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Highlights from RICH2007. PPD Seminar. S.Easo, A.Papanestis, S.Ricciardi. Contribution from S.Easo. 28-11-2007. Outline. RICH detectors in accelerator based experiments:. Review of Advantages and Limitations of RICH for PID. R&D for new RICH systems.

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slide1

Highlights from RICH2007

PPD Seminar

S.Easo, A.Papanestis, S.Ricciardi

Contribution from S.Easo

28-11-2007

outline
Outline
  • RICH detectors in accelerator based experiments:
  • Review of Advantages and Limitations of RICH for PID
  • R&D for new RICH systems
  • Historical Overview: 1900 (Marie & Pierre Curie)

1934-44 P.Cherenkov + Frank + Tamm

1960 Arthur Roberts : First Proposal for RICH

1976 T. Ypsilantis + J. Seguinot :

Pioneering the construction of the first RICH

slide3

RICH design: Basics

For momenta well above threshold

p/K separation-limiting case

Refractive Indices

n=1.474 (Fused Silica)

n=1.27 (C6F14 CRID)

n=1.02 (Typical Silica Aerogel)

n=1.001665 (C5F12/N2 CRID Mix)

n=1.0000349 (He)

s[qc(tot)]

u

l

n

2 mrad

1 mrad

0.5 mrad

0.1 mrad

  • N s optimization is not the whole story: One needs to minimize the misID rate

and maximize the Positive ID efficiency.

  • Sources of misID includes interactions, particle decays, physics effects

in other parts of the detector etc.

B.Ratcliff

detectors photon detection and radiator thresholds
Detectors-Photon Detection and Radiator Thresholds
  • Aerogel: Rayleigh scattering  Low effective transmission at low wavelengths

B.Ratcliff

rich imaging limits to performance
RICH Imaging-Limits to Performance
  • N pe : More Photons are better, but limited by the technology available.
  • Larger bandwidth rapid increase in chromatic error
  • C : Need excellent tracking detector and control of alignment systematics
  • Physics Limits: overall performance for the event limited by decays and interactions.
  • Single photon resolution:

+

  • Examples of performances shown in the following slides.
  • Many choices available for tuning the performance.

B.Ratcliff

slide7

Discussion: Why RICH is not used in General Purpose Detectors at LHC, ILC:

Large Momenta Low Refractive Index Gas Radiators of Length 1 to 2 meters.

Increase the size and hence cost, of calorimeter & muon detectors, downstream of a RICH

D.Websdale

slide8

RICH covers the large Momentum range 1-100 GeV/c : using three radiators: Aerogel, C4F10 and CF4.

slide9

LHCb-RICH

  • Pioneered the use of HPDs: 1024 pixels per tube bump bonded to readout chip and

encapsulated in the vacuum tube.

HPDs in RICH2

  • RICH2 installed and ready for global commissioning.
  • RICH1: Major parts installed. Photodetectors ready to mount on RICH1.
slide10

Example of LHCb-RICH PERFORMANCE

  • Performance as seen in Simulated Data in 2006
  • Yield: Mean Number of hits per isolated
  • saturated track (Beta ~1).

Single Photon Cherenkov Angle Resolutions in mrad.

  • Chromatic: From the variation in
  • refractive index.
  • Emission Point: Essentially from the
  • tilt of the mirrors.
  • Pixel Size: From the granularity of the
  • Silicon detector pixels in HPD
  • PSF ( Point Spread Function):
  • From the spread of the Photoelectron direction
  • as it travels inside the HPD
slide11

LHCb RICH

LHCb RICH PID Performance

B0sDs-K+B0sDs- p+

(signal)(background)

After using RICH, background at 10% level from 10 times level

slide12

BABARDIRC: PERFORMANCE

  • DIRC measures

J. Schwiening

  • DIRC Performs as per design: p/K separation in 0.54 GeV/c
slide13

DIRC Upgrade: Focusing DIRC for Super B Factory

  • Prototype tests made with 6 X 6 mm Hamamatsu H8500 flat panel MAPMT (sTTS=140 ps),

