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Research activities within Lighthouse Ship emissions and MARPOL Annex VI . Zoi Nikopoulou, Logistics and Transport Research Group School of Business, Economics and Law University of Göteborg April 2011. Background : traffic in the Baltic Sea.

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Research activitieswithinLighthouseShip emissions and


Zoi Nikopoulou,

Logistics and Transport Research Group

School of Business, Economics and LawUniversity of Göteborg

April 2011

Background: traffic in the Baltic Sea

Main routes for shiptraffic in the Baltic Sea

  • At any time around 2000 ships are operating in the Baltic Sea (2008)

  • Trafficincreases-Both by number and size, especially tankers

  • Approximately 400 ktNOX/yearemitted from ships (HELCOM, 2008)

  • The largestcontributingcategory is passengerships 20% of NOX is emmitted by 6% of the fleet


Background: Annex VI NOX-regulations

  • Reductionswillmaterialisegradualyunlessincentives are introduced

  • The projectedquantities of NOx reductions are difficult to predict:Quantity of new-builds to sail in the Baltic

  • Anyrerouting?

  • Fewabatementtechnologies to chose from; the operations of SCRs on board are still causingtechnicalchallenges as well as lackingtrainingprocedures for the crew. Complying with Tier III might not be possible 100% of the time.

  • Other options are LNG and possibly EGR plus wet technology

Emissions of NOX in fairway and port of Gothenburg

Effects of onlyTier II and Tier III

Effects of Tier II and Tier III together with effects from fuelchangedirectives and alreadyinstalledcatalysts

(From manuscript in preparation, Hulda Winnes)

Emissions of NOX in fairway and port of Gothenburg

A fuelshift to marine gasoils cause NOX-reductions (mainlydue to lower nitrogen content in MGO)

Differentiated fairway dues and shoresideelectricitycontributed to a reduction of 335 tonnes in 2008

Mainlytwo ”ships” withinLighthouse are involved in research projectsevaluatingeconomical and environmentaleffects of the MARPOL Annex VI regulations

Alsoeducationalactivitiesrelating to the subject



Business ship

Eco ship


Cargo ship

Ergo ship


  • Division of Sustainableshippropulsion

  • Hulda Winnes: PhD thesis, 2010, Air Polltion from Ships – Emission Measurements and ImpactAssessments

  • Mathias Magnusson: Improved SCR systems for marine applications

    Division of Logistics and Transport Economics

    Zoi Nikopoulou: Emission trading and logistics innovations facilitating reduction of ship emissions


Department of LawPhilip Linné: ‘RegulatingVessel-source Air Pollution – Approaches to ControllingSulphurOxides’

Division of Sustainableshippropulsion

Selma Bengtsson: Environmental impact from sea transport from a life cycle perspective

And current work on life cycle assessment on biofuels

Erik Svensson: Development and Revision of the Global Sulphur Cap in MARPOL Annex VI

Transnational network of universities in the North Sea Region

A network of universities, research institutes and maritime industry

To educate and train professionals in the maritime and port industry

Focus on a joint curriculum of maritime, port and short sea shipping


Professor Arne Jensen

Senior lecturer Rickard Bergquist

Hulda Winnes (IVL)

EDUCATION - Northern Maritime University NMU

Nmu offers a 7 5 ects 5weeks course in shipping and environment

EDUCATION - Northern Maritime University NMU

NMU offers a 7.5 ECTS (~5weeks) course in ”Shipping and environment”

One course module is ‘Emissions to air from maritime transport and emissions cleaning ’

EDUCATION –Shipping and Marine Technology

Maritime Environment group offers ”environmental” courses to students in three programmes  Sjöingenjör, Sjökapten and Sjöfart och logistik

Othercourses with modulesreferring to NOx from marine engines:

EnvironmentalAspects on Logistics (Chalmers)

The Shipping industry – Maritime policy, freight markets and companybehaviour (Handelshögskola i Göteborg)

Shipping production systems and logistics management (Handelshögskola i Göteborg)

Interactive knowledge platform for maritime and logistics


Interactiveknowledgeplatform for Maritime and Logistics

Funded by the European Commission - DGTREN under the Seventh Framework Programe

Sustainable Knowledge Platform for the use of stakeholders in the Maritime Transport & Logistics industry

Project webpage:

SKEMA Knowledge Platform:


Economics and Regulation – the market, practices, trends and fiscal implications

Developments - logistics, intermodal, D2D design and management, performance indicators, e-freight

Safety and security – operational services, information management

Sustainability – externalities, market instruments

Technology – navigation, environment, port, risk management, ICT, environmental technologies

Latest deliverables on financing opportunities in the recovery period, challenges and MARPOL Annex VI

Impact study of the future marpol rules for low sulphur fuel


Impactstudy of the future MARPOL rules for low sulphur fuel

Assess the modal backshift from sea to road in the European SECA

Modelling of effects for transport between Klaipeda and Harwich

Suggest measures to avoid modal shift from SSS to road transport

Study and results

..Study and results

Assessment of the impact of the application of new sulphur limits to the Mediterranean and the Atlentic European (2010)

Emission impact as a result of new sulphur limits

Aggregatecost and benefitprojections

Shortsea shipping routes: Algericas-Antwerp, Ancona-Pireus, Valencia-Bari, Vigo-Rotterdam, Gijon-Antwerp ...

Discussion and concusions

..Discussion and concusions

Special circumstances, geography and infrastructure dominant SSS

Increasedcosts by 25% in 2015 and by 7% in 2020  slight modal shift

Small loss of SSS share, largegain in road share


LCA of SCR at Chalmers, (Andersson K. and Winnes H., 2011, Journal of Engineering for the Maritime Environment)

Sustainable Intermodal Supply Systems for biofuel and bulk freight – in cooperation with MARITERM AB, WSB Group, Royal Institute of Technology, Skogforsk, PGF Transport

Sustainablelogistics – in cooperation with Chalmers University of Technology

Northern Lead - in co-operation with Chalmers University of Technology and the Logistics and Transport Society LTS