Alaska wind integration conference june 29 2010
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Alaska Wind Integration Conference June 29, 2010. Oahu Wind Integration Study. Dean Arakawa Sr. Engineer, Renewable Energy Planning Hawaiian Electric Company. The Challenge. Hawaii’s Economy in 2008. GROSS STATE PRODUCT$63.8 BILLION. SPENDING ON ENERGY $ 8.4 BILLION.

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Alaska Wind Integration Conference June 29, 2010

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Alaska wind integration conference june 29 2010

Alaska Wind Integration ConferenceJune 29, 2010

Oahu Wind Integration Study

Dean Arakawa

Sr. Engineer, Renewable Energy Planning

Hawaiian Electric Company


Alaska wind integration conference june 29 2010

The Challenge


Hawaii s economy in 2008

Hawaii’s Economy in 2008

GROSS STATE PRODUCT$63.8 BILLION

SPENDING ON ENERGY $ 8.4 BILLION


Hawaii s energy use today

Hawaii’s Energy Use Today

Primary energy: 90% fossil fuel, Imported crude oil refined:

JET FUEL 34%

ELECTRICITY 32%

GASOLINE/ 27%

MARINE FUEL

OTHER7%


Hawaii s electricity issues are fundamentally different than the mainland us

Hawaii’s Electricity Issues are Fundamentally Different than the Mainland US


Alaska wind integration conference june 29 2010

The Solutions


A paradigm shift is required

A Paradigm Shift is Required

  • Economic drain>Economic engine

  • Energy insecurity>Energy security

  • Environmental harm>Environmental compatibility

  • Price volatility>Price stability


Where are we today

As of 2009 – Hawaiian Electric companies

19 % Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency

(~50% / 50%)

State Goal by 2030 – for Hawaii’s economy

40% Renewable Energy

30% Energy Efficiency

Where Are We Today?


How we can move ahead

How We Can Move Ahead:

  • Grid transformation

  • Renewable energy including liquid fuels substitute

  • Inter-island connection


Alaska wind integration conference june 29 2010

Oahu’s Challenge

* U.S. Census

estimates as

of July 2007

Molokai

Kauai

Population 905,601 *

Maui

Oahu

Tri-island

population

141,783 *

Lanai

Geothermal

Wind

Hawaii

Biomass/Biofuel

Solar

Population

173,057 *

DSM/Energy Efficiency

OTEC/Wave

MSW

10


Hawaii s wind energy resources

Hawaii’s Wind Energy Resources

11


Wind on molokai and lanai

Wind on Molokai and Lanai

11/20/2014

12


Renewable game plan for hawaii

Renewable Game Plan for Hawaii

  • The load is on Oahu, but the renewable resource is limited.

  • The neighbor islands have abundant renewable resources, but limited load.

    Ultimately, the islands can benefit by being cabled together.


How can we do it

How Can We Do It?

  • ‘Interisland Wind’

    Lanai & Molokai wind farms

    • 200 MW each

    • Undersea cable

      to Oahu

      Learn more at:

www.interislandwind.com


Alaska wind integration conference june 29 2010

HECO’s System


Hawaiian electric

Hawaiian Electric

Isolated, stand-alone grids

* 80% of state population


Big wind components

Big Wind Components

Oahu Integration & Infrastructure

+

Wind Plant Issues

Cable Issues

Oahu Issues

  • Required wind plant forecasting and performance characteristics

  • Resource intermittency mitigation and management (e.g. energy storage requirements)

  • Adequate capacity factor yielding commercially reasonable pricing

  • Community acceptance of large wind plants

  • Sizing and selection (AC, DC)

  • Cable system reliability and configuration (e.g. mono-pole, bi-pole, spare cable, etc.)

  • Landing sites and footprint for converter station and supporting equipment

  • Ocean permitting and environmental issues

  • O&M responsibilities and operating agreement

  • Maintain 60Hz frequency and system stability

  • Maintain adequate operating reserves in response to wind

  • Improve generator response

  • Enhance system controls and automated features

  • Maintain reliable operations via PPA commitments

  • Community acceptance of new T&D infrastructure

Undersea Cable

Intertie

Wind Plant Development & Performance

=

+

Successful Big Wind


Alaska wind integration conference june 29 2010

Legend

Kahuku Wind Power (30 MW)

Firm Capacity, Net-MW

Future As-Available Resource, MW-nameplate

Future Firm Capacity, Net-MW

Total Existing Firm Capacity = 1,732 MW-net

Total Future Firm Capacity = 35 MW-net

Waiau (473 MW)

Kahe (604 MW)

Airport DSG (8 MW)

