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Exam # 1 Friday, 24 February Individual Classrooms. Early Ideas About Matter. Motion - Matter. Gravity universal property of all matter strength of attraction is function of mass, regardless of material Fundamental property to distinguish different types of matter -- ? --.

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motion matter
Motion - Matter
  • Gravity
    • universal property of all matter
    • strength of attraction is function of mass, regardless of material
  • Fundamental property to distinguish different types of matter

-- ? --

structure nature of matter changes when
Structure & nature of matter changes when:
  • Wood burned
  • Foods cooked
  • Clays fired to make bricks and pottery
  • Metals smelted
slide6

Gold

Silver

Copper

“Seven Metals of the Ancients”

Iron

Mercury

Lead

Tin

metal shiny malleable
Metal (shiny, malleable)
  • Gold
  • Silver
  • Copper
  • Iron
  • Mercury
  • Lead
  • Tin
metal shiny malleable1
Metal (shiny, malleable)
  • Gold
  • Silver
  • Copper
  • Iron
  • Mercury
  • Lead
  • Tin
metal shiny malleable2
Metal (shiny, malleable)
  • Gold
  • Silver
  • Copper
  • Iron
  • Mercury
  • Lead
  • Tin
metal shiny malleable3
Metal (shiny, malleable)
  • Gold
  • Silver
  • Copper
  • Iron
  • Mercury
  • Lead
  • Tin
where do metals come from
Where do metals come from?
  • A few metals occur naturally in metallic form - Gold and silver deposits were found in ancient times
where do metals come from1
Where do metals come from?
  • Most metals occur in ores
    • Ores are more like earths (dull, brittle) than like metals

Iron ore Lead ore

smelting metals from their ores
Smelting metals from their ores
  • Ores must be processed to yield pure metals
  • Only a small percentage of metal yielded

• copper ore and modern man’s inept attempt at smelting

alloys
Alloys
  • Combination of metals
  • Better properties
    • Lower melting point
    • Stronger, less brittle
  • Example: Bronze
    • Alloy of copper and tin
stone age
Stone Age

~ stone tool manufacture, no use of metals

copper age 4500 bc
Copper Age (4500 BC)

~ first metal smelted

bronze age 3500 bc
Bronze Age (3500 BC)

~ tin/copper alloy

~ copper & tin deposits only in certain areas

~ strong easily worked

iron age 1500 bc on
Iron Age (1500 BC on)

~ found all over

~ can be sharpened; hard and tough

~ difficult to work

~ required hot furnace & special techniques

earths not shiny brittle
Earths (not shiny, brittle
  • Clay
  • Mud
  • Sand
  • Silt
  • Loam
  • Ash
pottery
Pottery
  • Fired clay
    • from 6500 BC?
  • Certain clays used
    • at certain temperature
    • for certain times
  • Patterned, pigmented
glass
Glass
  • Melted sand
  • Certain sands used
  • High temperatures
  • Blown, molded
  • Earths, metals added 

color, strength

Ancient Roman glass jug

stone hard brittle
Stone (hard, brittle)
  • Limestone
  • Marble
  • Sandstone
  • Shale
  • Granite
  • Soapstone
woods
Woods
  • Oak
  • Maple
  • Cedar
  • Mahogany
  • Ebony
  • Yew
fibers
Fibers
  • Grass
  • Cotton
  • Flax
  • Straw
  • Bulrushes
  • Hair
other crafts practiced since early times
Other crafts practiced since early times
  • Pigments
  • Dyes
  • Perfumes
  • Fermenting drinks
  • Tanning
  • Cooking
early chemical technology
Early Chemical Technology
  • Ancient peoples distinguished many different materials
  • Engineers and artisans had developed many material technologies
  • These technologies were applied to specific materials for specific purposes
unification
Unification
  • Huge diversity
  • Fundamental principles exist?
  • Which properties important?
  • Categorization
one classification of matter phases
One Classification of Matter: Phases
  • Bottle A:

GAS

  • Bottle B:

LIQUID

  • Bottle C:

SOLID

slide35

Atoms Combine to Form Molecules

  • Most materials are made of more than one type of atom
  • Chemical formula gives atomic makeup
    • Water is H2O
    • Ammonia is NH3
    • Glucose is C6H12O6
slide37

What Determines Chemical Properties of Each Element?

  • Usually, # of protons = # of electrons
  • Electrons tend to fill shells surrounding nucleus
  • Outer shell stability
slide38

Chemical Reactions Rearrange Atoms

  • Number of atoms does not change
    • Reactants have same atoms as products
  • Only arrangement of atoms change
    • Different molecules after reaction
  • Methane + oxygen gas  carbon dioxide + water
    • CH4 + 2O2 CO2 + 2H2O
    • One carbon, two oxygen, four hydrogen (before & after)
slide39
What is the true nature of a substance?
  • Does one basic material exist?
thales 640 546 b c
Thales(640 – 546 B.C.)
  • Basic element is water
  • In greatest quantities
  • Found as solid, liquid, and gas
nature of matter one basic substance
Nature of matter: One basic substance

