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We Love Prepositions!!!. Prepared By: Dipak Parikh Principal, Vakal Vidyalaya , Bajuwa , Baroda. PREPOSITION PREPOSITION: Pre + Position Pre= Before or Beginning Subject Subject is used in the beginning of a sentence.

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We Love Prepositions!!!

Dipakbhai V.Parikh

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PREPOSITION

  • PREPOSITION: Pre + Position
  • Pre= Before or Beginning
  • Subject
  • Subject is used in the beginning of a sentence.

Dipakbhai V.Parikh

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Preposition tells us about the position of subject/agent in a sentence.

Pre

Subject (doer of-

-action)

Position

Dipakbhai V.Parikh

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(1)ON: One object is on the surface of the other –to show this relationship we use preposition ‘on’.

  • Ex.(a) There is a dog on the chair.
  • (b) Children were playing games on the terrace.
  • The surface is horizontal here. But it can sometimes

Dipakbhai V.Parikh

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-vertical.

  • Ex.(a) There is a picture on the wall.
  • (b) The teacher is writing on the blackboard.
  • (c) Last night we watched Kahanighargharki on T.V.
  • In the context of travelling :
  • (a) He goes to school on foot.

Dipakbhai V.Parikh

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Sometimes our perception of the world is different from the native speakers of English. In the following examples ‘On’ is used in English whereas we would use the equivalent of ‘In’.

  • Ex.(a) There is a diamond ring on Ritu’s finger.
  • (b) You have forgotten to put on socks on your legs.

Dipakbhai V.Parikh

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(2) In: One object is inside the other object. This can be indicated using ‘in’.

  • Ex. (a) The bird is in the cage.
  • (b) Passengers are in the bus.
  • (c) Students are in the class.

Dipakbhai V.Parikh

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Some times we look at the same thing in different ways. If we consider that something in enclosed by or inside the other thing we use in.

  • Ex. (a) The next match will be played in the Wankhede stadium.
  • (b) A cuckoo is singing in the tree.
  • (c) He looked at me after sitting in the chair.
  • (d) The T.V. is in the cupboard.

Dipakbhai V.Parikh

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(3)In to: An object/person

  • Moves to a place which is enclosed. This is expressed using the preposition ‘in to’
  • Ex.(a) The man is going in to the tunnel.
  • (b) While walking he fell in to a pit.
  • (c) A frog jumped in to a pond.

Dipakbhai V.Parikh

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(d) Our bus entered in to the city of Baroda at night.

  • (e) A train is going into a pond.

(4) Out of: An object/person moves away from the place which is enclosed. To indicate we use ‘out of’.

Ex.(a) A snake is coming out of a temple.

Dipakbhai V.Parikh

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(b) A rate came out of the hole and looked at a camel.

  • (c) If you go our of Mumbai, You will get fresh air.
  • (5)Inside/Outside: An object/person is nearer or away from the centre of something, we use ‘Inside’ or ‘outside’.
  • Ex.(a) The bird is inside the cage.

.

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(b)When you are out side, you

are not in a building

or other structure.

( (c)My house is out

side the village.

(d) the dog is out side the house.

(6) Above: One object is at a higher level than the other object. This can be indicated-

Dipakbhai V.Parikh

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-by using the preposition

‘Above’. Ex.

  • The clouds above the trees are moving very slowly today.
  • The "Do Not Enter" sign is above the "Wrong Way" sign.
  •  The red light is abovethe yellow and green light.

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4. A bat is flying above his head and he\'s freaking out.

  • 5.She is above me in the class room. (in the sense of progress also.)
  • (7) Over: One object is at a higher level than the other object. Moreover the two are in a vertical position. That is

Dipakbhai V.Parikh

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-they are almost in one line. To indicate this we use ‘over’.

Sometimes it is to be used for mentioning distance. Ex.

  • There is picture over the table.
  • The man is dancing over the table.
  • Bob is over the river.

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(d) The aero plane is flying over the river.

  • (e) She is carrying an umbrella over her head.
  • (f) The golden bridge is over the river the Narmada.
  • (g) An old man is walking bending over his stick. (In the context of lifting weight)

Dipakbhai V.Parikh

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(8) Below: One object is at a lower level than the other object. One can describe this situation by using ‘below’ .

  • Ex.(1) The arrow hit below the target.
  • (2) Those huts are bellow the hill.
  • (3) Kanyakumari is below Chennai.

Dipakbhai V.Parikh

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(9) Under: One object is at a lower level than the other object. In addition, the two are in a vertical position, that is they are almost in one line. To describe this we use ‘under’. Ex.

  • (1) There is a cat under the table.
  • (2)There is a basement under this building.
  • (3)Tired traveler sat under a tree.

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(10)Across: A thing is on the other side of something or a thing is moving on the other side of something. We can describe this using ‘across’.

  • Ex.(1) "He threw the ball across the court.
  • (2) Bob is walking across the bridge.
  • (3) Ramesh is parking his-

Dipakbhai V.Parikh

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-bike across the road.

  • (4)The boat is going across the river.
  • (5)There is a village across this river.
  • (11)Upward/Downward:
  • An object is in the direction of the sky or an object is moving in the direction of the sky-we use ‘up’ or ‘upward’. An object is in the

Dipakbhai V.Parikh

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-in the opposite direction of the sky or it is moving in the opposite direction of the sky. We use ‘down’ or ‘downward’.

