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Obesity. India S. Sharp, BSN, RN November 02, 2013. Objectives. Provide knowledge of the pathophysiology, epidemiology, symptoms, & non-pharmacological treatments. Obesity. Obesity is a label for ranges of weight that are greater than what is considered healthy for a given height .

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Obesity

Obesity

India S.Sharp, BSN, RN

November 02, 2013


Objectives
Objectives

  • Provide knowledge of the pathophysiology, epidemiology, symptoms, & non-pharmacological treatments


Obesity1
Obesity

  • Obesity is a label for ranges of weight that are greater than what is considered healthy for a given height.

  • Obesity is having an excessive amount of body fat. It increases risk of disease and health problems such as Type 2 Diabetes, Coronary artery disease (CAD), hypertension, stroke, gallbladder disease, cancer, osteoarthritis, and hyperlipidemia. Weight loss can reduce these risks by 10%.

  • Obesity is a chronic relapsing disease needing management in other disease such as diabetes and hypertension with physical, psychological, and social consequences.

  • Abdominal obesity, rather than body fat, can be a useful indicator of cardiovascular and cancer related outcomes. Measuring abdominal obesity includes waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio.


Epidemiology
Epidemiology

  • More than one-third (35.7%) of the adults in the United States are obese in 2009-2010.

  • Obesity effects all groups in society, irrespective of age, sex, race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, educational level, and geographic group.

  • Adults over the age of 60 were more likely to be obese than younger adults.



Pathophysiology
Pathophysiology

Hypertophic versus Hypercellular obesity

  • Hypertrophic obesity usually starts in adulthood and responds to weight reduction measures.

  • Hypercellulary obesity typically occurs in persons who develop obesity in childhood or adolescence. Hypercellular obesity may find it difficult to lose weight without surgical intervention.



Etiology
Etiology

  • Obesity is the imbalance between energy intake (Eating too much) and energy output (not exercising or too little).


Predisposing factors
Predisposing Factors

Predisposing Factors

  • Metabolic factors (Leptin levels)

  • Genetic factors (Family history of obesity)

  • Level of activity (Lack of exercise/sedentary lifestyle, Television (TV), computer, and hand-held game use more than 3 hours/day, and increase leisure time)

  • Endocrine factors

  • Race, sex, and age factors

  • Ethnic and cultural factors (Ethic background: African American, Hispanic)

  • Socioeconomic status

  • Smoking Cessation

  • Pregnancy and menopause

  • Psychological factors

  • History of gestational diabetes

  • Lactation history in mothers

  • Dietary habits (consuming too many calories/high fat diet, Poor dietary choices, and/or Readily available food sources, especially fast foods)


Common complaints signs and symptoms
Common Complaints/Signs and Symptoms

Common Complaints/Signs and Symptoms

  • Difficulty performing routine daily activities, including hygiene.

  • Inability or lack of interest in exercising

  • Shortness of breath and/or asthma exacerbation

  • Incontinence

  • Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA)

  • Infertility/polycystic ovarian syndrome

  • Symptoms of cholelithiasis (heartburn, indigestion, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, headaches, light or chalky colored stool, and dark urine)

  • Hypertension


Treatment non medical
Treatment Non-Medical

  • Diet changes

    • Low calorie

    • Increase fruits and vegetables

    • Eliminate alcohol and sugar-containing beverages

    • Reduce intake of sweets and sugars

    • Reduce fat intake

    • Reduce portion sizes

    • Increase water intake

  • Exercise (Increase activity as tolerated)

    • Encourage getting up for 10 minutes each hour

    • Start off with just walking as tolerated


Specialist
Specialist

  • Dietitian

  • Psychologist consultation



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