Introduction to Comparative Genomics
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Introduction to Comparative Genomics. Dave Ussery Biological Sequence Analysis DTU course # 27803 15 April, 2005. Outline. What is a genome?. Φ X174. gagttttatc gcttccatga cgcagaagtt aacactttcg gatatttctg atgagtcgaa aaattatctt gataaagcag gaattactac tgcttgttta

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Introduction to Comparative Genomics

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Introduction to comparative genomics

Introduction to Comparative Genomics

Dave Ussery

Biological Sequence Analysis

DTU course # 27803

15 April, 2005


Introduction to comparative genomics

Outline


Introduction to comparative genomics

What is a genome?


Introduction to comparative genomics

ΦX174

gagttttatc gcttccatga cgcagaagtt aacactttcg gatatttctg atgagtcgaa aaattatctt gataaagcag gaattactac tgcttgttta

cgaattaaat cgaagtggac tgctggcgga aaatgagaaa attcgaccta tccttgcgca gctcgagaag ctcttacttt gcgacctttc gccatcaact

aacgattctg tcaaaaactg acgcgttgga tgaggagaag tggcttaata tgcttggcac gttcgtcaag gactggttta gatatgagtc acattttgtt catggtagag attctcttgt tgacatttta aaagagcgtg gattactatc tgagtccgat gctgttcaac cactaatagg taagaaatca tgagtcaagt tactgaacaa tccgtacgtt tccagaccgc tttggcctct attaagctca ttcaggcttc tgccgttttg gatttaaccg aagatgattt cgattttctg acgagtaaca aagtttggat tgctactgac cgctctcgtg ctcgtcgctg cgttgaggct tgcgtttatg gtacgctgga ctttgtggga taccctcgct ttcctgctcc tgttgagttt attgctgccg tcattgctta ttatgttcat cccgtcaaca ttcaaacggc ctgtctcatc atggaaggcg ctgaatttac ggaaaacatt attaatggcg tcgagcgtcc ggttaaagcc gctgaattgt tcgcgtttac cttgcgtgta cgcgcaggaa acactgacgt tcttactgac gcagaagaaa acgtgcgtca aaaattacgt gcggaaggag tgatgtaatg tctaaaggta aaaaacgttc tggcgctcgc cctggtcgtc cgcagccgtt gcgaggtact aaaggcaagc gtaaaggcgc tcgtctttgg tatgtaggtg gtcaacaatt ttaattgcag gggcttcggc cccttacttg aggataaatt atgtctaata ttcaaactgg cgccgagcgt atgccgcatg acctttccca tcttggcttc cttgctggtc agattggtcg tcttattacc atttcaacta ctccggttat cgctggcgac tccttcgaga tggacgccgt tggcgctctc cgtctttctc cattgcgtcg tggccttgct attgactcta ctgtagacat ttttactttt tatgtccctc atcgtcacgt ttatggtgaa cagtggatta agttcatgaa ggatggtgtt aatgccactc ctctcccgac tgttaacact actggttata ttgaccatgc cgcttttctt ggcacgatta accctgatac caataaaatc cctaagcatt tgtttcaggg ttatttgaat atctataaca actattttaa agcgccgtgg atgcctgacc gtaccgaggc taaccctaat gagcttaatc aagatgatgc tcgttatggt ttccgttgct gccatctcaa aaacatttgg actgctccgc ttcctcctga gactgagctt tctcgccaaa tgacgacttc taccacatct attgacatta tgggtctgca agctgcttat gctaatttgc atactgacca agaacgtgat tacttcatgc agcgttacca tgatgttatt tcttcatttg gaggtaaaac ctcttatgac gctgacaacc gtcctttact tgtcatgcgc tctaatctct gggcatctgg ctatgatgtt gatggaactg accaaacgtc gttaggccag ttttctggtc gtgttcaaca gacctataaa cattctgtgc cgcgtttctt tgttcctgag catggcacta tgtttactct tgcgcttgtt cgttttccgc ctactgcgac taaagagatt cagtacctta acgctaaagg tgctttgact tataccgata ttgctggcga ccctgttttg tatggcaact tgccgccgcg tgaaatttct atgaaggatg ttttccgttc tggtgattcg tctaagaagt ttaagattgc tgagggtcag tggtatcgtt atgcgccttc gtatgtttct cctgcttatc accttcttga aggcttccca ttcattcagg aaccgccttc tggtgatttg caagaacgcg tacttattcg ccaccatgat tatgaccagt gtttccagtc cgttcagttg ttgcagtgga atagtcaggt taaatttaat gtgaccgttt atcgcaatct gccgaccact cgcgattcaa tcatgacttc gtgataaaag attgagtgtg aggttataac gccgaagcgg