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Chapter 21 TOWARD EMPIRE. America Past and Present Eighth Edition. Roosevelt & the Rough Riders. April 1898 ~ Theodore Roosevelt resigned his position as Asst Sec of the Navy to raise his own regiment to fight in the Spanish American War

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Chapter 21 toward empire


America Past and Present

Eighth Edition

Roosevelt the rough riders
Roosevelt & the Rough Riders

  • April 1898 ~ Theodore Roosevelt resigned his position as Asst Sec of the Navy to raise his own regiment to fight in the Spanish American War

    • The 1st US Volunteer Cavalry was an intriguing mix of Ivy League athletes & western frontiersmen

      • Anxious to set off on a great adventure


America looks outward
America Looks Outward

  • Since the first landings in Jamestown & Plymouth, the country had been expanding, but expansion in the 1890s was different

    • This expansion sought to gain possessions, most already thickly populated

  • New territories intended not for settlement but for naval bases, trading outposts, & commercial operations

  • The Spirit of Empire ~ Americans abandoning isolationism in favor of imperialism

    • Military & economic control over other peoples


Reasons for expansion
Reasons for Expansion

  • Political leaders began to argue for the vital importance of foreign markets to continue economic growth

  • Others were also interested in empire building ~ In last third of 19th century, Great Britain, France & Germany divided up Africa & were interested in Asia

  • Darwinist’s used their belief in superiority as a reason to expand & protect the weak

  • Missionary spirit expressed in Josiah Strong's popular OurCountry (1885)

    • Christianize the “inferior” races


Foreign policy approaches 1867 1900
Foreign Policy Approaches:1867–1900

  • Expansionist foreign policy ~ Wanted Canada, Mexico, Caribbean & Pacific Islands

  • 1867 ~ Sec of State Seward acquired:

    • Uninhabited “Midway” Islands ~ Guano & Coal

      • First territory outside the continental US

    • Alaska ~ Purchased from Russia for $6M

  • Contested European interests in Latin America

    • Advocated the Monroe Doctrine ~ “Hands off the western world”

  • US reciprocity (mutual exchange) w/ Latin Am


The lure of hawaii samoa
The Lure of Hawaii & Samoa

  • 1820 ~ Missionaries arrive in Hawaii

    • Their children come to dominate political & economic life

  • 1875 ~ Hawaiian sugar allowed to enter US duty free in return for not making any territorial or economic concessions to other powers

    • Dole Pineapple Company

    • Hawaii became an American protectorate

  • New Queen Liliuokalani resented minority rule

    • Unhappy Americans revolted ~ US Marines

    • 1893 ~ Hawaii annexed

  • 1898 ~ Hawaii an official US possession


The lure of hawaii samoa1
The Lure of Hawaii & Samoa

  • 1872 ~ US very interested in Samoa, 3k mi south of Hawaii

    • 1878 ~ Treaty established US naval base

    • Great Britain & Germany also interested in Samoa

  • 1889 ~ Situation became tense when ships from all three nations gathered in a Samoan harbor

    • Delegates met in Berlin to negotiate

  • 1899 ~ US & Germany divided up the islands & compensated Britain w/ lands elsewhere in the Pacific


Hawaiian islands
Hawaiian Islands

  • Difficulties:

  • Threat of Japanese military actions

  • Washington not in agreement

  • Colonial problems

  • Opposition to annexing non-Anglo-Saxon people


The new navy
The New Navy

  • US had powerful fleet during Civil War but it quickly fell into disrepair

    • 1883 Congress authorized the first modern steel ships

  • Admiral Alfred Thayer Mahan, author of The Influence of Sea Power upon History, stressed the importance of a strong navy for a multitude of reasons

  • By the end of the 1890s ~ 17 steel battleships, 6 armored cruisers, & many smaller craft


War with spain 1898
War with Spain ~ 1898

  • The war increased overseas possessions

  • It also gained the US recognition as a “world power”

  • Americans became convinced they had a special destiny


A war for principle
A War for Principle

  • Cuba & Puerto Rico almost only thing left of Spain’s once vast empire

    • Cuban people treated cruelly

    • February 1895 ~ Rebellion in Cuba

  • "Yellow Journalism" whipped up US sentiment to favor Cuban independence

    • Wm Randolph Hearst

    • Joseph Pulitzer

  • Pres McKinley sent USS Maine to Havana harbor as a show of force


A war for principle1
A War for Principle

  • McKinley sent aide on fact finding mission

    • He protested to Spain regarding their “uncivilized & inhuman” conduct

  • Feb 15, 1898 ~ Maine “explodes”

