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A Semi-historical Romp Through Prevailing Perspectives on Leadership . EDU 6040 Leadership in Learning Organizations. Everyone Has a Theory. THE PAOMNNEHAL PWEOR OF THE HMUAN MNID I cdnuolt blveiee taht I cluod aulaclty uesdnatnrd waht I was rdanieg …
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Leadership in Learning Organizations
THE PAOMNNEHAL PWEOR OF
THE HMUAN MNID
I cdnuoltblveieetaht I cluodaulacltyuesdnatnrdwaht I was rdanieg…
Aoccdrnig to a rscheearch at CmabrigdeUinervtisy, it deosn\'tmttaer in wahtoredr the ltteers in a wrod are, the olnyiprmoatnttihng is that the frist and lsatltteer be in the rghitpclae. The rset can be a taotlmses and you can sitllraed it wouthit a porbelm. Tihs is bcuseae the human mind deos not raederveylteter by istlef, but the wrod as a wlohe. Amzanig huh?
Your picture of leadership…
Are leaders born to lead?
Leadership is “…the process of arranging a situation so that various
members of a group, including the leader, can achieve common
goals with maximum economy and a minimum of time and work”
Lord, DeVader, & Alliger
Kirkpatrick & Locke
DominanceMany Leadership Traits
Production orientation behaviors stress technical and production aspects of a job.
Country Club Management
Concern for People
Concern for Results
Definition: Efficiency in operations results from arranging conditions of work such that human interference is minimal
Role Focus: More emphasis on task and job requirements and less emphasis on people
Definition: Minimal effort exerted to get work done is appropriate to sustain organizational membership
Role Focus: Leader unconcerned with both task and interpersonal relationships
Definition: Adequate organizational performance possible through balancing the necessity of getting work done while maintaining satisfactory morale .
Role Focus: Leaders who are compromisers; have intermediate concern for task and people
Definition: Work accomplished through committed people; interdependence via a “common stake” in the organization’s purpose, which leads to relationships of trust and respect
Role Focus: Strong emphasis on both tasks and interpersonal relationships
Conceptual Skills (ideas)
Human Skills (people)
Technical Skills (things)
Crystallized Cognitive Abilities
Social Judgment Skills
Effective Problem Solving
The behavior pattern of an individual who attempts to influence others; includes:
Effective leaders are those who exercise appropriate degree of task orientation and relationship orientation relative to the maturity of followers. Specifically, as the level of follower maturity increases, effective leader behavior involves less structuring and less social support.
Preferred Leadership Style
In the early 1970s, theorists Jacobs (1970) & Hollander (1978) developed an updated transactional theory of leadership. Their model:
Some political scientists also became interested in the exchange model of leadership because it seemed to:
Self / Other
Burns saw leadership as a structured interaction between leader and followers that permits significant social processes of change.
Non-leadership. Leaders make no real attempt to move or to meet followers’ needs
Focuses on the exchanges that occur between leaders and their followers
Process of engaging with others to create a connection that increases motivation and morality
Together, these approaches may induce follower compliance, but is unlikely to generate enthusiasm and commitment.
Active Mgmt. by Exception
Passive Mgmt. by Exception
The absence of leadership. A hands-off, let-things-ride approach. Refers to a leader who abdicates responsibility, delays decisions, gives no feedback, and makes little effort to help followers satisfy their needs.
The 4 “I”s
Describes leaders who act as strong role models for followers
Leaders who communicate high expectations to followers, inspiring them through motivation to commitment and engagement in the shared vision of the organization
Stimulates followers to be creative and innovative; challenges their own beliefs and values and those of leader and organization
Leaders who provide a supportive climate in which they listen carefully to the needs of followers
Charisma - A special personality characteristic that gives superhuman or exceptional powers and is reserved for a few, is of divine origin, and results in the person being treated as a leader
Personality Effect on
Characteristics Behaviors Followers
MBE-P Mgmt by Exception Passive
MBE-A Mgmt by Exception Active
CR Contingent Reward
Source: Bass & Avolio (1994)
TL motivates followers beyond the expected by:
raising consciousness about the value and importance of specific and idealized goals
transcending self-interest for the good of the organization
addressing higher-level needs
Source: Bass & Avolio (1990)
1. “Great Man” Theories
2. Trait Theories
3. Contingency Theories
4. Situational Theories
5. Behavioral Theories
7. Management Theories (also known as Transactional)
8. Relationship Theories (also known as Transformational)