Blood
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 40

Blood PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 114 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Blood. 16. About this Chapter. Plasma and the cellular elements of blood Blood cell production Red blood cells Platelets and coagulation. Composition of Blood. Figure 16-1 (1 of 2). Composition of Blood. Figure 16-1 (2 of 2). Plasma Proteins. Cellular Elements.

Download Presentation

Blood

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Blood

Blood

16


About this chapter

About this Chapter

  • Plasma and the cellular elements of blood

  • Blood cell production

  • Red blood cells

  • Platelets and coagulation


Composition of blood

Composition of Blood

Figure 16-1 (1 of 2)


Composition of blood1

Composition of Blood

Figure 16-1 (2 of 2)


Plasma proteins

Plasma Proteins


Cellular elements

Cellular Elements

  • Three main cellular elements

    • Platelets split off from megakaryocyte

    • Five types of mature white blood cells

      • Monocytes develop into macrophages

      • Tissue basophils are mast cells

      • Neutrophils, monocytes and macrophages are known as phagocytes

      • Lymphocytes are also called immunocytes

      • Basophils, eosinophils and neutrophils are also called granulocytes


Clinical tests

Clinical Tests

The blood count

Hematocrit: ratio of red blood cells to plasma

Figure 16-3


Hematopoiesis

Hematopoiesis

Figure 16-2


Focus on bone marrow

Focus on … Bone Marrow

Figure 16-4a


Focus on bone marrow1

Focus on … Bone Marrow

(c)

Mature blood

cells squeeze

through the

endothelium to

reach the

circulation.

Stem

cell

Red blood cell maturation

Reticulocyte

expelling

nucleus

Mature

neutrophil

Platelets

Fragments of

megakaryocyte

break off to

become platelets.

Venous

sinus

Reticular

fiber

Neutrophil maturation

Reticular cell

Stem cell

The stroma is

composed of

fibroblast-like

reticular cells,

collagenous fibers,

and extracellular

matrix.

Macrophage

Monocyte

Lymphocyte

Overall components of bone marrow- see reticular cells and sinus capillary

Figure 16-4c


Focus on bone marrow2

Focus on … Bone Marrow

(c)

Mature blood

cells squeeze

through the

endothelium to

reach the

circulation.

Stem

cell

Red blood cell maturation

Reticulocyte

expelling

nucleus

Platelets

Fragments of

megakaryocyte

break off to

become platelets.

Venous

sinus

Reticular

fiber

Reticular cell

Stem cell

The stroma is

composed of

fibroblast-like

reticular cells,

collagenous fibers,

and extracellular

matrix.

Macrophage

Monocyte

Lymphocyte

Pay attention to RBC formation and entry to blood stream

Figure 16-4c (6 of 11)


Focus on bone marrow3

Focus on … Bone Marrow

(c)

Mature blood

cells squeeze

through the

endothelium to

reach the

circulation.

Stem

cell

Red blood cell maturation

Reticulocyte

expelling

nucleus

Platelets

Fragments of

megakaryocyte

break off to

become platelets.

Venous

sinus

Reticular

fiber

Neutrophil maturation

Reticular cell

Stem cell

The stroma is

composed of

fibroblast-like

reticular cells,

collagenous fibers,

and extracellular

matrix.

Macrophage

Monocyte

Lymphocyte

Pay attention to WBC and platelet formation

Figure 16-4c (10 of 11)


Blood

Erythrocytes

  • Transport oxygen and carbon dioxide.

  • Originate in bone marrow and as they mature they expel their organelles before entering the blood stream.

  • Most numerous component of formed elements.

  • Contain no nucleus or organelles, instead they are packed with hemoglobin.

  • There are three important characteristics of red blood cells:

  • 1. Their concave shape allows for 30% more surface area for carrying oxygen.

    • 2. 97% of their content is hemoglobin.

    • It is used for binding both oxygen and

    • CO2

  • 3. They depend on anaerobic

  • respiration thus they do not

  • consume any oxygen


  • Red blood cells

    Red Blood Cells

    Figure 16-5


    Osmotic changes to red blood cells

    Osmotic Changes to Red Blood Cells

    Morphology of red blood cells can provide clues to the presence of disease.- diagram shows cells in solutions of different salt concentrations.

