Chapter 21 toward empire
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 26

Chapter 21 TOWARD EMPIRE PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 39 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Chapter 21 TOWARD EMPIRE. America Past and Present Eighth Edition. Roosevelt & the Rough Riders. April 1898 ~ Theodore Roosevelt resigned his position as Asst Sec of the Navy to raise his own regiment to fight in the Spanish American War

Download Presentation

Chapter 21 TOWARD EMPIRE

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Chapter 21 toward empire

Chapter 21TOWARD EMPIRE

America Past and Present

Eighth Edition


Roosevelt the rough riders

Roosevelt & the Rough Riders

  • April 1898 ~ Theodore Roosevelt resigned his position as Asst Sec of the Navy to raise his own regiment to fight in the Spanish American War

    • The 1st US Volunteer Cavalry was an intriguing mix of Ivy League athletes & western frontiersmen

      • Anxious to set off on a great adventure

p.601-602


America looks outward

America Looks Outward

  • Since the first landings in Jamestown & Plymouth, the country had been expanding, but expansion in the 1890s was different

    • This expansion sought to gain possessions, most already thickly populated

  • New territories intended not for settlement but for naval bases, trading outposts, & commercial operations

  • The Spirit of Empire ~ Americans abandoning isolationism in favor of imperialism

    • Military & economic control over other peoples

p.602-603


Reasons for expansion

Reasons for Expansion

  • Political leaders began to argue for the vital importance of foreign markets to continue economic growth

  • Others were also interested in empire building ~ In last third of 19th century, Great Britain, France & Germany divided up Africa & were interested in Asia

  • Darwinist’s used their belief in superiority as a reason to expand & protect the weak

  • Missionary spirit expressed in Josiah Strong's popular OurCountry (1885)

    • Christianize the “inferior” races

p.603-604


Foreign policy approaches 1867 1900

Foreign Policy Approaches:1867–1900

  • Expansionist foreign policy ~ Wanted Canada, Mexico, Caribbean & Pacific Islands

  • 1867 ~ Sec of State Seward acquired:

    • Uninhabited “Midway” Islands ~ Guano & Coal

      • First territory outside the continental US

    • Alaska ~ Purchased from Russia for $6M

  • Contested European interests in Latin America

    • Advocated the Monroe Doctrine ~ “Hands off the western world”

  • US reciprocity (mutual exchange) w/ Latin Am

p.604-606


The lure of hawaii samoa

The Lure of Hawaii & Samoa

  • 1820 ~ Missionaries arrive in Hawaii

    • Their children come to dominate political & economic life

  • 1875 ~ Hawaiian sugar allowed to enter US duty free in return for not making any territorial or economic concessions to other powers

    • Dole Pineapple Company

    • Hawaii became an American protectorate

  • New Queen Liliuokalani resented minority rule

    • Unhappy Americans revolted ~ US Marines

    • 1893 ~ Hawaii annexed

  • 1898 ~ Hawaii an official US possession

p.606-608


The lure of hawaii samoa1

The Lure of Hawaii & Samoa

  • 1872 ~ US very interested in Samoa, 3k mi south of Hawaii

    • 1878 ~ Treaty established US naval base

    • Great Britain & Germany also interested in Samoa

  • 1889 ~ Situation became tense when ships from all three nations gathered in a Samoan harbor

    • Delegates met in Berlin to negotiate

  • 1899 ~ US & Germany divided up the islands & compensated Britain w/ lands elsewhere in the Pacific

p.606-608


Hawaiian islands

Hawaiian Islands

  • Difficulties:

  • Threat of Japanese military actions

  • Washington not in agreement

  • Colonial problems

  • Opposition to annexing non-Anglo-Saxon people

p.607


Chapter 21 toward empire

NIB


The new navy

The New Navy

  • US had powerful fleet during Civil War but it quickly fell into disrepair

    • 1883 Congress authorized the first modern steel ships

  • Admiral Alfred Thayer Mahan, author of The Influence of Sea Power upon History, stressed the importance of a strong navy for a multitude of reasons

  • By the end of the 1890s ~ 17 steel battleships, 6 armored cruisers, & many smaller craft

p.608-609


War with spain 1898

War with Spain ~ 1898

  • The war increased overseas possessions

  • It also gained the US recognition as a “world power”

  • Americans became convinced they had a special destiny

p.609


A war for principle

A War for Principle

  • Cuba & Puerto Rico almost only thing left of Spain’s once vast empire

    • Cuban people treated cruelly

    • February 1895 ~ Rebellion in Cuba

  • "Yellow Journalism" whipped up US sentiment to favor Cuban independence

    • Wm Randolph Hearst

    • Joseph Pulitzer

  • Pres McKinley sent USS Maine to Havana harbor as a show of force

p.609-612


A war for principle1

A War for Principle

  • McKinley sent aide on fact finding mission

    • He protested to Spain regarding their “uncivilized & inhuman” conduct

  • Feb 15, 1898 ~ Maine “explodes”

