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History of the UniversePowerPoint Presentation

History of the Universe

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Inflation, the Problem Solver

A. Horizon Why is the CMB radiation so isotropic?

Flat UniverseWhy is the density of the Universe so close to critical?

Structure Where does structure come from?

GUTs suggest that Universe did undergo inflation

Inflation, the Problem Solver

Milky Way

Solar System

phase transition

strong nuclear force separates

extreme pressure overwhelms gravity

Electroweak

Inflation Solves Horizon Problem

A. Horizonwhy is the CMB radiation so isotropic?

observe … temp is 2.725 K with variation of 1 part in 100,000

in BB … two points in opposite directions could look different

Universe tiny in past

Inflation Solves Flatness Problem

B. Flatness why is the density of Universe so close to critical?

observe … matter density is 27% critical

in BB … no reason why density close to critical

Universe HAS to look flat if you inflate fast

Inflation Solves Structure Problem

C. Structure where does structure come from?

observe … CMB not completely uniform

observe … galaxies/clusters exist

in BB … quantum ripples in early Universe much too small

inflation superstretches ripples into macro sizes

Dark Matter: Cluster Motions

Virial Theorem: for stable, self-gravitating, spherical

distribution of equal mass objects:

KE = –1/2 PE

KE per galaxy = 1/2 mgv2

KE of N galaxies = 1/2 Nmgv2 = 1/2 Mcv2

PE per galaxy = –1/2 Gmgmg/R

PE of N galaxies = –1/2 GNmgNmg/R = –1/2 GMc2/R

Assume random orbits (no preferred rotation):

1/2 Mcv2 = 1/4 GMc2/R

Mc = 2 v2R/G yields “Virial Mass”

(with lots of galaxies, can see how VM changes with radius)

Dark Matter: 3D Map

HST/ACS images of 8X full moon

ground-based opt/ir/rad +

space-based XMM-Newton

measure shapes of half million galaxies

to reveal “weak lensing”

conclude:

dark matter clumps over time

Future Universe

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