taaaaatttt aatttttgcc gctgaggggt tgaccaagcg aagcgcggta ggttttctgc ttaggagttt aatcatgttt cagactttta tttctcgcca taattcaaac tttttttctg ataagctggt tctcacttct gttactccag cttcttcggc acctgtttta cagacaccta aagctacatc gtcaacgtta tattttgata gtttgacggt taatgctggt aatggtggtt ttcttcattg cattcagatg gatacatctg tcaacgccgc taatcaggtt gtttctgttg gtgctgatat tgcttttgat gccgacccta aattttttgc ctgtttggtt cgctttgagt cttcttcggt tccgactacc ctcccgactg cctatgatgt ttatcctttg aatggtcgcc atgatggtgg ttattatacc gtcaaggact gtgtgactat tgacgtcctt ccccgtacgc cgggcaataa cgtttatgtt ggtttcatgg tttggtctaa ctttaccgct actaaatgcc gcggattggt ttcgctgaat aagagattat ttgtctccag ccacttaagt gaggtgattt atgtttggtg ctattgctgg cggtattgct tctgctcttg ctggtggcgc catgtctaaa ttgtttggag gcggtcaaaa agccgcctcc ggtggcattc aaggtgatgt gcttgctacc gataacaata ctgtaggcat gggtgatgct ggtattaaat ctgccattca aggctctaat gttcctaacc ctgatgaggc cgcccctagt tttgtttctg gtgctatggc taaagctggt aaaggacttc ttgaaggtac gttgcaggct ggcacttctg ccgtttctga taagttgctt gatttggttg gacttggtgg caagtctgcc gctgataaag gaaaggatac tcgtgattat cttgctgctg catttcctga gcttaatgct tgggagcgtg ctggtgctga tgcttcctct gctggtatgg ttgacgccgg atttgagaat caaaaagagc ttactaaaat gcaactggac aatcagaaag agattgccga gatgcaaaat gagactcaaa aagagattgc tggcattcag tcggcgactt cacgccagaa tacgaaagac caggtatatg cacaaaatga gatgcttgct tatcaacaga aggagtctac tgctcgcgtt gcgtctatta tggaaaacac caatctttcc aagcaacagc aggtttccga gattatgcgc caaatgctta ctcaagctca aacggctggt cagtatttta ccaatgacca aatcaaagaa atgactcgca aggttagtgc tgaggttgac ttagttcatc agcaaacgca gaatcagcgg tatggctctt ctcatattgg cgctactgca aaggatattt ctaatgtcgt cactgatgct gcttctggtg tggttgatat ttttcatggt attgataaag ctgttgccga tacttggaac aatttctgga aagacggtaa agctgatggt attggctcta atttgtctag gaaataaccg tcaggattga caccctccca attgtatgtt ttcatgcctc caaatcttgg aggctttttt atggttcgtt cttattaccc ttctgaatgt cacgctgatt attttgactt tgagcgtatc gaggctctta aacctgctat tgaggcttgt ggcatttcta ctctttctca atccccaatg cttggcttcc ataagcagat ggataaccgc atcaagctct tggaagagat tctgtctttt cgtatgcagg gcgttgagtt cgataatggt gatatgtatg ttgacggcca taaggctgct tctgacgttc gtgatgagtt tgtatctgtt actgagaagt taatggatga attggcacaa tgctacaatg tgctccccca acttgatatt aataacacta tagaccaccg ccccgaaggg gacgaaaaat ggtttttaga gaacgagaag acggttacgc agttttgccg caagctggct gctgaacgcc ctcttaagga tattcgcgat gagtataatt accccaaaaa gaaaggtatt aaggatgagt gttcaagatt gctggaggcc tccactatga aatcgcgtag aggctttgct attcagcgtt tgatgaatgc aatgcgacag gctcatgctg atggttggtt tatcgttttt gacactctca cgttggctga cgaccgatta gaggcgtttt atgataatcc caatgctttg cgtgactatt ttcgtgatat tggtcgtatg gttcttgctg ccgagggtcg caaggctaat gattcacacg ccgactgcta tcagtatttt tgtgtgcctg agtatggtac agctaatggc cgtcttcatt tccatgcggt gcactttatg cggacacttc ctacaggtag cgttgaccct aattttggtc gtcgggtacg caatcgccgc cagttaaata gcttgcaaaa tacgtggcct tatggttaca gtatgcccat cgcagttcgc tacacgcagg acgctttttc acgttctggt tggttgtggc ctgttgatgc taaaggtgag ccgcttaaag ctaccagtta tatggctgtt ggtttctatg tggctaaata cgttaacaaa aagtcagata tggaccttgc tgctaaaggt ctaggagcta aagaatggaa caactcacta aaaaccaagc tgtcgctact tcccaagaag ctgttcagaa tcagaatgag ccgcaacttc gggatgaaaa tgctcacaat gacaaatctg tccacggagt gcttaatcca acttaccaag ctgggttacg acgcgacgcc gttcaaccag atattgaagc agaacgcaaa aagagagatg agattgaggc tgggaaaagt tactgtagcc gacgttttgg cggcgcaacc tgtgacgaca aatctgctca aatttatgcg cgcttcgata aaaatgattg gcgtatccaa cctgca