Anaximander

All matter from one “boundless something” that contained all qualities (wet/dry; hot/cold)

nature of matter one basic substance1
Nature of matter: One basic substance
  • Anaximenes
  • (570 BC)
  • - Airis the one basic substance
  • - All space above Earth is air.
  • Compress air to form denser
  • water and earth
hericlitus 540 475 b c
Hericlitus (540 – 475 B.C.)
  • If change characterized the Earth . . .
  • Basic element must be changeable
  • That element must be fire
slide45

Each different kind of matter is a combination of two or more elements in particular proportions, for example …

Wood reveals its composition when it burns:

  • fire issues from it
  • water oozes from it/hisses
  • air (smoke) is produced from it
  • earth (ashes) remain behind
four elements four qualities of the ancient greeks
Four Elements / Four Qualities of the Ancient Greeks
  • Elements had four qualities:

Dry vs. Moist & Hot vs. Cold

  • Qualities combined in various pairs to form the different elemental components of the Earth
slide47

Individual Elements

Statue

Matter • 4 elements

Matter • marble

Form • specific combination of elements

Form • shape

slide48

Individual Elements

Form •qualities

Ultimate Matter •prima materia

one element to another element
One element to another element
  • Change qualities

= change 1 element into another element

Elements themselves were interchangeable:

Water  air when it evaporates

(wet-cold  wet-hot)

Air  water when it rains

(wet-hot  wet-cold)

four elements and alchemy
Four elements and alchemy
  • Aristotle’s four element theory was to exert a considerable influence on the practice of alchemy and the idea of transmutation
transmutations
Transmutations
  • Alter proportions of elements =

change one type or matter into another.

Idea carries over into alchemy:

Transmute a cheap metal into gold by

adjusting proportions of the four elements

greek atoms
Greek “Atoms”
  • Question of divisibility of matter
  • Break a stone and it is still a stone
  • Leucippus (c. 450 B.C.) eventually no further division
democritus 470 380 b c
Democritus (470 – 380 B.C.)
  • Atomos – indivisible – move in empty space (void)
  • One fundamental material
  • Many different sizes and shapes gave different properties to elements
  • Aristotle wins – atomist idea died out
beginnings of alchemy
Beginnings of Alchemy
  • Emphasis on degrees of purity/nobility

~ Gold most pure and noble

~ “Maturation” of minerals in ground

  • Incorporated Aristotle’s four elements
  • Greek Philosophy – Egyptian craftsman
transmutation as goal of alchemy wealth longevity immortality
Transmutation as goal of Alchemy(wealth – longevity – immortality)
  • Chemical

~ transform base metals  silver / gold

  • Physiological

~ Sickness  Health

~ Old-age  Youth

~ Earthly  Supernatural Existence

the alchemical tradition
The Alchemical Tradition
  • Origins:

~ Greece (Hellenistic)

~ China

~ India

  • Further developed by Arabs
  • Inherited by medieval Europeans
  • Part practical chemistry, part spiritual quest
hellenistic alchemy
Hellenistic Alchemy
  • Transmutation of base metals to gold
  • Spiritual Purification

Hermes Trigmegistus

eastern chinese alchemy
Eastern/Chinese Alchemy
  • Independent of (and prior to?) Western alchemy
  • Gold is eternal and healing, led to medical alchemy:
  • Search for the “Elixir of Life,”
  • Soluble “potable gold” (400 BC) a potion for eternal life
indian alchemy
Indian Alchemy
  • Mineral remedies for specific diseases
  • Promote long life (not immortality)
arab islamic alchemy
Arab/Islamic Alchemy
  • Arabic alchemists – add mercury and sulfur
  • Used “al-iksurs” (colored “seed” catalysts) in transmutation attempts.
  • Arabic alchemists – philosopher’s stone to stimulate transmutation
  • Combustible principle = phlogiston theory
importance of medicine
Importance of Medicine
  • Problems: crowded, unsanitary, infested homes; contaminated food/water; low life expectancy.
  • Physicians in medieval Europe

- Most followed ideas of Hippocrates (460- 370 BC) and Galen (129-200 AD).

- Disease = imbalance in 4 body humours.

  • Inorganic substances and alcohol could fight infection, but not favored by Galenists.
ibn sina avicenna 980 1037
Ibn-Sina/Avicenna ( 980-1037)
  • Greatest physician of his time
  • Believed in Four Elements but not transmutation.
  • Contributions:

~ dosage effect of drugs

~ Had idea that chemicals maintain identity even when combined

paracelsus 1493 1541
Paracelsus (1493 – 1541)
  • At odds with the dominant medical establishment
  • Disease spread between persons (external cause?) contrary to Galen’s ideas
  • Founded Iatrochemistry (Alchemy for medicinal purposes)
  • Iatrochemist’s legacy – legitimacy of chemistry
paracelsus idea of elements and principles
Paracelsus’ idea of elements and principles
  • Three Elements (Fire, Air, Water) andThree Principles of Earth (sulfur, mercury, and salt)
  • Wood burning: “That which burns is sulfur, that which vaporizes is mercury, and that which turns to ashes is salt.”
accomplishments of alchemy
Accomplishments of Alchemy
  • Laboratory apparatus
  • Practical chemical knowledge, techniques, and reactions despite incorrect theories
  • Quantitative methods
  • New substances
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