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EOI TEST REVIEW. ENGLISH II- 2012. VOCABULARY. Use Context Clues Pay attention to Connotations vs. Denotations Prefixes (word beginnings) Roots (roots can be in the beginning middle or end) Suffixes (word endings). AUTHOR’S PURPOSE. Inform Entertain Persuade Instruct Describe an event

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eoi test review

EOI TEST REVIEW

ENGLISH II- 2012

vocabulary
VOCABULARY
  • Use Context Clues
  • Pay attention to Connotations vs. Denotations
  • Prefixes (word beginnings)
  • Roots (roots can be in the beginning middle or end)
  • Suffixes (word endings)
author s purpose
AUTHOR’S PURPOSE
  • Inform
  • Entertain
  • Persuade
  • Instruct
  • Describe an event
  • Teach a lesson
  • Etc

HOW DO YOU KNOW…

  • Literary Genre
  • Style
  • Tone
  • Word Choice
literary genres
LITERARY GENRES

NON-FICTION

  • Essays
  • Biography
  • Autobiography
  • Editorial (short article)

FICTION

  • Short Stories
  • Novel
  • Legend (passed down generation to generation)
  • Myth (was at one point believed to be true)
  • Mystery
literary genres1
LITERARY GENRES

POETRY

  • Narrative Poetry (tells a story)
  • Epic (usually ancient & long)
  • Lyric Poem (not really a story but about a feeling)
  • Sonnets (strictly formatted 14 line poem)

DRAMA

  • Tragedy, Comedy, History
    • Dialogue
    • Monologue
    • Soliloquy
    • Aside

SATIRE

  • Uses humor or sarcasm (Daily Show, South Park, etc)
literary story elements
LITERARY/STORY ELEMENTS

PLOT

  • Introduction/ Rising Action
  • Conflict
  • Climax
  • Falling Action
  • Resolution

SETTING

  • Time
  • Place
  • General Surroundings
literary story elements1
LITERARY/STORY ELEMENTS

THEME

  • The “So What” of the story.
  • The MESSAGE or LESSON
  • Look for hints in:
    • The title
    • The Symbols

MOOD AND TONE

  • Mood is the FEELING of the overall piece
  • Tone is the WRITER’S ATTITUDE toward his subject
literary story elements2
LITERARY/STORY ELEMENTS

TYPES OF CHARACTERS

  • Protagonist (good)
  • Antagonist (bad)
  • Round (lots of detail in story… multi-faceted)
  • Flat (one-dimensional… stereotype)
  • Dynamic (changes)
  • Static (stays the same)

CHARACTERIZATION

  • Direct (her hair was yellow…)
  • Indirect (interpretive )
  • Dialogue
  • Actions
literary story elements3
LITERARY/STORY ELEMENTS

POINT OF VIEW

  • 1ST Person (I, Me)
  • 3rd Person (unnamed narrator who stands back from story)
    • Omniscient (God-like/ all-knowing)

HISTORICAL CONTEXT

  • Focuses on the “Big Picture”: the world as it existed at the time

CULTURAL RELEVANCE

  • The stories relationship to the culture it was produced (Caesar/ Elizabeth)
literary devices
LITERARY DEVICES

TIME & SEQUENCE

  • Pay attention to how time works in a story
  • Does it go from day-to-day, month-to-month?
  • Does it skip time?
  • Does it have flashbacks?

FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE

  • Allegory- Animal Farm everything stand for something else
  • Alliteration- “What would the world be without you?”
  • Allusion- “You’re such a Romeo.” “He is as old as Moses.”
  • Analogy- “Life is like a box of chocolates; you never know what you’re going to get.”
  • Hyperbole- “Algebra is going to kill me!”
  • Imagery
literary devices1
LITERARY DEVICES

FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE (continued)

  • Irony
    • Verbal Irony
    • Situational Irony
    • Dramatic Irony (MOST COMMON)
  • Metaphor
  • Onomatopoeia
  • Personification
  • Rhyme
  • Simile
  • Symbolism
understanding literature reading comprehension
UNDERSTANDING LITERATURE/ READING COMPREHENSION

MAIN IDEA

  • What a paragraph or passage is about
  • May be directly stated or IMPLIED (hinted at)
  • Look for Supporting Details

INFERENCES & CONCLUSIONS

  • An EDUCATED guess
  • Reading between the lines
  • Still based on the information in the passage… you are just filling in blanks

GENERALIZATIONS & PREDICTIONS

  • Specific kinds of Inferences
  • Generalization applies to new but related situations
  • Predictions involve the same passage… just down the road.
understanding literature reading comprehension1
UNDERSTANDING LITERATURE/ READING COMPREHENSION

ORGANIZATIONAL PATTERNS

  • TRANSITIONS
      • Words or phrases that show how different ideas are connected
  • SEQUENCE OF EVENT TRANSITIONS
    • After, At last, Finally, At once, First, Meanwhile, Then, When, Thereafter, Next, Eventually, etc
  • CAUSE & EFFECT TRANSITIONS
      • Accordingly, As a Result, Because, Consequently, Due to, For Example, For that Reason, Hence, So, So that is why, Therefore, Thus, Etc
  • COMPARE & CONTRAST TRANSITIONS
      • COMPARE: Also, and, another, in addition, like, likewise, similarly, too
      • CONTRAST: But, however, in spite of, not, on the other hand, unlike, while
understanding literature reading comprehension2
UNDERSTANDING LITERATURE/ READING COMPREHENSION

QUOTING

  • Direct Quotations, “I said do your homework.”
  • Indirect Quotations/ PARAPHRASING
  • Summarizing

FACT vs. OPINION

  • Facts can be proven
  • Opinions are personal viewpoints
research information
RESEARCH & INFORMATION

SOURCES

  • Credibility
    • Always select the BEST/ MOST CREDIBLE the sources
    • Be aware of BIAS
    • Be aware of different perspectives on the same topic
  • Primary Sources- 1st- hand accounts
    • memoirs, public speeches, journals, diaries, interviews
  • Secondary Sources- provide commentary or opinions
    • Articles, reviews, literary criticism
  • Types of Research Sources:
    • Internet, field studies, encyclopedias, interviews, journals, microfiche, news sources, public speeches, technical documents
writing
WRITING
  • Address the Prompt
    • Make sure you answer the question/ task
  • Write to the requested MODE … Type of Writing
    • NO POEMS!!!
  • Develop your ideas thoroughly
    • Better to have fewer WELL developed ideas than lists
  • Organize your ideas
    • OBVIOUS paragraphs… at least four… five is better
  • Stay focused on your PURPOSE for writing
  • Make your writing thoughtful and interesting
    • Figurative language, REAL insight, syntax, diction, etc.
  • Use correct spelling, capitalization, punctuation, grammar, usage, and sentence structure.
    • PROOFREAD!!!
types of writing
TYPES OF WRITING

EXPOSITORY

  • EXPLAINS something
  • How something works (STEP-BY-STEP)
  • Why something happened (CAUSE & EFFECT)
  • Points out a problem & gives a solution (PROBLEM & SOLUTION)
  • Extended definition… explaining what something is
  • How 2 or more things are alike and/or different

(COMPARE/ CONTRAST)

types of writing1
TYPES OF WRITING

EXPOSITORY EXAMPLES

  • Success in a school often leads to a better life. Based on your experience and observations thus far, write an expository essay about how to be a successful student.
  • Life does not have to be boring if we know what to do. Write an expository essay about how you avoid boredom.
  • What is your favorite sport or hobby? Write an expository essay that tells someone step-by-step how it’s done.
  • You enjoy the company of your best friend except for one thing. Write an expository essay about the one trait that bothers you about your friend, and tell how you would tactfully tell your friend about it.
  • Pressure and stress are often part of everyday life. How do you handle stress? Write an expository essay to explain steps you take to reduce stress in your life.
types of writing2
TYPES OF WRITING

