344 471 artificial intelligence expert systems
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344-471 ปัญญาประดิษฐ์และระบบชำนาญการ ( Artificial Intelligence & Expert Systems) PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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344-471 ปัญญาประดิษฐ์และระบบชำนาญการ ( Artificial Intelligence & Expert Systems). ดร.วิภาดา เวทย์ประสิทธิ์ ภาควิชาวิทยาการคอมพิวเตอร์ คณะวิทยาศาสตร์ มหาวิทยาลัยสงขลานครินทร์ ห้องทำงาน : M 100/3 โทรศัพท์ : 074-288702 E-mail : [email protected]

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344-471 ปัญญาประดิษฐ์และระบบชำนาญการ ( Artificial Intelligence & Expert Systems)

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344 471 artificial intelligence expert systems

344-471 ปัญญาประดิษฐ์และระบบชำนาญการ(Artificial Intelligence & Expert Systems)

ดร.วิภาดา เวทย์ประสิทธิ์

ภาควิชาวิทยาการคอมพิวเตอร์ คณะวิทยาศาสตร์ มหาวิทยาลัยสงขลานครินทร์

ห้องทำงาน : M100/3 โทรศัพท์ : 074-288702

E-mail : [email protected]

Web site : http:// www.cs.psu.ac.th/wiphada


344 471 artificial intelligence expert systems

วัตถุประสงค์

1. ให้นักศึกษามีความรู้ความเข้าใจเกี่ยวกับปัญญาประดิษฐ์และสาขาต่างๆของปัญญาประดิษฐ์

2. ให้นักศึกษาสามารถพัฒนางานทางด้านปัญญาประดิษฐ์ได้

3. ให้นักศึกษาสามารถค้นคว้าเพิ่มเติมด้วยตนเองได้

วิธีการเรียนการสอน :การบรรยาย การสัมมนา การศึกษาค้นคว้าด้วยตัวเอง

การวัดผล : สอบกลางภาค 30% สอบปลายภาค 30%

สัมมนา/การบ้าน 10% Assignment 20%

เวลาเรียน :จันทร์ 10 - 11 ห้องวท1 พุธ 9 –10 ห้อง M.309

พฤหัส 9 –10 ห้อง M.309 และ 10-11 ห้อง L5

Chapter 1


344 471 artificial intelligence expert systems

เนื้อหา

งาน

Chapter 1 : What is Artificial Intelligence?

Homework 1

Chapter 2 : Heuristic Search techniques

Homework 2

Chapter 3 : Knowledge Representation

Homework 3

Chapter 4 : Predicate Logics

Chapter 5 : Expert Systems

Lab 1 : สัมมนา

Chapter 6 : Natural Language Processing

Lab 2 : สัมมนา

Chapter 7 : Robotics

Lab 3 : สัมมนา

Chapter 8 : Computer vision

Lab 4 : สัมมนา

Chapter 9 : Neural Networks

Lab 5 : สัมมนา

Chapter 10 : Machine Learning

Lab 6 : สัมมนา

เนื้อหาวิชา

Chapter 1


344 471 artificial intelligence expert systems

เอกสารอ้างอิง

1. Artificial Intelligence second edition, Elaine Rich and Kevin Knight, McGraw-Hill Inc., 1991.

2. Neural Networks : A Comprehensive Foundation, Simon Haykin, Macmillan College Publishing Company Inc. 1994.

2. Artificial Intelligence : Structures and Strategies for Complex Problem Solving, Second Edition, 1993.

3. Expert Systems and Applied Artificial Intelligence, Efraim Turban, Macmillan Publishing Company, 1992.

4. Understanding Decision Support Systems and Expert Systems, Efrem G. Mallach, Richard D. Irwin, Inc. 1994

5. Introduction to Natural Language Processing, Mary Dee Harries, 1985.

Chapter 1


Chapter 1 what is artificial intelligence

Chapter 1What is Artificial Intelligence?


Ai areas

AI Areas

Artificial Intelligence (AI) :

  • the branch o f computer science that is concerned with the automation of intelligent behavior.

    AI Areas :

  • Game Playing

  • Automated Reasoning and Theorem Proving

  • Expert Systems

  • Natural Language Understanding and Semantics Modeling

  • Modeling Human Performance

  • Planning and Robotics

  • Machine Leaning

  • Neural Networks

Chapter 1


Task domain of ai

Task Domain of AI

Mundane Tasks

  • Perception :Vision, Speech

  • Natural language :Understanding, Generation, Translation

  • Commonsense reasoning

  • Robot control

    Formal Tasks

  • Games:Chess

  • Mathematics :Logic, Geometry

    Expert Tasks

  • Engineering :Design, Fault finding, Manufacturing planning

  • Scientific analysis

  • Medical diagnosis

  • Financial analysis

Chapter 1


Intelligence require knowledge

Intelligence require knowledge

  • It is voluminous.

  • Is it shard to characterize accurately.

  • It is constantly changing.

  • It differs from data by being organized in a way that corresponds to the ways it will be used.

Chapter 1


Knowledge representation and search for ai

Knowledge Representation and Search for AI

  • The knowledge captures generalizations.

  • It can be understood by people who must provide it.

  • It can easily be modified to correct errors and to reflect changes in the world.

  • It can be used in many situations even if it is not totally accurate or complete.

  • It can use to narrow the range of possibilities that must usually be considered.

Chapter 1


Common features of ai problems

Common Features of AI Problems

  • The use of computer to do the symbolic reasoning.