Introduction to comparative genomics

The Human Genome Project

Started ~1985

The U.S. government agreed to invest $200,000,000 U.S. per year for 20 years.

~3,400,000,000 bp per haploid genome

~6,800,000,000 bp per haploid genome

One base per second = 216 years!


Introduction to comparative genomics

+ chimp, chicken, dog, mouse, pig, rat...


Introduction to comparative genomics

~3,400,000 bp per haploid genome

~6,800,000 bp per haploid genome

Discussion questions:

Why is the human genome not finished yet?

Why is the human genome so large?

One base per second = 216 years!

~2% or less codes for proteins.


Introduction to comparative genomics

HUMANS

Aristotle’s

ladder of

complexity

mammals

birds

reptiles

fish

insects

jelly

fish

higher plants

lower plants

minerals


Introduction to comparative genomics

The “C-value paradox”

The genome size of an organism is defined as the amount of haploid DNA in a genomic set (e.g., an egg or sperm nucleus). This is also referred to as the "C-value"; the "C" means "constant" or "characteristic", since the size of a genome is usually constant for a given species.

The large difference in genome sizes without any seeming relation to an organism’s complexity, is called the C-value paradox.


Introduction to comparative genomics

90%

50%

2%

<1%

What does all this DNA do?


Introduction to comparative genomics

DNA repeats

The approximate size and characteristics of genomes was characterised in the 1960s, in a classic study of the kinetics of DNA reassociation by Britten and Kohne (1968). 

They found that the DNA could be divided into four fractions:

1. foldback DNA

2. highly repetitive DNA

3. middle-repetitive DNA

4. single-copy DNA

The repetitive DNA can either be localised to discrete regions,

or dispersed.

Britten,R.J., Kohne,D.E., "Repeated sequences in DNA", Science, 161:529-540, (1968). 


Introduction to comparative genomics

Highly repetitive DNA

Dispersed - e.g., Alu family

• about 300 bp long

• 500,000 copies in humans

• (about 5% of the human genome)

• dispersed throughout the chromosomes

Localised highly repetitive sequences

• about 2-10 bp long

• present in millions of copies, often in large blocks

• (about 6% of the human genome)

• associated with heterochromatin

• usually very high A+T content


Introduction to comparative genomics

Localised repetitive DNA

Often, satellite DNA consists of long tandem arrays of repeated sequences, all localised to one or a few discrete regions in the chromosomes.  For example, in the kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ordii), more than 50% of the genome consists of three families of repeated sequences:

(AAG)n, where n = ~2.24 x 109

(TTAGGG)n, where n = ~2.2 x 109

(ACACAGCGGG)n, where n = ~1.2 x 109


Introduction to comparative genomics

Middle repetitive DNA

• makes up more than 40% of the human genome

• position varies due to transposable elements

• Includes the following types of sequences:

- Dinucleotide repeats

- microsatellite DNA

- TRInucleotide repeats

- associated with many diseases

- (e.g., Fragile X, muscular distrophy)


Introduction to comparative genomics

What about bacteria?


