Macromolecules
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MACROMOLECULES. Metabolic Processes. Metabolism is the sum of all biological processes. There are 2 major metabolic processes Anabolism – the building up of complex molecules Catabolism – the breaking down of complex molecules. Macromolecules. Large organic molecules (made of carbon)

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MACROMOLECULES

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Macromolecules

MACROMOLECULES


Metabolic processes

Metabolic Processes

  • Metabolism is the sum of all biological processes.

  • There are 2 major metabolic processes

    • Anabolism – the building up of complex molecules

    • Catabolism – the breaking down of complex molecules


Macromolecules1

Macromolecules

  • Large organic molecules (made of carbon)

  • Known as polymers

  • Made up of smaller “building blocks” – monomers

  • Formed through a process known as dehydration synthesis

    • Forms polymers by combining monomers by removing water

  • Separated through a process known as hydrolysis

    • Monomers are separated through the addition of water


4 major types of macromolecules

4 Major Types of Macromolecules

  • Carbohydrates

  • Lipids

  • Proteins

  • Nucleic Acids


Macromolecules

After watching the video, with your partner, identify 2 examples of carbohydrates?


Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates

  • Sugar molecules (ranging from small sugars to large sugars)

  • Have the molecular formula (CH2O)n


Carbohydrates1

glucose

glucose

glucose

glucose

cellulose

glucose

glucose

glucose

glucose

glucose

Carbohydrates

  • Monomers – monosaccharides: a single sugar unit

  • Polymers – disaccharides (two sugar units) and polysaccharides (many sugar units)


Carbohydrate function

Carbohydrate - Function

  • Main source of energy for the body

  • Provide short term energy – will be used up in short periods of time

  • Structure/Support – make up the cell wall in plants

  • Examples: Starch, glucose, cellulose


Macromolecules

Check for Understanding:

With your partner, identify the following as polymers or monomers.


Lipids

Lipids

  • Compounds that are not soluble in water

  • General structure of a lipd

  • Saturdatedfatty acids – have single C-C bonds

  • Unsaturated fatty acids – have at least 1 double C-C bond


Lipids1

O

C-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH3

=

H

H-C----O

H-C----O

H-C----O

H

O

C-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH3

=

O

C-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH

fatty acids

=

=CH-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH3

glycerol

Lipids

  • Monors – triglycerides

    • Made up of 1 glycerol and 3 fatty acids

  • No polymers


Lipids functions

Lipids - functions

  • Long term energy storage

  • Protection against heat loss

  • Major component of membranes (phospholipids)

  • Examples: cholesterol, oils, waxes


Macromolecules

Check for Understanding:

With your partner, label the fatty acids below as either saturated or unsaturated.


Proteins

Proteins

  • Polypeptide chains made from amino acids

  • Have a 3 dimensional globular shape

  • Amino acids are made of carbon, hydrogen, amino group, carboxyl acid, variable R group


Proteins1

Proteins

  • Monomer – amino acids

    • 2 types of amino acids

      • Essential – cannot be made by the body (need to be consumed)

      • Non-essential – can be made by the body

  • Polymer – polypeptide chain


Proteins function

Proteins - function

  • Storage

  • Transport of materials

  • Movement: muscles

  • Enzymes: aid in cellular reactions

  • Defense: antibodies (defend your body from infections)

  • Examples: enzymes, hormones


Macromolecules

With your partner, place a star next to each of the structures below that is an amino acid and tell me why.


Nucleic acids

Phosphate

Group

O

O=P-O

O

5

CH2

O

N

Nitrogenous base

(A, G, C, or T)

C1

C4

Sugar

(deoxyribose)

C3

C2

Nucleic Acids

  • Compounds that are made up of nucleotides


Nucleic acids1

Nucleic Acids

  • Monomers – nucleotides

  • Polymer – DNA/RNA

    • DNA – deoxyribonucleic acid

      • Genetic material

      • Codes for proteins

    • RNA – ribonucleic acid

      • Reads the DNA

      • Makes proteins


Nucleic acids function

Nucleic Acids - Function

  • Store genetic information

  • Transmit heredity

  • Examples: DNA & RNA


Macromolecules

Check for Understanding:

With your partner, place a star next to each of the structures below that represent the nitrogenous base component of a nucleotide. Be sure to include why.


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