  • Ex. (1) The missile is going up.
  • (2) Very soon the plane will go up in the sky.
  • (3) Trees grow upwards.
  • (4) The nuclear missile went up within seconds

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(5)An apple is falling down.

  • (6) Manoj was knocked down by a scooterist.
  • (12) Along: A thing is moving parallel to something or is in the same direction. To indicate this we use ‘along’. Ex.
  • (1) The trees are along the high way.
  • (2)Gagan is walking along the river.

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(3) Our bus was running along the railway track.

  • (13) Through: A thing moves straight but in the process passes through something such as air, water, glass, grass etc. This can be shown using ‘through’. Ex.
  • (1)The plane passes through clouds.

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(2) A deer is running thorough grass

  • (3) This bus does not go through the ccity.
  • (14) Towards: A person or a thing is moving in the direction of someone/something, we use preposition to/towards. Ex.
  • (1) Rajesh and Meena are going to school.

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(2) Pupils are going to school.

  • (3) Mohan ran towards the bus but could not catch it.
  • (4) Samir went to Delhi for Job.
  • (15) From: A person or a thing is moving in the opposite direction of something. We convey this

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-meaning using ‘from’. Ex.

  • (1)Mr. Christi and Mrs. Christi are coming from church.
  • (2) She just feel as if they are coming from the heaven.
  • (3) Rajesh and Meena are coming from school.
  • (4) Ramesh normally comes from office at six.

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(16) Between: When we want to say that a person or a thing is flanked by two objects or persons we use ‘between’. Ex.

  • (1) The girl is between two trees.
  • (2) There is ball between two squares.
  • (3) There is Television between dog and cat.

Dipakbhai V.Parikh

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(4) My village is between Umreth and Dakor.

  • (5) There is a red ball between two shoes.
  • (17) Among: To indicate that someone or something is surrounded by many things or persons we use ‘among’. Ex. (1) Miss Maria is the tallest girl among all her family members.

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(2) The picture of Bob is among the boxes.

  • (3) The man is walking among the trees.
  • (4) There is red marble among black marbles.
  • (18) Before and After : To indicate sequence in terms of place we use ‘before’ or ‘after’. Something that comes first is

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-placed before will be used. Something that comes later after will be used. Ex.

  • (1) A comes before B.
  • (2) B comes before C.
  • (3) B comes after A.
  • (4) C comes after B.
  • (5) There is a garden before the house
  • (6) Anand comes before Vadodara.

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(19) At:- To mention place or time ‘at’ can be used. When we talk about small village or city we can use ‘at’. But when we talk about big town or city ‘in’ can be used. Ex.

  • (1) I came at 5 O’clock.
  • (2) Darshan met him at

the station.

(3)He was born at wadhwan.

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But if we talk about in context of big city- ‘in’ can be used.

  • (1) We live in Bombay.
  • (2) She lives in America.
  • (20) By : The one meaning of ‘by’ indicates an agent. Ex.
  • (1) The tiger is killed by hunter.
  • (2) Rahul goes to school by bus.

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(21) With: To mention with someone else or some others and to mention with some instrument, preposition ‘with’ can be used. Ex.

  • (1) I write with a pen.
  • (2) Manish goes to school with Rahim.
  • (3) He killed a tiger with a gun.

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(22) Beside/Besides: ‘Beside’ can be used to indicate near by area(close to or next to)- totally nearer to a person and ‘besides’ can be used to mention on and above.( In addition to-apart from)Ex.

  • (1) I sat beside my friend.
  • (2) Besides this house they have one in the native place.

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(3) My house is located beside the school.(Near the school)

  • (4) She wants to buy pens besides pencils.
  • (23) Beyond: To mention the

Other side, additional ‘beyond’

Can be used. Ex.

  • There are clouds beyond the river.

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(2) There is the sun beyond the river.

  • (3) There are clouds beyond the pyramid.
  • (4) There is a garden beyond the river.
  • (5) I worked beyond one hour.
  • (24)Of: In the context of ownership and in the case of

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-dying the person due to any

Disease, ‘of’ can be used. Ex.

  • Byron died of cancer.
  • All the nations of the world want peace.
  • There is an accusation of theft against the lady.

(25) Up to: To mention the

Certain limits or not more

Than, ‘up to’ can be used.

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(1) We walked up to the hills.

  • (26) From: In the context of
  • Specific time and specific place
  • ‘from’ can be used, and if the person suffers from certain disease ‘from’ can be used. Ex.
  • (1) I went from Vadodara to Ahmedabad by us.
  • (2) He works from morning to
  • Evening.

Dipakbhai V.Parikh

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(3) The man is suffering from cholera.

  • (27) For: for mentioning period of time and for mentioning reason(sometimes) ‘for’ can be used. Ex.
  • (1) He has been working here for ten years.
  • (2)He died for a noble cause.

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(3) He was punished for his

Carelessness.

(28) Since: To mention specific

Time (point of time) and sometimes for mentioning reason ‘since’ can be used. Ex.

  • I have not seen him since 15th August, 2012.
  • I have been serving here since 15th June, 2006.

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(29) Till/Un till : To mention Up to certain period of time‘till’ or ‘un till’ can be used.Ex.

  • (1) wait here till I come back.

(2) Don’t go until I return.

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The End

Dipakbhai V.Parikh

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