PERSUASIVE

  • You are trying to influence your reader to share a point of view or do something
  • Make a Claim
  • Support the Claim
    • Evidence
    • Facts
    • Quotations & Opinions from Experts
    • Logical Reasoning
    • Have a CLEARLY stated THESIS statement in your Introduction
  • Avoid Logical Fallacies
    • Don’t jump to conclusions
  • Show Cause & Effect Connections
  • Illustrate your point with a personal story
  • Appeal to LOGIC, ETHICS, & EMOTION
types of writing3
TYPES OF WRITING

PERSUASIVE EXAMPLES

  • We find out about many issues and topics through newspapers, television, and the Internet. Which recent issue in the news has affected you the most? Write a persuasive essay that gives reasons for your opinion.
  • Many professional athletes earn millions of dollars each year while teachers, nurses, firefighters, and law-enforcement officers earn much less per year. Is it fair that professional athletes earn such high salaries compared to these public servants? Write a persuasive essay that explains why or why not.
  • Some families and state governments are suing cigarette manufacturers for smoking-related deaths. Do you think they are to blame, or is it simply the decision of people who smoke? Include evidence in your persuasive essay to support your opinion.
  • Write a persuasive essay in which you agree or disagree with this statement: “Cars are more dangerous than guns.” Support your viewpoint with reasons and examples.
  • Should at least two years of foreign language classes be required for high-school graduation? Write a persuasive essay showing why you do or do not agree.
types of writing4
TYPES OF WRITING

NARRATIVE WRITING

  • Includes stories and accounts of events
  • Remember to
    • Pick a specific story- JUST ONE!
    • Give a clear Sequence of Events
    • Creative Opener and Wrap-Up
    • Be Descriptive
    • Incorporate Literary Devices and Imagery
    • BE SURE TO ANSWER THE QUESTION!
types of writing5
TYPES OF WRITING
  • NARRATIVE EXAMPLES
  • What was the happiest day of your life? Write a narrative essay about this day.
  • What is your favorite ghost story? Include the spooky details in a narrative essay.
  • Retell your favorite family story in a narrative essay.
  • What was your favorite school activity last semester? Write a narrative essay about this experience.
  • Write a narrative essay about a game or other competition in which you participated. What happened?
types of writing6
TYPES OF WRITING

REFLECTIVE WRITING

  • Offers the writer’s ideas about and reactions to a work or a concept.

REFLECTIVE EXAMPLES

  • By overcoming great obstacles, a young person may acquire greater maturity. In a reflective essay, tell what struggles you have experienced that have caused you to grow in character
  • The poet Karle Wilson Baker once said, “Courage is fear that has said its prayers.” Write a reflective essay about what this means to you, and talk about what you see as true courage.
  • Think about a public figure who trouble or intrigues you. What qualities does this person have that you admire or find objectionable? Write a reflective essay about your judgment and how it relates to your ideas about how a person should behave.
  • Confucius once said: “Choose a job you love, and you will never have to work a day in your life.” Respond to this statement in a reflective essay.
  • Think about the last poem, story or book that you read. What was the greatest lesson or impression you received? Write your experience in a reflective essay.
writing1
WRITING
  • Address the Prompt
    • Make sure you answer the question/ task
  • Write to the requested MODE … Type of Writing
    • NO POEMS!!!
  • Develop your ideas thoroughly
    • Better to have fewer WELL developed ideas than lists
  • Organize your ideas
    • OBVIOUS paragraphs… at least four… five is better
  • Stay focused on your PURPOSE for writing
  • Make your writing thoughtful and interesting
    • Figurative language, REAL insight, syntax, diction, etc.
  • Use correct spelling, capitalization, punctuation, grammar, usage, and sentence structure.
    • PROOFREAD!!!
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