    • 266 lives lost

    • “Remember the Maine”

  • Although he had worked hard to avoid it, McKinley signed the declaration of war on April 25, 1898

    • Kick the Spanish out & Cuba to be independent

p.609-612


A splendid little war

"A Splendid Little War"

  • War lasted only ten weeks ~ Relatively few Americans died

  • Regular Army was small & ill-prepared

    • Only 28k officers & men, most experienced only in quelling Indian uprisings, not large-scale battles

  • Problems of equipment & supply

    • Regulars had latest Krag-Jorgensen rifles

    • NG units had old Civil War Springfield rifles that used black powder ~ Spanish had modern rifles

    • Food & illness serious problems

      • More died of disease than battlefield wounds

p.612


Smoked yankees

“Smoked Yankees”

  • When the invasion force sailed for Cuba, almost ¼ were Af American

    • 24th & 25th Infantry & 9th & 10th Cavalry

    • AL, OH, & MA provided black NG units

  • Black troops extremely disturbed by segregation ~ Numerous fights

  • Af Am soldiers won 26 Certificates of Merit & 5 Cong Medals of Honor

p.612-614


Spanish american war pacific theater

The Course of the War

Spanish-American War:Pacific Theater

  • Naval strategy was simple: destroy the Spanish Fleet

  • May 1, 1898, Commodore Dewy sailed from Hong Kong & trapped the Spanish in Manila Bay ~ “You may fire when ready, Gridley”

  • A quick & unexpected prize of war

p.614


Spanish american war caribbean theater

The Course of the War

Spanish-American War: Caribbean Theater

McKinley was worried about the main Spanish fleet which could possibly attack Florida, but it became bottled up in Santiago Bay

Marine & Army troops invaded during June & fought their way toward Santiago de Cuba

Fleet tried to escape, but was totally destroyed ~ Spain was helpless

Of 5,500 American deaths only 379 were from battle ~ Accidents, yellow fever, malaria, typhoid

p.615


Acquisition of empire

Acquisition of Empire

  • Fate of the Philippines was the thorniest issue at the peace negotiations

    • A huge chain of islands & very far away

    • Cuba & Puerto Rice were close

    • Guam small & unimportant

  • December, 1898 ~ Treaty of Paris

    • Cuba declared independent

    • U.S. acquired Puerto Rico, Guam, Philippines

    • $20M paid to Spain

p.615-617


The treaty of paris debate

The Treaty of Paris Debate

  • Treaty still had to be ratified by the Senate

  • Many Anti-Imperialists against it

    • Jane Addams, Samuel Gompers, Mark Twain

    • Argued that imperialism violated the very ideals upon which the US was founded

    • Wm James, “America is about to puke up its heritage”

    • Andrew Carnegie offered to buy Filipino independence with a personal check for $20M

  • February 1899 ~ Ratification made the US a colonial empire

p.617-618


American empire 1900

American Empire ~ 1900

p.617


Guerrilla warfare in the philippines

Guerrilla Warfare in the Philippines

  • 1898 – 1901~ Emilio Aguinaldo led Philippine independence movement

    • Fought w/ US against the Spanish

  • Filipinos used guerilla war tactics, US adopted tactics Spanish used in Cuba

    • Philippine-American War more costly than the Spanish-American War

  • 1901 ~ US replaced military with civil rule

    • Local self-government permitted

    • Schedule established for independence

  • July 4, 1946 ~ Philippine independence

p.618-620


World colonial empires 1900

World Colonial Empires ~ 1900

p.619


Governing the empire

Governing the Empire

  • How could/should new territories be governed?

  • Supreme Court applied selective application of the Constitution to new territories

  • Hawaii, Alaska, Puerto Rico organized as territories, inhabitants later made US citizens

  • Navy controlled Guam & Samoa

  • Cuban Constitution ended US occupation

    • Platt Amendment to Cuban Constitution ~ US given right to intervene in Cuban affairs & lease Guantanamo Bay

p.620-621


The open door

The Open Door

  • Poised in the Philippines, the US was on the doorstep of China

    • China was weak from yrs of warfare & unable to resist foreign influence

  • US sought more trade, but “no advantages in the Orient not common to all”

  • US promoted an "Open Door" policy in China

    • No nation should carve out a sphere of influence in China & exclude others from trading there

  • US not prepared to militarily defend & therefore left the opportunity for later controversy

p.621-624


Outcome of the war with spain

Outcome of the War with Spain

  • Teddy Roosevelt a war hero

  • Civil rights for African Americans set back

    • Fresh outbreak of segregation & lynching

  • Confirmed Republicans as majority party

    • Dominated politics until 1932

  • U.S. soldiers stationed outside the country

  • By 1900, the US had grow from 13 states along the Atlantic coastline into a majorworldpower that reached from the Caribbean to the Pacific

p.624-625


Chapter 21 toward empire1

Chapter 21TOWARD EMPIRE

America Past and Present

Eighth Edition

End


  • Login