Burle 85011 MCP-PMT( sTTS = 50-70 ps),

3 X 12 mm Hamamatsu H9500 Flat panel PMT ( s TTS =220ps).

J. Schwiening

slide14

DIRC Upgrade: Expected Performance

/

Lpath=10 m

Npe = 28 for 1.7 cm quartz

/

J. Schwiening

slide15

BELLE Upgrade: Super B Factory

P.Krizan

  • Beam Tests done with 2cm thick Aerogel tiles and H-8500 Flat panel MAPMT:
  • Details in NIMA 553 (2005) 58
  • Single photon resolution: 15 mrad, Npe = 6. This yields a 4 s K/p separation
  • The photon detector does not work in Magnetic field
slide16

BELLE Upgrade: Proximity Focusing RICH

T.Iijima, P.Krizan

  • Other Photon detector options for 1.5 T field:
  • To increase the yield: increase the thickness of aerogel or use aerogel tiles as multiple radiators.

sc=22.1mradNpe=10.7

Conventional

4cm thick aerogel

n=1.047

sc=14.4mradNpe=9.6

Multiple Radiators

2 layers of 2cm thick

n1=1.047, n2=1.057

p/K separation with focusing configuration ~ 4.8s @4GeV/c

slide17

BELLE Upgrade: Super B factory

H.Haba, S.Korpar

  • Tests done with aerogel radiator

producing Cherenkov photons from

a cosmic ray setup and Hamamatsu SiPM

slide18

RICH with Gas based photodetectors

  • CLEO-c Experiment : Charm Physics at CESR : p /K separation up to 3 GeV/c .

LiF radiator with 20 m 2 of CH4+TEA in MWPC.

  • ALICE experiment:
  • Physics of Strongly interacting matter, QGP
  • in nucleus-nucleus collisions at LHC.
  • p /K separation in 1 5 GeV/c
  • 11 m2 of CSI photocathode
  • gain < 10 5
  • Ready to take data
  • At high event rates the gain is limited by the photon and ion feed

back problems.

L.Molnar

slide19

ALICE Upgrade: Simulation

  • New version of gas based detectors are being developed:

GEM detectors : 0.31.6 ns readout time.

  • ALICE:
  • Simulation: Mirror ROC 240 cm, Photons

focusing on a plane at ROC/2.

p

K

p

G.Volpe

Result of ALICE upgrade simulation

slide20

R.Chechik

Gas based Detectors

GEM

  • PHENIX: Identify electron pairs coming from relativistic heavy ion
  • collisions at sqrt(s)= 200 GeV for Au-Au.
  • Background from charged hadrons, electron-positron pairs from
  • g conversions and p 0 Dalitz decays in the invariant mass
  • range < 1GeV/c2
  • HBD features: No windows: Photons create blobs of hits in the GEM
  • Hadron Blind: Hadrons produce only ionization signal which
  • are then suppressed.
slide21

Summary

  • The field of RICH detectors is still evolving. Several new detectors are ready to
  • take data or are planned to be constructed.
  • New types of photodetectors: Flat Panel PMTS, Silicon photomultipliers and GEMs
  • have the potential to improve the performance of the next generation of RICH detectors.
  • Novel Detector configurations like Focusing DIRC, Focusing Aerogel tiles
  • can also enhance the performance of the RICH systems.
slide23

COMPASS UPGRADE

F.Tessarotto

  • Spin structure of the nucleon,

gluon polarization

  • Open charm produciton leading to D mesons.

D0  K - p +

  • At high rates, lot of background hits seen
  • in the very forward region in MWPC.
  • Expected increase in trigger rate 20100 kHz
  • Replace the central region with MAPMT
slide24

COMPASS Upgrade

F.Tessarotto

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