Introduction to comparative genomics

HUMANS

maize (corn)

rRNA tree


Introduction to comparative genomics

Multi-cellular eukaryotes

Algae

Dinosaurs

Bacterial

ecosystems

Sulfate reducing bacteria

Cambrian

Single-celled eukarotes

Edicaran fauna

Oldest bacteria

fossils

Methanogenic Archaebacteria

4.5 Bya

4.0 Bya

3.5 Bya

3.0 Bya

2.5 Bya

2.0 Bya

1.5 Bya

1.0 Bya

0.5 Bya

today

Oxygen levels rise

Time (Billions of years ago, Bya)

Earth formed (~4.6 Bya)

Oldest rocks


Introduction to comparative genomics

Archaea

4.0 Bya

Bacteria

maize (corn)

Eukaryotic

microbes

HUMANS

~2.0 Bya

4.5 Bya

4.0 Bya

3.5 Bya

3.0 Bya

2.5 Bya

2.0 Bya

1.5 Bya

1.0 Bya

0.5 Bya

today

Oxygen levels rise

Time (Billions of years ago, Bya)

Earth formed (~4.6 Bya)

Oldest rocks


Introduction to comparative genomics

HUMANS

maize (corn)

rRNA tree


Introduction to comparative genomics

2004


Introduction to comparative genomics

Microbiology, 151:632-636 (March, 2005)


Introduction to comparative genomics

Hjælp!

Bacillus cereus, strain ZKCP000001 GenBank, unpublished

Bacillus licheniformis, strain DSM13AE017333 J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol, 7:204–211, 2004

Bacteroides fragilis YCH46AP006841PNAS, 101:14919-14924, (2004).

AP006842

Borrelia burgdorferi, strains JD1 and N40AY696304PNAS, 101:15151-14155, (2004).

(including plasmids)–AY696571

Burkholderia mallei, strain ATCC23344CP000010PNAS, 101:14246-14251, (2004).

CP000011

Burkholderia pseudomalleiBX571965PNAS, 101:14240-14245, (2004).

BX571966

Legionella pneumophila, Philadelphia1AE017354Science, 24 September, 2004, 305:1966-1968

Legionella pneumophila Lens CR628337 Nature Genetics (2004), In the press.

Mannheimia succiniciproducensAE016827Nat. Biotechnol. (2004) In the press.

Methanococcus maripaludis S2BX950229J. Bact. 186:6956-6969, 2004.

Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) AE017282PLoS Biology, 2:1616-1628, 2004.

Nocardia farcinica IFM10152AP006618PNAS, 101:14925-14930, (2004).

–AP006620

Thalassiosira pseudonana AAFD01000000 Science, 306:79-86, (2004).


Introduction to comparative genomics

Kronborg Castle


Introduction to comparative genomics

What is Bioinformatics?


Introduction to comparative genomics

bioinformatics, n.

The science of information and information flow in biological systems, esp. the use of computational methods in genetics and genomics.


Introduction to comparative genomics

What is Biological Information?

Genome -> Transcriptome ->Proteome


Introduction to comparative genomics

The DNA sequence contains information.

But what kind of information?


