Exam 1 friday 24 february individual classrooms
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Exam # 1 Friday, 24 February Individual Classrooms. Early Ideas About Matter. Motion - Matter. Gravity universal property of all matter strength of attraction is function of mass, regardless of material Fundamental property to distinguish different types of matter -- ? --.

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Exam 1 friday 24 february individual classrooms

Exam # 1Friday, 24 FebruaryIndividual Classrooms


Early ideas about matter

Early Ideas About Matter


Motion matter

Motion - Matter

  • Gravity

    • universal property of all matter

    • strength of attraction is function of mass, regardless of material

  • Fundamental property to distinguish different types of matter

    -- ? --


Structure nature of matter changes when

Structure & nature of matter changes when:

  • Wood burned

  • Foods cooked

  • Clays fired to make bricks and pottery

  • Metals smelted


What types of matter were ancient people aware of

What types of Matter were ancient people aware of?


Exam 1 friday 24 february individual classrooms

Gold

Silver

Copper

“Seven Metals of the Ancients”

Iron

Mercury

Lead

Tin


Metal shiny malleable

Metal (shiny, malleable)

  • Gold

  • Silver

  • Copper

  • Iron

  • Mercury

  • Lead

  • Tin


Metal shiny malleable1

Metal (shiny, malleable)

  • Gold

  • Silver

  • Copper

  • Iron

  • Mercury

  • Lead

  • Tin


Metal shiny malleable2

Metal (shiny, malleable)

  • Gold

  • Silver

  • Copper

  • Iron

  • Mercury

  • Lead

  • Tin


Metal shiny malleable3

Metal (shiny, malleable)

  • Gold

  • Silver

  • Copper

  • Iron

  • Mercury

  • Lead

  • Tin


Where do metals come from

Where do metals come from?

  • A few metals occur naturally in metallic form - Gold and silver deposits were found in ancient times


Where do metals come from1

Where do metals come from?

  • Most metals occur in ores

    • Ores are more like earths (dull, brittle) than like metals

Iron ore Lead ore


Smelting metals from their ores

Smelting metals from their ores

  • Ores must be processed to yield pure metals

  • Only a small percentage of metal yielded

• copper ore and modern man’s inept attempt at smelting


Alloys

Alloys

  • Combination of metals

  • Better properties

    • Lower melting point

    • Stronger, less brittle

  • Example: Bronze

    • Alloy of copper and tin


Stone age

Stone Age

~ stone tool manufacture, no use of metals


Copper age 4500 bc

Copper Age (4500 BC)

~ first metal smelted


Bronze age 3500 bc

Bronze Age (3500 BC)

~ tin/copper alloy

~ copper & tin deposits only in certain areas

~ strong easily worked


Iron age 1500 bc on

Iron Age (1500 BC on)

~ found all over

~ can be sharpened; hard and tough

~ difficult to work

~ required hot furnace & special techniques


Iron furnace

Iron Furnace


Earths not shiny brittle

Earths (not shiny, brittle

  • Clay

  • Mud

  • Sand

  • Silt

  • Loam

  • Ash


Pottery

Pottery

  • Fired clay

    • from 6500 BC?

  • Certain clays used

    • at certain temperature

    • for certain times

  • Patterned, pigmented


Glass

Glass

  • Melted sand

  • Certain sands used

  • High temperatures

  • Blown, molded

  • Earths, metals added 

    color, strength

Ancient Roman glass jug


Stone hard brittle

Stone (hard, brittle)

  • Limestone

  • Marble

  • Sandstone

  • Shale

  • Granite

  • Soapstone


Woods

Woods

  • Oak

  • Maple

  • Cedar

  • Mahogany

  • Ebony

  • Yew


Ivory bone and horn

Ivory, bone, and horn


Fibers

Fibers

  • Grass

  • Cotton

  • Flax

  • Straw

  • Bulrushes

  • Hair


Papyrus

Papyrus


Other crafts practiced since early times

Other crafts practiced since early times

  • Pigments

  • Dyes

  • Perfumes

  • Fermenting drinks

  • Tanning

  • Cooking


Early chemical technology

Early Chemical Technology

  • Ancient peoples distinguished many different materials

  • Engineers and artisans had developed many material technologies

  • These technologies were applied to specific materials for specific purposes


Unification

Unification

  • Huge diversity

  • Fundamental principles exist?