    Figure 16-6


    Iron metabolism

    Iron Metabolism

    Normally the body stores iron- women need to consume more iron than men. Why?

    Figure 16-7


    Red blood cells1

    Red Blood Cells

    • Live for about 120 days-old cells get broken at the spleen or cleared by macrophages

    • Hemoglobin components are recycled-iron is reused to make new hemoglobin

    • Remnants of heme groups – the other components are take to the liver and become components of bile

      • Bilirubin and excreted in bile

    • Jaundice

      • Elevated levels of bilirubin


    Red blood cells2

    Red Blood Cells

    Anemia is a condition in which not enough oxygen is delivered to the tissues. This condition can be caused by many factors.


    Sickled red blood cells

    Sickled Red Blood Cells

    A single genetic mutation error in one amino acids produces a proteins with an irregular shape causing many problems

    Figure 16-8


    Platelets and megakaryocytes

    Platelets and Megakaryocytes

    Figure 16-9a


    Hemostasis not homeostasis

    Hemostasis (not homeostasis)

    • Keeps blood within blood vessels (hemorrhage does not)

    • Requires: 1- vasoconstriction, 2- platelet plug formation, 3- blood coagulation (seal hole)

    • Coagulation cascade results in formation of fibrin, a fiber mesh that stabilizes the platelet plug=clot

    • Plasmin is an enzyme that dissolves the clot as the tissue heals

    • A thrombus results from too much clot formation and can block a blood vessel


    Platelet plug formation

    Platelet Plug Formation

    Figure 16-11


    Overview of hemostasis and tissue repair

    Overview of Hemostasis and Tissue Repair***

    Damage to

    wall of

    blood vessel

    Collagen

    exposed

    Tissue factor

    exposed

    Platelets

    adhere and

    release

    platelet

    factors

    Vasoconstriction

    Coagulation

    cascade

    Thrombin

    formation

    Platelets aggregate

    into loose platelet

    plug

    Converts

    fibrinogen

    to fibrin

    Reinforced

    platelet plug (clot)

    Temporary

    hemostasis

    Fibrin slowly

    dissolved by

    plasmin

    Cell growth and

    tissue repair

    Clot dissolves

    Intact blood

    vessel wall

    Diagram series displays the mechanisms for restoring broken blood vessels

    Figure 16-10


    Overview of hemostasis and tissue repair1

    Overview of Hemostasis and Tissue Repair

    Damage to

    wall of

    blood vessel

    Collagen

    exposed

    Tissue factor

    exposed

    Figure 16-10 (3 of 17)


    Overview of hemostasis and tissue repair2

    Overview of Hemostasis and Tissue Repair

    Damage to

    wall of

    blood vessel

    Collagen

    exposed

    Tissue factor

    exposed

    Platelets

    adhere and

    release

    platelet

    factors

    Coagulation

    cascade

    Figure 16-10 (5 of 17)


    Overview of hemostasis and tissue repair3

    Overview of Hemostasis and Tissue Repair

    Damage to

    wall of

    blood vessel

    Collagen

    exposed

    Tissue factor

    exposed

    Platelets

    adhere and

    release

    platelet

    factors

    Vasoconstriction

    Coagulation

    cascade

    Platelets aggregate

    into loose platelet

    plug

    Figure 16-10 (8 of 17)


    Overview of hemostasis and tissue repair4

    Overview of Hemostasis and Tissue Repair

    Damage to

    wall of

    blood vessel

    Collagen

    exposed

    Tissue factor

    exposed

    Platelets

    adhere and

    release

    platelet

    factors

    Vasoconstriction

    Coagulation

    cascade

    Platelets aggregate

    into loose platelet

    plug

    Temporary

    hemostasis

    Figure 16-10 (9 of 17)


    Overview of hemostasis and tissue repair5

    Overview of Hemostasis and Tissue Repair

    Damage to

    wall of

    blood vessel

    Collagen

    exposed

    Tissue factor

    exposed

    Platelets

    adhere and

    release

    platelet

    factors

    Vasoconstriction

    Coagulation

    cascade

    Thrombin

    formation

    Platelets aggregate

    into loose platelet

    plug

    Converts

    fibrinogen

    to fibrin

    Reinforced

    platelet plug (clot)