Introduction to comparative genomics

ΦX174

gagttttatc gcttccatga cgcagaagtt aacactttcg gatatttctg atgagtcgaa aaattatctt gataaagcag gaattactac tgcttgttta cgaattaaat cgaagtggac tgctggcgga aaatgagaaa attcgaccta tccttgcgca gctcgagaag ctcttacttt gcgacctttc gccatcaact aacgattctg tcaaaaactg acgcgttgga tgaggagaag tggcttaata tgcttggcac gttcgtcaag gactggttta gatatgagtc acattttgtt catggtagag attctcttgt tgacatttta aaagagcgtg gattactatc tgagtccgat gctgttcaac cactaatagg taagaaatca tgagtcaagt tactgaacaa tccgtacgtt tccagaccgc tttggcctct attaagctca ttcaggcttc tgccgttttg gatttaaccg aagatgattt cgattttctg acgagtaaca aagtttggat tgctactgac cgctctcgtg ctcgtcgctg cgttgaggct tgcgtttatg gtacgctgga ctttgtggga taccctcgct ttcctgctcc tgttgagttt attgctgccg tcattgctta ttatgttcat cccgtcaaca ttcaaacggc ctgtctcatc atggaaggcg ctgaatttac ggaaaacatt attaatggcg tcgagcgtcc ggttaaagcc gctgaattgt tcgcgtttac cttgcgtgta cgcgcaggaa acactgacgt tcttactgac gcagaagaaa acgtgcgtca aaaattacgt gcggaaggag tgatgtaatg tctaaaggta aaaaacgttc tggcgctcgc cctggtcgtc cgcagccgtt gcgaggtact aaaggcaagc gtaaaggcgc tcgtctttgg tatgtaggtg gtcaacaatt ttaattgcag gggcttcggc cccttacttg aggataaatt atgtctaata ttcaaactgg cgccgagcgt atgccgcatg acctttccca tcttggcttc cttgctggtc agattggtcg tcttattacc atttcaacta ctccggttat cgctggcgac tccttcgaga tggacgccgt tggcgctctc cgtctttctc cattgcgtcg tggccttgct attgactcta ctgtagacat ttttactttt tatgtccctc atcgtcacgt ttatggtgaa cagtggatta agttcatgaa ggatggtgtt aatgccactc ctctcccgac tgttaacact actggttata ttgaccatgc cgcttttctt ggcacgatta accctgatac caataaaatc cctaagcatt tgtttcaggg ttatttgaat atctataaca actattttaa agcgccgtgg atgcctgacc gtaccgaggc taaccctaat gagcttaatc aagatgatgc tcgttatggt ttccgttgct gccatctcaa aaacatttgg actgctccgc ttcctcctga gactgagctt tctcgccaaa tgacgacttc taccacatct attgacatta tgggtctgca agctgcttat gctaatttgc atactgacca agaacgtgat tacttcatgc agcgttacca tgatgttatt tcttcatttg gaggtaaaac ctcttatgac gctgacaacc gtcctttact tgtcatgcgc tctaatctct gggcatctgg ctatgatgtt gatggaactg accaaacgtc gttaggccag ttttctggtc gtgttcaaca gacctataaa cattctgtgc cgcgtttctt tgttcctgag catggcacta tgtttactct tgcgcttgtt cgttttccgc ctactgcgac taaagagatt cagtacctta acgctaaagg tgctttgact tataccgata ttgctggcga ccctgttttg tatggcaact tgccgccgcg tgaaatttct atgaaggatg ttttccgttc tggtgattcg tctaagaagt ttaagattgc tgagggtcag tggtatcgtt atgcgccttc gtatgtttct cctgcttatc accttcttga aggcttccca ttcattcagg aaccgccttc tggtgatttg caagaacgcg tacttattcg ccaccatgat tatgaccagt gtttccagtc cgttcagttg ttgcagtgga atagtcaggt taaatttaat gtgaccgttt atcgcaatct gccgaccact cgcgattcaa tcatgacttc gtgataaaag attgagtgtg aggttataac gccgaagcgg taaaaatttt aatttttgcc gctgaggggt tgaccaagcg aagcgcggta ggttttctgc ttaggagttt aatcatgttt cagactttta tttctcgcca taattcaaac tttttttctg ataagctggt tctcacttct gttactccag cttcttcggc acctgtttta cagacaccta aagctacatc gtcaacgtta tattttgata gtttgacggt taatgctggt aatggtggtt ttcttcattg cattcagatg gatacatctg tcaacgccgc taatcaggtt gtttctgttg gtgctgatat tgcttttgat gccgacccta aattttttgc ctgtttggtt cgctttgagt cttcttcggt tccgactacc ctcccgactg cctatgatgt ttatcctttg aatggtcgcc atgatggtgg ttattatacc gtcaaggact gtgtgactat tgacgtcctt ccccgtacgc cgggcaataa cgtttatgtt ggtttcatgg tttggtctaa ctttaccgct actaaatgcc gcggattggt ttcgctgaat aagagattat ttgtctccag ccacttaagt