial which shall come upon the whole world, to test those who dwell on the earth.”

A promise to Philadelphia

This passage is an if/then clause. If you obey, then I will keep. The deed of the Philadelphians is rewarded in kind. Does this apply to all believers or only those of the Philadelphia church to whom it is addressed? May believers of the Laodicean church cash in on this promise? No.

In context, I believe that not all believers will be kept from the hour or hidden in Edom. Many will be butchered and beheaded. We should, if so called to beheading, be honored to be chosen as a testimony for Christ.


God’s protection of only a remnant and allowing the balance to be killed as a means to purify the whole started with Joseph in Egypt.

Gen 45:7 “God sent me before you to preserve for you a remnant in the earth, and to keep you alive by a great deliverance.”


Jeremiah 23:3“Then I Myself will gather the remnant of My flock out of all the countries where I have driven them and bring them back to their pasture, and they will be fruitful and multiply.”

And our key study text:

Micah 2:12 (NASV) “I will surely assemble all of you, Jacob, I will surely gather the remnant of Israel. I will put them together like sheep in the fold.”

A remnant is discussed in the Bible in 111 verses.

plowing in desert

Plowing in desert

Plowing this semi desert region is a very frustrating effort. It will only be by the miracle of God providing water in the wilderness that these people will survive. Phoenix, AZ spent billions of $$ on water service infrastructure, but God can do it for free.

rev 16 16 armageddon

16Then they gathered the kings together to the place that in Hebrew is called Armageddon.

This is the only reference to Armageddon in Scripture. It means hill of Megeddo, a city on the valley of Jezreel in central Israel. It sits on the edge of a picturesque valley, a very productive agricultural area. Notice this verse says that the armies are gathered there. It is a staging ground. It never actually says that there will be a battle here. This is a beautiful location in the heart of Israel. It is the breadbox of the country.

Rev 16:16 Armageddon

Jezreel Valley or Plain of Megeddo

I think the curse of the blood up to the horses bridle (Rev 14:20) is going to fall somewhere else. The battles are actually fought in Jerusalem and Edom.

isa 34 2 4 final judgment

2 The LORD is angry with all nations;        his wrath is upon all their armies.        He will totally destroy them,        he will give them over to slaughter.

 3 Their slain will be thrown out,        their dead bodies will send up a stench;        the mountains will be soaked with their blood.

 4 All the stars of the heavens will be dissolved        and the sky rolled up like a scroll;        all the starry host will fall        like withered leaves from the vine,        like shriveled figs from the fig tree.

ISA 34:2-4 Final Judgment

This is probably referring to the final judgment. Last time I looked up, the stars hadn\'t fallen yet.

isa 34 5 6 slaughter in bozrah

This is a continuation of the same passage. This is end times-tribulation judgment and it happening in Edom:

ISA 34:5-6 -Slaughter in Bozrah

 5 My sword has drunk its fill in the heavens;        see, it descends in judgment on Edom,        the people I have totally destroyed.

 6 The sword of the LORD is bathed in blood,        it is covered with fat—        the blood of lambs and goats,        fat from the kidneys of rams.        For the LORD has a sacrifice in Bozrah        and a great slaughter in the land of Edom.

malachi 1 2 4 5

Why is this happening to Edom, on their land? Well in Malachi 1:2-- "Was not Esau Jacob\'s brother?" the LORD says. "Yet I have loved Jacob, but Esau I have hated.”

Paul quotes this verse in Rom 9, when he tells us about election. Malachi continues:

4 Edom may say, "Though we have been crushed, we will rebuild the ruins."    But this is what the LORD Almighty says: "They may build, but I will demolish. They will be called the Wicked Land, a people always under the wrath of the LORD. 5 You will see it with your own eyes and say, \'Great is the LORD -even beyond the borders of Israel!‘

Malachi 1:2 + 4-5

This happens in Edom because of their wickedness, not just of the Edomites, but also of the Anti-Christ who attempts to overtake the saints there.

watchman on the wall

Isaiah 63

Watchman on the wall

There\'s a passage in Isaiah 63 that is powerful. But before we read it, I want to give you the visual picture. Think of a watchman on the walls of Jerusalem. His job is too keep an eye out for invading armies and messengers. Anything he sees, he is supposed to inform the king. Well one day, he sees someone approaching from the Southeast, from Edom, in a bright red garment. Red is the color of Edom- in Hebrew the word means ‘red.’ Well, naturally he figures it’s the king of Edom wearing a scarlet robe, but it turns out to be the LORD, Moshiach, and his clothes are stained red with blood.