  • Which properties important?

  • Categorization


What do we know now

What do we know now?


One classification of matter phases

One Classification of Matter: Phases

  • Bottle A:

    GAS

  • Bottle B:

    LIQUID

  • Bottle C:

    SOLID


Exam 1 friday 24 february individual classrooms

Another Classification Scheme for Matter


Exam 1 friday 24 february individual classrooms

Everything is Made of Atoms


Exam 1 friday 24 february individual classrooms

Atoms Combine to Form Molecules

  • Most materials are made of more than one type of atom

  • Chemical formula gives atomic makeup

    • Water is H2O

    • Ammonia is NH3

    • Glucose is C6H12O6


Exam 1 friday 24 february individual classrooms

Each Element Has a Different Number of Protons


Exam 1 friday 24 february individual classrooms

What Determines Chemical Properties of Each Element?

  • Usually, # of protons = # of electrons

  • Electrons tend to fill shells surrounding nucleus

  • Outer shell stability


Exam 1 friday 24 february individual classrooms

Chemical Reactions Rearrange Atoms

  • Number of atoms does not change

    • Reactants have same atoms as products

  • Only arrangement of atoms change

    • Different molecules after reaction

  • Methane + oxygen gas  carbon dioxide + water

    • CH4 + 2O2 CO2 + 2H2O

    • One carbon, two oxygen, four hydrogen (before & after)


Exam 1 friday 24 february individual classrooms

  • What is the true nature of a substance?

  • Does one basic material exist?


Thales 640 546 b c

Thales(640 – 546 B.C.)

  • Basic element is water

  • In greatest quantities

  • Found as solid, liquid, and gas


Nature of matter one basic substance

Nature of matter: One basic substance

Anaximander

All matter from one “boundless something” that contained all qualities (wet/dry; hot/cold)


Nature of matter one basic substance1

Nature of matter: One basic substance

  • Anaximenes

  • (570 BC)

  • - Airis the one basic substance

  • - All space above Earth is air.

  • Compress air to form denser

  • water and earth


Hericlitus 540 475 b c

Hericlitus (540 – 475 B.C.)

  • If change characterized the Earth . . .

  • Basic element must be changeable

  • That element must be fire


Empedocles 490 430 bc

Empedocles (490 – 430 BC)


Exam 1 friday 24 february individual classrooms

Each different kind of matter is a combination of two or more elements in particular proportions, for example …

Wood reveals its composition when it burns:

  • fire issues from it

  • water oozes from it/hisses

  • air (smoke) is produced from it

  • earth (ashes) remain behind


Four elements four qualities of the ancient greeks

Four Elements / Four Qualities of the Ancient Greeks

  • Elements had four qualities:

    Dry vs. Moist & Hot vs. Cold

  • Qualities combined in various pairs to form the different elemental components of the Earth


Exam 1 friday 24 february individual classrooms

Individual Elements

Statue

Matter • 4 elements

Matter • marble

Form • specific combination of elements

Form • shape


Exam 1 friday 24 february individual classrooms

Individual Elements

Form •qualities

Ultimate Matter •prima materia


One element to another element

One element to another element

  • Change qualities

    = change 1 element into another element

    Elements themselves were interchangeable:

    Water  air when it evaporates

    (wet-cold  wet-hot)

    Air  water when it rains

    (wet-hot  wet-cold)


Four elements and alchemy

Four elements and alchemy

  • Aristotle’s four element theory was to exert a considerable influence on the practice of alchemy and the idea of transmutation


Transmutations

Transmutations

  • Alter proportions of elements =

    change one type or matter into another.