gaggtgattt atgtttggtg ctattgctgg cggtattgct tctgctcttg ctggtggcgc catgtctaaa ttgtttggag gcggtcaaaa agccgcctcc ggtggcattc aaggtgatgt gcttgctacc gataacaata ctgtaggcat gggtgatgct ggtattaaat ctgccattca aggctctaat gttcctaacc ctgatgaggc cgcccctagt tttgtttctg gtgctatggc taaagctggt aaaggacttc ttgaaggtac gttgcaggct ggcacttctg ccgtttctga taagttgctt gatttggttg gacttggtgg caagtctgcc gctgataaag gaaaggatac tcgtgattat cttgctgctg catttcctga gcttaatgct tgggagcgtg ctggtgctga tgcttcctct gctggtatgg ttgacgccgg atttgagaat caaaaagagc ttactaaaat gcaactggac aatcagaaag agattgccga gatgcaaaat gagactcaaa aagagattgc tggcattcag tcggcgactt cacgccagaa tacgaaagac caggtatatg cacaaaatga gatgcttgct tatcaacaga aggagtctac tgctcgcgtt gcgtctatta tggaaaacac caatctttcc aagcaacagc aggtttccga gattatgcgc caaatgctta ctcaagctca aacggctggt cagtatttta ccaatgacca aatcaaagaa atgactcgca aggttagtgc tgaggttgac ttagttcatc agcaaacgca gaatcagcgg tatggctctt ctcatattgg cgctactgca aaggatattt ctaatgtcgt cactgatgct gcttctggtg tggttgatat ttttcatggt attgataaag ctgttgccga tacttggaac aatttctgga aagacggtaa agctgatggt attggctcta atttgtctag gaaataaccg tcaggattga caccctccca attgtatgtt ttcatgcctc caaatcttgg aggctttttt atggttcgtt cttattaccc ttctgaatgt cacgctgatt attttgactt tgagcgtatc gaggctctta aacctgctat tgaggcttgt ggcatttcta ctctttctca atccccaatg cttggcttcc ataagcagat ggataaccgc atcaagctct tggaagagat tctgtctttt cgtatgcagg gcgttgagtt cgataatggt gatatgtatg ttgacggcca taaggctgct tctgacgttc gtgatgagtt tgtatctgtt actgagaagt taatggatga attggcacaa tgctacaatg tgctccccca acttgatatt aataacacta tagaccaccg ccccgaaggg gacgaaaaat ggtttttaga gaacgagaag acggttacgc agttttgccg caagctggct gctgaacgcc ctcttaagga tattcgcgat gagtataatt accccaaaaa gaaaggtatt aaggatgagt gttcaagatt gctggaggcc tccactatga aatcgcgtag aggctttgct attcagcgtt tgatgaatgc aatgcgacag gctcatgctg atggttggtt tatcgttttt gacactctca cgttggctga cgaccgatta gaggcgtttt atgataatcc caatgctttg cgtgactatt ttcgtgatat tggtcgtatg gttcttgctg ccgagggtcg caaggctaat gattcacacg ccgactgcta tcagtatttt tgtgtgcctg agtatggtac agctaatggc cgtcttcatt tccatgcggt gcactttatg cggacacttc ctacaggtag cgttgaccct aattttggtc gtcgggtacg caatcgccgc cagttaaata gcttgcaaaa tacgtggcct tatggttaca gtatgcccat cgcagttcgc tacacgcagg acgctttttc acgttctggt tggttgtggc ctgttgatgc taaaggtgag ccgcttaaag ctaccagtta tatggctgtt ggtttctatg tggctaaata cgttaacaaa aagtcagata tggaccttgc tgctaaaggt ctaggagcta aagaatggaa caactcacta aaaaccaagc tgtcgctact tcccaagaag ctgttcagaa tcagaatgag ccgcaacttc gggatgaaaa tgctcacaat gacaaatctg tccacggagt gcttaatcca acttaccaag ctgggttacg acgcgacgcc gttcaaccag atattgaagc agaacgcaaa aagagagatg agattgaggc tgggaaaagt tactgtagcc gacgttttgg cggcgcaacc tgtgacgaca aatctgctca aatttatgcg cgcttcgata aaaatgattg gcgtatccaa cctgca


Introduction to comparative genomics

Summary

1. A “genome” is sum of all the DNA sequences (chromosomes) in an organism.

2. The sizes of genomes range about 100,000,000 fold - from small viruses to very large amoebas.

3. Many eukaryotic genomes contain large fractions of repeated DNA sequences, and there is no apparent correlation between the size of an organism and its biological complexity (”C-value Paradox”)

4. Sequence databases are growing faster than computational power!


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