isa 63 messiah s wrath

Isaiah 63 :1-6 Who is this coming from Edom, from Bozrah, with his garments stained crimson?    Who is this, robed in splendor, striding forward in the greatness of his strength?    "It is I, speaking in righteousness, mighty to save."  2 Why are your garments red, like those of one treading the winepress?  3 "I have trodden the winepress alone; from the nations no one was with me. I trampled them in my anger and trod them down in my wrath; their blood spattered my garments, and I stained all my clothing. 4 For the day of vengeance was in my heart, and the year of my redemption has come. 5 I looked, but there was no one to help, I was appalled that no one gave support; so my own arm worked salvation for me, and my own wrath sustained me. 6 I trampled the nations in my anger; in my wrath I made them drunk and poured their blood on the ground."                             

ISA 63 Messiah’s Wrath

blowing of the trump

This wrath from Isa 63 occurs in Edom, but it is really on the Anti-Christ, who has attacked the true Israel in her hiding place. The destruction of Anti-Christ’s forces by Christ the Messiah happens at the last trumpet, also known as the Second Coming.

Blowing of the Trump

isa rev stars and scroll

Isaiah 34: 4 All the stars of the heavens will be dissolved        and the sky rolled up like a scroll;        all the starry host will fall        like withered leaves from the vine,        like shriveled figs from the fig tree.

ISA & REV Stars and Scroll

We read this Isa verse about the stars and the scroll a minute ago, in context it is specifically speaking of Edom. The very next verse, v5, says that "the LORD has a sacrifice in Bozrah, and a great slaughter in the land of Edom."

Rev 6 is really similar:

Rev 6:13-14 and the stars in the sky fell to earth, as late figs drop from a fig tree when shaken by a strong wind. 14The sky receded like a scroll, rolling up, and every mountain and island was removed from its place.

rolled up like a scroll


Dead Sea Scroll from Qumran


Rolled up like a scroll

How can you roll up the sky like a bunch of old carpet? Like a roll of paper towels? When you roll it up, what is left in the spot where it used to be furled out? Well, I know this much, for the sky to peel away can’t be a good thing. Only thing I can imagine is that this is imminent to the Second Coming. Maybe this creates a wormhole into another dimension. Maybe it creates a passageway for the parade of saints and savior. I have a hard time picturing how this is going to look, and I probably won’t live to see it. My spirit is going to be on the other side, coming down out of heaven for the resurrection with my Savior Jesus, out of this wormhole. So, if any you guys are still here and see this, please take a picture of it for me.

coming with shekiniah glory

Coming with Shekiniah Glory

Rev 1:7 Look, he is coming with the clouds, and every eye will see him, even those who pierced him.

Math 24:30 “At that time the sign of the Son of Man will appear in the sky, and all the nations of the earth will mourn. They will see the Son of Man coming on the clouds of the sky, with power and great glory”

coming w shekiniah glory

At the time of the 2nd coming the Bible clearly says that every human in the world will witness the massive parade of angels and saints descending from the clouds. The saints will meet Him in the air and escort the king to the earth. Just like when an important guest comes to your house to visit, you meet and great them outside on the porch and usher them into your home. This is what Pre-Trib brothers call the ‘rapture’, but we don’t go away-Christ comes to us! This magnificent arrival of Christ, to claim His rightful throne, will be slow and grand. It is the procession of a king. No one will miss it. I have heard preachers say that this is possible because of modern satellite technology, reporters will be filming the second coming of Christ. Have you ever heard that?

Well it’s wrong. History teaches me prophecy. In 1 Kings 8 read the story of Solomon dedicating the Temple. The Bible says that the ‘Shekiniah’ of God- The glory of the almighty- DWELT on the temple. The cloud radiance was so powerful that no one could even get close to the building. In Matthew 24 Jesus says that the Son of Man will come on the clouds with power and great glory. The Greek word for Glory used here is ‘doxa’, we get the word Doxology -a hymn of glory. Jesus is directly referring to the Shekiniah- to use a Hebrew word. The Glorious Appearance will have the same style of incredible power as exhibited at Solomon’s temple dedication.