H-POWER (46 MW)

Honolulu (108 MW)

H-POWER (27 MW)

AES (180 MW)

CIP CT-1 (113 MW)

Kalaeloa (208 MW)

Honua Power (6 MW)

Generation Resources on Oahu

Oahu RE RFP Pending

400 MW Wind Planned


Alaska wind integration conference june 29 2010

Follow-on Implementation

HECO Baseline

Information

Oahu Transmission Studies

Stead State Load Flow/

Transient Stability/

Short Circuit

Oahu T&D Routing

Study and Engineering

Design

Oahu Transmission

Projects

HECO Model

Development

GE

Submarine Cable

Procurement

and Permitting

Submarine Cable

Architecture and

Functional Specs

Steam Generator

Improvements

EMS Upgrade

Projects

Steam Generator

Projects

EMS/AGC Capability

Analysis

Load Control

Projects

Scenario

Analysis

(GE MAPS/PSLF)

Standby/Quick Start

Generation

Future Generating

Resource Plan

Load Control

Wind Capacity

Calculation

Wind Resource

Modeling

Wind

Forecasting

PPA Negotiations/

Interconnection

Requirements Study

Inter-island Wind Project


Alaska wind integration conference june 29 2010

Scenario Analysis

These four scenarios were the focus of the study (Scenarios 2 and 4 were only moderately different than these three scenarios). Interest from the team to focus effort on mitigating strategies as opposed to these only moderately

Oahu

600MW of new Renewables~1200MW Peak

These 3 scenarios were analyzed to determine the commitment/dispatch, identify new operating characteristics, and establish a new baseline to assess strategies to enhance operation with high penetrations of renewables

+100MW new Wind

+100MW new PV

sub- sea cables

Molokai+200MW new Wind

Lanai

+200MW new Wind


Tools needed for each timescale

Tools Needed For Each Timescale

New tools and data needed to properly model and assess system impacts within operational time constraints.


Modeling tools

Modeling Tools


Wind and solar data development

Wind and Solar Data Development

  • Wind and solar data monitoring units

  • Develop high resolution wind and solar time series data for modeling work


Alaska wind integration conference june 29 2010

Model Data RequirementsSummary of Thermal Unit


Alaska wind integration conference june 29 2010

Integration Challenges …

  • Wind energy curtailment at high penetrations

    • Zero marginal cost energy not being accepted

  • More frequent operation of thermal units at minimum power

    • What if there is a loss of load on the system?

  • Large system contingencies

    • What if the undersea cable trips?

  • Variability of wind energy

    • Large sustained drops in wind/solar power during load rises

  • Reduced thermal unit efficiency & potentially higher O&M costs

    • Higher sub-hourly maneuvering to balance wind/solar power


Alaska wind integration conference june 29 2010

Evaluating Candidate Strategies

  • Wind power forecasting to improve unit commitment

  • Refine up reserve requirements based on wind power variability

  • Reduce minimum power of baseload units

  • Seasonally cycle-off select baseload units

  • Reduce reserve requirement (use of fast-start units and load control)

  • Increase thermal unit ramp rate capability

  • Consider advanced wind turbine technologies to provide “grid support” (e.g., inertia, over-frequency control)


Dynamic response study

Dynamic Response Study

PREMISE

Improving the dynamic responses of generating units on the HECO grid will facilitate the interconnection of greater amounts of variable generation with reduced amounts of other technologies to mitigate adverse operational impacts.

27


Objectives

Objectives

Confirm I&C logic for “AGC” of governors

Characterize existing inertial, droop, and AGC (i.e., “ramp rate”) responses

Develop control strategies and tune systems for improved response (model input)

Identify factors and equipment that limit unit response

Identify capital projects to address limitations

28


Alaska wind integration conference june 29 2010

Combustion Control at Top Load

Pre-Tuning Uninhibited Boiler Following Response Trend

29


Alaska wind integration conference june 29 2010

Post-Tuning Uninhibited Boiler Following Response Trend

30


Alaska wind integration conference june 29 2010

Post-Tuning 3 MW/min Coordinated Control Response Trend

31


Alaska wind integration conference june 29 2010

5 MW/min Response Trend

32


Alaska wind integration conference june 29 2010

System Load/Frequency Response to 125 MW Kahe 5 Trip

33

Theo W. Hetherington – C.S.Squared

(3-14-2009, 20 min response)


Dynamic response generating units for analytical purposes only

DYNAMIC RESPONSE – GENERATING UNITSFor Analytical Purposes Only

34


Alaska wind integration conference june 29 2010

Impact of Renewables Variabilityon System FrequencyHigher thermal unit ramp rates helped manage frequency