    Temporary

    hemostasis

    Figure 16-10 (13 of 17)


    Overview of hemostasis and tissue repair6

    Overview of Hemostasis and Tissue Repair

    Damage to

    wall of

    blood vessel

    Collagen

    exposed

    Tissue factor

    exposed

    Platelets

    adhere and

    release

    platelet

    factors

    Vasoconstriction

    Coagulation

    cascade

    Thrombin

    formation

    Platelets aggregate

    into loose platelet

    plug

    Converts

    fibrinogen

    to fibrin

    Reinforced

    platelet plug (clot)

    Temporary

    hemostasis

    Cell growth and

    tissue repair

    Figure 16-10 (14 of 17)


    Overview of hemostasis and tissue repair7

    Overview of Hemostasis and Tissue Repair

    Damage to

    wall of

    blood vessel

    Collagen

    exposed

    Tissue factor

    exposed

    Platelets

    adhere and

    release

    platelet

    factors

    Vasoconstriction

    Coagulation

    cascade

    Thrombin

    formation

    Platelets aggregate

    into loose platelet

    plug

    Converts

    fibrinogen

    to fibrin

    Reinforced

    platelet plug (clot)

    Temporary

    hemostasis

    Fibrin slowly

    dissolved by

    plasmin

    Cell growth and

    tissue repair

    Figure 16-10 (15 of 17)


    Overview of hemostasis and tissue repair8

    Overview of Hemostasis and Tissue Repair

    Damage to

    wall of

    blood vessel

    Collagen

    exposed

    Tissue factor

    exposed

    Platelets

    adhere and

    release

    platelet

    factors

    Vasoconstriction

    Coagulation

    cascade

    Thrombin

    formation

    Platelets aggregate

    into loose platelet

    plug

    Converts

    fibrinogen

    to fibrin

    Reinforced

    platelet plug (clot)

    Temporary

    hemostasis

    Fibrin slowly

    dissolved by

    plasmin

    Cell growth and

    tissue repair

    Clot dissolves

    Figure 16-10 (16 of 17)


    Overview of hemostasis and tissue repair9

    Overview of Hemostasis and Tissue Repair

    Damage to

    wall of

    blood vessel

    Collagen

    exposed

    Tissue factor

    exposed

    Platelets

    adhere and

    release

    platelet

    factors

    Vasoconstriction

    Coagulation

    cascade

    Thrombin

    formation

    Platelets aggregate

    into loose platelet

    plug

    Converts

    fibrinogen

    to fibrin

    Reinforced

    platelet plug (clot)

    Temporary

    hemostasis

    Fibrin slowly

    dissolved by

    plasmin

    Cell growth and

    tissue repair

    Clot dissolves

    Intact blood

    vessel wall

    Figure 16-10 (17 of 17)


    Clotting process

    Clotting Process

    Notice the multiple factors that play a role in platelet function

    Pay attention to the last two columns


    The coagulation cascade

    The Coagulation Cascade

    Intrinsic Pathway begins when collagen is exposed

    Extrinsic pathway is activated by damaged tissues

    Thrombin is need to created fibrin- the insoluble fibers create the clot.

    Positive feedback loops remain until a component is consumed

    Figure 16-12


    Coagulation and fibrinolysis

    Coagulation and Fibrinolysis

    Clot formation is limited to prevent the entire blood content from coagulating.

    Figure 16-13


    Coagulation

    Coagulation

    Know where along the pathway does each component play a role.


    Coagulation1

    Coagulation

    Pay attention to the source and last two columns


    Blood

    www.nlm.nih.gov

    gslc.genetics.utah.edu/.../ABObloodsystem.gif


    Summary

    Summary

    • Plasma and cellular elements

      • Plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets, and megakaryocytes

      • Plasma proteins and their functions

      • Five types of white blood cells

    • Blood cell production

      • Hematopoiesis and cytokines

    • Red blood cell

      • Transferrin, ferritin, bilirubin, bile, and jaundice

    • Platelets and coagulation

      • Hemostasis, platelet plug, platelet adhesion, platelet aggregation, and fibrin

      • Coagulation cascade, fibrinogen, thrombin, plasmin, prostacyclin, and anticoagulants

    • Blood Typing


  • Login