2 nd coming

At the second coming of Christ- people in Australia, New York, Peru and Jerusalem will see Him by a miracle in the sky directly over their head, not on TV. Whether you\'re inside a building, in the deepest jungle, or in an underground cave, you will see the second coming

2nd Coming

of Christ with angels and saints by His Shekiniah glory- not by CNN. God does not need cable TV in order to execute his second coming. People that preach that are exalting human technology to the level of miraculous. As if God really needs us. Besides at this final point of the world system’s existence, I seriously doubt if the electrical grid and satellite infrastructure will even be operational.  

perpetual wasteland during millennium

After He rescues His people from Bozrah and destroys the Anti-Christ with His own hand in Edom, then Jeremiah tells us:

Jer 49:13 I swear by myself," declares the LORD, "that Bozrah will become a ruin and an object of horror, of reproach and of cursing; and all its towns will be in ruins forever."

Perpetual Wasteland during Millennium

Jer 49:17 Edom will become an object of horror; all who pass by will be appalled and will scoff because of all its wounds. 18 As Sodom and Gomorrah were overthrown, along with their neighboring towns,“ says the LORD, "so no one will live there; no man will dwell in it.

When Nebuchadnezzar destroyed Edom (circa 550BC) the Arab Nabateans moved into the vacuum of an empty land within a few short years. Today, people still live in Southern Jordan, so this hasn\'t happened yet.

isa 34 8 10 13 14 never more inhabited

Isa 34:8-10 For the LORD has a day of vengeance, a year of retribution, to uphold Zion\'s cause.  9 Edom\'s streams will be turned into pitch, her dust into burning sulfur; her land will become blazing pitch!  10 It will not be quenched night and day; its smoke will rise forever. From generation to generation it will lie desolate; no one will ever pass through it again.

ISA 34:8-10, 13-14 Never more Inhabited

 13 Thorns will overrun her citadels, nettles and brambles her strongholds.     She will become a haunt for jackals, a home for owls.

 14 Desert creatures will meet with hyenas, and wild goats will bleat to each other.

For a 1000 years, during the millennial kingdom to follow, Edom will be a wasteland, a remembrance, a museum of failed human government.

did nebuchadnezzar fulfill these verses

Habakkuk3:3-5 “God came from Teman, the Holy One from Mount Paran. Selah. His glory covered the heavens and his praise filled the earth. His splendor was like the sunrise; rays flashed from his hand, where his power was hidden. Plague went before him; pestilence followed his steps.” (Note- Teman was the grandson of Esau)

Did Nebuchadnezzar Fulfill these verses?

Ezekiel 35:7-8 “I will make Mount Seir a desolate waste and cut off from it all who come and go. I will fill your mountains with the slain; those killed by the sword will fall on your hills and in your valleys and in all your ravines.”

Nebuchadnezzar destroyed the historic ancient nation of Edom about 550BC. Some people think that these verses have been fulfilled already in that event. I believe that the Babylonian havoc was an ante- type of fulfillment, however completion will rest in Messiah.

PRAISE GOD, Maranatha Lord Jesus!

edomite geographical vocabulary

Horites- Primitive early Cannanite people displaced by Edom

Mt. Hor-Mountain in Southern Isr/Jordan, Death/Burial of Aaron

Desert of Sin- Nearby Sin(ai). Wilderness in Northern Arabia/Sinai

Desert of Zin- Near Kadesh Barnea, where Moses struck the rock

Valley of Aravah-Part of Rift Valley from Dead Sea to Eliat

Edom- Descendants of Esau. From 1400BC till 550BC

Seir or Mt Seir- Mountain Range in S. Jordan

Bozrah-Hebrew for “sheepfold” Early Capital of Edom

Sela- Aramaic/ Edomite for “rock”. Late Capital of Edom

Joktheel-Sela as called by Amaziah in 2K 14:7

Petra-Greek for “rock”. Capital of Nabateans.

Edomite Geographical Vocabulary

bozrah sheep pen of the tribulation

Bozrah,Sheep pen of the Tribulation

For questions or comments contact me at

Jay “at” deadsoulsyndrome “dot” com

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