Sustained Wind Power DropOct 12th 2pm (1160MW Load)

Fast Wind Power Variability

Aug 30th 10am (995MW Load)

Large and fast-wind power variability over the 5-10min timeframe in both directions

Largest wind forecast error. Largest hourly wind drop (311MW; 27% of gen.)All fast-start units dispatched

Manageable system frequency over largest wind drop

Manageable system frequency over fast wind variability events

GE Internal – HECO Proprietary


Thermal unit ramp rates droop

Thermal Unit Ramp Rates & Droop

Large Wind/Solar/Load Change

Aug 30th 10am (1108MW Load)

Today’s Ramp Rate / Droop

200MW Lanai(curve on top of one another)

UFLS at 59.5 Hz

Propose Future Ramp Rate / Droop


Results

Results


Operational strategies and unit modifications more wind energy delivered lower variable cost

Operational Strategies andUnit ModificationsMore Wind Energy Delivered & Lower Variable Cost

  • Benefits from…

  • Operational Strategies  Wind forecasting & refine up reserve requirement

  • Thermal Unit Modifications  Reduce unit min power & seasonally cycle off baseload units

  • Modifying Reserve Req’ts  Credit load control & fast-start units for up reserve


What worked well for heco

What Worked Well for HECO

  • Dedicated cross-functional team

  • Technical Review Committee

  • Weekly meetings during scenario analysis

  • Selected the most difficult scenario first

  • Prudent use of modeling results


Thank you

Thank You

Learn more ….

  • Hawaii’s Energy Future

    www.hawaiisenergyfuture.com

  • Hawaiian Electric Company

    www.heco.com

  • Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative http:/hawaii.gov/gov/initiatives/2009/energy

  • Hawaii energy data

    http://hawaii.gov/dbedt/info/energy


Alaska wind integration conference june 29 2010

  • BACK UP


Oahu generating fleet

Oahu Generating Fleet

Operating

Service

Unit

Capability

Type

Mode

Date

Age

HECO Generating Units

Honolulu 8

56

Steam, Non-Reheat

Cycling

1954

55

Honolulu 9

57

Steam, Non-Reheat

Cycling

1957

52

Waiau 3

49

Steam, Non-Reheat

Cycling

1947

62

Waiau 4

49

Steam, Non-Reheat

Cycling

1950

59

Waiau 5

57

Steam, Non-Reheat

Cycling

1959

50

Waiau 6

56

Steam, Non-Reheat

Cycling

1961

48

Waiau 7

92

Steam, Reheat

Base

1966

43

Waiau 8

94

Steam, Reheat

Base

1968

41

Waiau 9

53

Combustion Turbine

Peaking

1973

36

Waiau 10

54

Combustion Turbine

Peaking

1973

36

Kahe 1

92

Steam, Reheat

Base

1963

46

Kahe 2

89

Steam, Reheat

Base

1964

45

Kahe 3

92

Steam, Reheat

Base

1970

39

Kahe 4

93

Steam, Reheat

Base

1972

37

Kahe 5

142

Steam, Reheat

Base

1974

35

Kahe 6

142

Steam, Reheat

Base

1981

28

Major Independent Power Producers

HPOWER

46

Steam, Non-Reheat

Base

1990

19

Kalaeloa

208

Combined Cycle

Base

1991

18

AES

180

Steam, Reheat

Base

1992

17

42


How is frequency performance affected by installed wind power and scenario assumptions

How is frequency performance affected by installed wind power and scenario assumptions?

Wind Power Variability

Proposed Ramp Rates & Droops

Input Data

No solar variability, No AES governor response PSLF

  • Good correlation between increased wind power variability and associated frequency performance

  • 3B and 5B scenarios have better frequency performance than 3F3 and 5F3 scenarios. This is because fewer units are against their limits (more up regulation in 3B and 5B as compared to 3F3 and 5F3).


How much does maneuvering of heco units increase in scenarios with more wind power

How much does maneuvering of HECO units increase in scenarios with more wind power?

  • A high percentage of total system variability (>80%) is counteracted by HECO units in all scenarios and for fast and slow variations.

  • System variability is higher if solar variability is considered. HECO units perform most of the maneuvering.

Proposed AGC ramp-rates, no solar variability, no AES governor response

Maneuvering of HECO units doubled in scenarios with offshore wind for slow and fast variations


What units increase maneuvering in scenarios with more wind power

What units increase maneuvering in scenarios with more wind power?

Proposed AGC ramp-rates, no solar variability, no AES governor response PSLF

Variability of HECO units increased to counteract additional wind power variability in scenarios 3 and 5


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