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Chemistry 101. Chapter 5 Nomenclature. Binary Compounds. Ionic compounds ( a metal and a nonmetal ) 2. Covalent compounds ( two nonmetals ). Binary Compounds. Ionic compounds ( a metal and a nonmetal ). Cation (Y + ). Metals: lose 1, 2 or 3 e -. Ions. Nonmetals: gain 1, 2 or 3 e -.

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Chapter 5 Nomenclature

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Chapter 5 nomenclature

Chemistry 101

Chapter 5

Nomenclature


Chapter 5 nomenclature

Binary Compounds

  • Ionic compounds (a metal and a nonmetal)

    2. Covalent compounds (two nonmetals)


Chapter 5 nomenclature

Binary Compounds

  • Ionic compounds (a metal and a nonmetal)


Chapter 5 nomenclature

Cation (Y+)

Metals: lose 1, 2 or 3 e-

Ions

Nonmetals: gain 1, 2 or 3 e-

Anion (X-)

Number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus remains unchanged.

Cation (Y+): Na+Li+Ca2+Al3+

Anion (X-): Cl-F-O-2


Chapter 5 nomenclature

1A

2A

8A

4A

5A

6A

7A

3A

Transition elements


Chapter 5 nomenclature

Ionic bonds

Metal-Nonmetal

Na  Na+ + e-

Cl + e-  Cl-

Opposite charges

attract each other.

Anion

Cation


Chapter 5 nomenclature

Sodium (Na)

NaCl

Chlorine (Cl)


Chapter 5 nomenclature

Type I Monatomic Cations

Metal has only one type of cation (main group elements)

International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC)

systematic names

Name of the metal + “ion”

H+Hydrogen ion

Li+Lithium ion

Ca2+Calcium ion

Al3+Aluminum ion


Chapter 5 nomenclature

Type II Monatomic Cations

Metal has two (or more) type of cations (transition elements)

IUPAC or Systematic names

1 = I

2 = II

3 = III

4 = IV

5 = V

6 = VI


Chapter 5 nomenclature

Type II Monatomic Cations

Common name (old name)

“-ous”smaller charge

Name of the metal +

“-ic”larger charge

Cu1+Copper(I) ionCuprous ion

Cu2+Copper(II) ionCupric ion

Hg+Mercury(I) ion Mercurous ion

Hg2+Mercury(II) ion Mercuric ion

Fe2+Iron(II) ion Ferrous ion

Fe3+Iron(III) ion Ferric ion

Sn2+Tin(II) ionStannous ion

Sn4+Tin(IV) ionStannic ion


Chapter 5 nomenclature

Naming Monatomic Anions

Stem part of name + “-ide”


Chapter 5 nomenclature

Molecule of NaCl

Formula of NaCl

matter are neutral (uncharged):

total number of positive charges = total number of negative charges

Na+

Cl-

NaCl

Ca2+

Cl-

CaCl2

Al3+

S2-

Al2S3

Ba2+

O2-

Ba2O2

BaO


Chapter 5 nomenclature

Name of metal cation

Base name of anion

+ -ide

Naming Binary Ionic compounds

NaClSodium chloride

CaOCalcium oxide

Cu2OCopper(I) oxideCuprous oxide

CuOCopper(II) oxideCupric oxide

CsBr Cesium bromide

MgSMagnesium sulfide

FeCl2Iron(II) chloride Ferrous chloride

FeCl3Iron(III) chloride Ferric chloride


Chapter 5 nomenclature

Binary Compounds

  • Ionic compounds (a metal and a nonmetal)

    2. Covalent compounds (two nonmetals)


Chapter 5 nomenclature

Binary Compounds

2. Covalent compounds (two nonmetals)


Chapter 5 nomenclature

Naming Binary Covalent compounds (type III)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Mono – Di – Tri – Tetra– Penta – Hexa – Hepta – Octa – Nona – Deca

Prefix

Name of

1st Element

Prefix

Name of

2nd Element + -ide

  • Don’t use “mono” for the 1st element.