    Idea carries over into alchemy:

    Transmute a cheap metal into gold by

    adjusting proportions of the four elements


Greek atoms

Greek “Atoms”

  • Question of divisibility of matter

  • Break a stone and it is still a stone

  • Leucippus (c. 450 B.C.) eventually no further division


Democritus 470 380 b c

Democritus (470 – 380 B.C.)

  • Atomos – indivisible – move in empty space (void)

  • One fundamental material

  • Many different sizes and shapes gave different properties to elements

  • Aristotle wins – atomist idea died out


Alexander the great 356 323 b c

Alexander the Great (356 – 323 B.C.)


Early laboratory chemistry alchemy

Early Laboratory Chemistry = Alchemy

Sorcerer's Apprentice


Beginnings of alchemy

Beginnings of Alchemy

  • Emphasis on degrees of purity/nobility

    ~ Gold most pure and noble

    ~ “Maturation” of minerals in ground

  • Incorporated Aristotle’s four elements

  • Greek Philosophy – Egyptian craftsman


Transmutation as goal of alchemy wealth longevity immortality

Transmutation as goal of Alchemy(wealth – longevity – immortality)

  • Chemical

    ~ transform base metals  silver / gold

  • Physiological

    ~ Sickness  Health

    ~ Old-age  Youth

    ~ Earthly  Supernatural Existence


The alchemical tradition

The Alchemical Tradition

  • Origins:

    ~ Greece (Hellenistic)

    ~ China

    ~ India

  • Further developed by Arabs

  • Inherited by medieval Europeans

  • Part practical chemistry, part spiritual quest


Hellenistic alchemy

Hellenistic Alchemy

  • Transmutation of base metals to gold

  • Spiritual Purification

Hermes Trigmegistus


Eastern chinese alchemy

Eastern/Chinese Alchemy

  • Independent of (and prior to?) Western alchemy

  • Gold is eternal and healing, led to medical alchemy:

  • Search for the “Elixir of Life,”

  • Soluble “potable gold” (400 BC) a potion for eternal life


Indian alchemy

Indian Alchemy

  • Mineral remedies for specific diseases

  • Promote long life (not immortality)


Arab islamic alchemy

Arab/Islamic Alchemy

  • Arabic alchemists – add mercury and sulfur

  • Used “al-iksurs” (colored “seed” catalysts) in transmutation attempts.

  • Arabic alchemists – philosopher’s stone to stimulate transmutation

  • Combustible principle = phlogiston theory


Importance of medicine

Importance of Medicine

  • Problems: crowded, unsanitary, infested homes; contaminated food/water; low life expectancy.

  • Physicians in medieval Europe

    - Most followed ideas of Hippocrates (460-370 BC) and Galen (129-200 AD).

    - Disease = imbalance in 4 body humours.

  • Inorganic substances and alcohol could fight infection, but not favored by Galenists.


Ibn sina avicenna 980 1037

Ibn-Sina/Avicenna ( 980-1037)

  • Greatest physician of his time

  • Believed in Four Elements but not transmutation.

  • Contributions:

    ~ dosage effect of drugs

    ~ Had idea that chemicals maintain identity even when combined


Paracelsus 1493 1541

Paracelsus (1493 – 1541)

  • At odds with the dominant medical establishment

  • Disease spread between persons (external cause?) contrary to Galen’s ideas

  • Founded Iatrochemistry (Alchemy for medicinal purposes)

  • Iatrochemist’s legacy – legitimacy of chemistry


Paracelsus idea of elements and principles

Paracelsus’ idea of elements and principles

  • Three Elements (Fire, Air, Water) andThree Principles of Earth (sulfur, mercury, and salt)

  • Wood burning: “That which burns is sulfur, that which vaporizes is mercury, and that which turns to ashes is salt.”


Gold e lixirs immortality superior medicines

Gold ElixirsImmortality Superior Medicines


Accomplishments of alchemy

Accomplishments of Alchemy

  • Laboratory apparatus

  • Practical chemical knowledge, techniques, and reactions despite incorrect theories

  • Quantitative methods

  • New substances


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