  • A focus on problems that do not respond to algorithmic solutions.  Heuristic search.

  • Manipulate the significant quantitative features of a situation rather than relying on numeric methods.

  • Dealing with semantic meaning.

  • Answer that are neither exact nor optimal but “sufficient”.

  • Domain specific knowledge in solving problems.

  • Use meta-level knowledge.

Chapter 1


Tic tac toe program 1

Tic-Tac-Toe : Program 1

Chapter 1


Tic tac toe program 11

Tic-Tac-Toe : Program 1

Chapter 1


Tic tac toe program 12

1 2 3

4 5 6

7 8 9

Tic-Tac-Toe : Program 1

  • Board : nine element vector representation.

  • 0 = blank, 1 =X, 2 = O

  • Moveable : Their Complexity = 39 = 19,683

    • view vector board as a ternary number (base three)

Chapter 1


Tic tac toe program 2

Tic-Tac-Toe : Program 2

Chapter 1


Tic tac toe program 21

Tic-Tac-Toe : Program 2

Chapter 1


Tic tac toe program 22

1 2 3

4 5 6

7 8 9

Tic-Tac-Toe : Program 2

  • Board : nine element vector representation.

  • 2 = blank,3 =X,5 = O

    • an integer indicating which move of the game is about to played.

    • 1 indicate the first move.

    • 9 indicate the last move.

    • Board[5] = 2 mean blank

  • Poswin(p) : If it produce (3*3*2) =18  X can win

    • p = 0 if the player can not win on his next move.

  • Poswin(p) : If it produce (5*5*2) =50 O can win

  • Go(n) : Make a move on square n.

    • TURN is odd if it is playing X

    • TURN is even if it is playing O

    • More efficient in term of space.

Chapter 1


Tic tac toe program 23

Tic-Tac-Toe : Program 2’

Chapter 1


Tic tac toe program 24

Tic-Tac-Toe : Program 2’

Chapter 1


Tic tac toe program 25

8 3 4

1 5 9

6 7 2

Tic-Tac-Toe: Program 2’

  • Board : nine element vector representation.

  • 2 = blank,3 =X,5 = O

    • an integer indicating which move of the game is about to played.

    • 1 indicate the first move.

    • 9 indicate the last move.

    • Board[5] = 2 mean blank

  • Poswin(p) : If it produce MAGIC SQUARE

    • (8 + 3 + 4) =15

    • p = 0 if the player can not win on his next move.

  • Go(n) : Make a move on square n.

    • TURN is odd if it is playing X

    • TURN is even if it is playing O

    • More efficient in term of space.

Chapter 1


Tic tac toe program 3

Tic-Tac-Toe : Program 3

Chapter 1


Tic tac toe program 31

Tic-Tac-Toe : Program 3

Chapter 1


Tic tac toe program 32

1 2 3

4 5 6

7 8 9

Tic-Tac-Toe : Program 3

  • Board_Position : nine element vector representing the board, a list of board positions that could result from the next move, and a number representing as estimate of how likely the board position is lead to an ultimate win for the player to move.

  • Minimax Procedure : in chapter 12.

  • Search tree : need more time

  • Use AI technique :

  • Decide which of a set of board positions is best.

    • find highest possible rating.

    • consider all the moves the component could make next.  See which move is worst for us....

    • (Assume the opponent will make that move)

Chapter 1


Question answering 1

Question Answering 1

Russia massed troops on the Czech border.

POLITICS program [Corbonell,1980)

Q1: Why did Russia do this?

A1: รัสเซียต้องการเข้าแทรกแซงการเมืองในเชคโกสโลวาเกีย.....

Q1: What should the United States do?

A2: ส่งทหารไปช่วยรบกับเชคโกสโลวาเกียOR

A2:ประณามการกระทำของรัสเซีย

Chapter 1


Question answering 2

Question Answering 2

  • Mary went shopping for a new coat.

  • She found a red one she really liked.

  • When she got it home, she discovered that it went perfectly with her favorite dress.

ELIZA

Q1:What did Mary go shopping for?

A1: .............................................

Q2:What did Mary find she liked?

A2:.............................................

Q3: Did Mary buy anything ?

A3:.............................................

Chapter 1


The level of the model

The level of the model

  • What is the goal in trying to produce programs that do intelligent things that people do?

  • Are we trying to produce programs that do the tasks the same way people do?

  • Are we attempting to produce programs that simply do the tasks in whatever way appears easiest?

Chapter 1


Model human performance

Model human performance

  • To test psychological theories of human performance. วิเคราะห์นิสัยเกเรของคนไข้ PAPPY {Colby, 1975]

    2. To enable computers to understand human reasoning. อ่านหนังสือพิมพ์และวิเคราะห์ข่าวได้

  • To enable computers to understand computer reasoning.

    • เข้าใจว่า คอมพิวเตอร์ประมวลผลลัพธ์ต่างๆมาได้อย่างไร

Chapter 1


Criteria for success

Criteria for success

  • How will we know if we have succeeded?

  • Turing test. Human Computer Person asking?

  • DENDRAL : is a program that analyzes organic compounds to determine their structure.

    HUMAN CHEMIST COMPUTER

Chapter 1


Homework 1 2

Homework 1 (2%)

  • Given the meaning of Artificial Intelligence from your point of view. You may add citation from searching documents in the web or from the text book.

  • Given all AI fields with some explanations.

    Due date : Wednesday 17 November 2004 in class

Chapter 1


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