  • Drop the “a” when followed by a vowel.

Rules:


Chapter 5 nomenclature

Naming Binary Covalent compounds (type III)

NO2Nitrogen dioxide

N2O4Dinitrogen tetroxide

CCl4Carbon tetrachloride

S2O3Disulfur trioxide

PCl5Phosphorous pentachloride

SF6Sulfur hexafluoride


Chapter 5 nomenclature

No

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Binary Compounds

Metal present?

Type III

Use prefixes

Does the metal form more

than one cation?

Type II

Find the charge of the cation

Use a Roman number after the

element name.

Type I

Use the element name

for the cation


Chapter 5 nomenclature

Naming Polyatomic Ionic Compounds

They contain more than two elements.


Chapter 5 nomenclature

Naming Polyatomic Ions

Cation


Chapter 5 nomenclature

Oxyanions

Polyatomic anions with different numbers of oxygen atoms.

When we have two oxyanions in a series:

Smaller number of oxygen atoms ends with –ite.

Larger number of oxygen atoms ends with –ate.

NO2-Nitrite

NO3-Nitrate

SO32-Sulfite

SO42-Sulfate

HSO3-Hydrogen Sulfite

(bisulfite)

HSO4-Hydrogen sulfate

(bisulfate)

PO33-Phosphite

PO43-Phosphate

HPO42-Hydrogen phosphate

H2PO4-Dihydrogen phosphate


Chapter 5 nomenclature

Oxyanions

When we have more than two oxyanions in a series:

(Fewest oxygen atoms)

Prefix hypo-

(Most oxygen atoms)

Prefix per-

ClO-hypochlorite

ClO2-chlorite

ClO3-chlorate

ClO4-perchlorate


Chapter 5 nomenclature

matter are neutral (uncharged):

total number of positive charges = total number of negative charges

Na+

NO3-

NaNO3

Ca2+

CO32-

Ca2(CO3)2 CaCO3

Al3+

SO42-

Al2(SO4)3

Mg2+

NO2-

Mg(NO2)2


Chapter 5 nomenclature

Name of metal cation

Name of polyatomic ion

Naming Polyatomic Ionic compounds

NaNO3

Sodium nitrate

Calcium carbonate

CaCO3

Al2(SO4)3

Aluminum sulfate

Mg(NO2)2

Magnesium nitrite


Chapter 5 nomenclature

)

(

Naming Polyatomic Ionic compounds

Name of

metal cation

Name of polyatomic ion

Charge of cation in

Roman numerals

FeCO3

Iron(II) carbonate

Iron(III) carbonate

Fe2(CO3)3


Chapter 5 nomenclature

Naming acids

Acids: sour

They produce H+ (proton) in water.


Chapter 5 nomenclature

Anion :

-ide ion

+

Hydro

-ic acid

Naming binary acids

HF

F-: flouride ionHydroflouric acid

HCl

Cl-: chloride ionHydrochloric acid

H2S

S2-: sulfuride ionHydrosulfuric acid


Chapter 5 nomenclature

Naming Polyatomic Acids

-ite ion

-ous acid

Anion:

-ate ion

-ic acid

HNO2

NO2-:Nitrite ionNitrous acid

HNO3

NO3-:Nitrate ionNitric acid

H2CO3

CO32-:Carbonate ionCarbonic acid

H2SO3

SO32-:Sulfurite ionSulfurous acid


Chapter 5 nomenclature

First Midterm

  • Midterm Exam Next Thursday.

  • Covers Chapters 1-5.

  • Completely multiple choice questions.

  • Bring a 2B pencil, one 30423 Scantron form (available in RunnerBookstore), a calculator (scientific, not graphing).

  • Practice questions posted on my website, practice in ALEKS, look at textbook end-of-chapter problems.


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