    • 266 lives lost

    • “Remember the Maine”

  • Although he had worked hard to avoid it, McKinley signed the declaration of war on April 25, 1898

    • Kick the Spanish out & Cuba to be independent


A splendid little war
"A Splendid Little War"

  • War lasted only ten weeks ~ Relatively few Americans died

  • Regular Army was small & ill-prepared

    • Only 28k officers & men, most experienced only in quelling Indian uprisings, not large-scale battles

  • Problems of equipment & supply

    • Regulars had latest Krag-Jorgensen rifles

    • NG units had old Civil War Springfield rifles that used black powder ~ Spanish had modern rifles

    • Food & illness serious problems

      • More died of disease than battlefield wounds


Smoked yankees
“Smoked Yankees”

  • When the invasion force sailed for Cuba, almost ¼ were Af American

    • 24th & 25th Infantry & 9th & 10th Cavalry

    • AL, OH, & MA provided black NG units

  • Black troops extremely disturbed by segregation ~ Numerous fights

  • Af Am soldiers won 26 Certificates of Merit & 5 Cong Medals of Honor


Spanish american war pacific theater

The Course of the War

Spanish-American War:Pacific Theater

  • Naval strategy was simple: destroy the Spanish Fleet

  • May 1, 1898, Commodore Dewy sailed from Hong Kong & trapped the Spanish in Manila Bay ~ “You may fire when ready, Gridley”

  • A quick & unexpected prize of war


Spanish american war caribbean theater

The Course of the War

Spanish-American War: Caribbean Theater

McKinley was worried about the main Spanish fleet which could possibly attack Florida, but it became bottled up in Santiago Bay

Marine & Army troops invaded during June & fought their way toward Santiago de Cuba

Fleet tried to escape, but was totally destroyed ~ Spain was helpless

Of 5,500 American deaths only 379 were from battle ~ Accidents, yellow fever, malaria, typhoid


Acquisition of empire
Acquisition of Empire

  • Fate of the Philippines was the thorniest issue at the peace negotiations

    • A huge chain of islands & very far away

    • Cuba & Puerto Rice were close

    • Guam small & unimportant

  • December, 1898 ~ Treaty of Paris

    • Cuba declared independent

    • U.S. acquired Puerto Rico, Guam, Philippines

    • $20M paid to Spain


The treaty of paris debate
The Treaty of Paris Debate

  • Treaty still had to be ratified by the Senate

  • Many Anti-Imperialists against it

    • Jane Addams, Samuel Gompers, Mark Twain

    • Argued that imperialism violated the very ideals upon which the US was founded

    • Wm James, “America is about to puke up its heritage”

    • Andrew Carnegie offered to buy Filipino independence with a personal check for $20M

  • February 1899 ~ Ratification made the US a colonial empire


Guerrilla warfare in the philippines
Guerrilla Warfare in the Philippines

  • 1898 – 1901~ Emilio Aguinaldo led Philippine independence movement

    • Fought w/ US against the Spanish

  • Filipinos used guerilla war tactics, US adopted tactics Spanish used in Cuba

    • Philippine-American War more costly than the Spanish-American War

  • 1901 ~ US replaced military with civil rule

    • Local self-government permitted

    • Schedule established for independence

  • July 4, 1946 ~ Philippine independence


Governing the empire
Governing the Empire

  • How could/should new territories be governed?

  • Supreme Court applied selective application of the Constitution to new territories

  • Hawaii, Alaska, Puerto Rico organized as territories, inhabitants later made US citizens

  • Navy controlled Guam & Samoa

  • Cuban Constitution ended US occupation

    • Platt Amendment to Cuban Constitution ~ US given right to intervene in Cuban affairs & lease Guantanamo Bay


The open door
The Open Door

  • Poised in the Philippines, the US was on the doorstep of China

    • China was weak from yrs of warfare & unable to resist foreign influence

  • US sought more trade, but “no advantages in the Orient not common to all”

  • US promoted an "Open Door" policy in China

    • No nation should carve out a sphere of influence in China & exclude others from trading there

  • US not prepared to militarily defend & therefore left the opportunity for later controversy


Outcome of the war with spain
Outcome of the War with Spain

  • Teddy Roosevelt a war hero

  • Civil rights for African Americans set back

    • Fresh outbreak of segregation & lynching

  • Confirmed Republicans as majority party

    • Dominated politics until 1932

  • U.S. soldiers stationed outside the country

  • By 1900, the US had grow from 13 states along the Atlantic coastline into a majorworldpower that reached from the Caribbean to the Pacific


Chapter 21 toward empire1


America Past and Present

Eighth Edition