Threatened endangered and other sensitive species
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Threatened, Endangered, and Other Sensitive Species. Identification, Biology, and EMS Protection Guidance. Western Timberlands Weyerhaeuser Company 4 March 2003. What to Do. Contact Weyerhaeuser Representative Do Not Move or Disturb Species of Interest: Bald Eagle, Golden Eagle

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Threatened, Endangered, and Other Sensitive Species

Identification, Biology, and EMS Protection Guidance

Western Timberlands

Weyerhaeuser Company

4 March 2003


What to Do

  • Contact Weyerhaeuser Representative

  • Do Not Move or Disturb

  • Species of Interest:

    • Bald Eagle, Golden Eagle

    • Northern Spotted Owl

    • Marbled Murrelet

    • Pergrine Falcon

    • Western Pond Turtle

    • Goshawks

    • Osprey

    • Heron Rookery

    • Other Hawks and Owls during nest occupancy


What to Do

  • Contact Weyerhaeuser Representative

  • Do Not Move or Disturb

  • Species of Interest:

    • Bald Eagle, Golden Eagle

    • Northern Spotted Owl

    • Marbled Murrelet

    • Pergrine Falcon

    • Western Pond Turtle

    • Goshawks

    • Osprey

    • Heron Rockery

    • Other Hawks and Owls during nest occupancy


Your Responsibility:

  • Familiarity with threatened, endangered, and other sensitive species that are protected either by state/federal law, Weyerhaeuser’s EMS, or both, and may occur on Weyerhaeuser’s lands.

  • Knowledge of reporting procedures for observations or encounters with protected species:

    • Promptly report sightings to immediate supervisor or other designated rep.

    • STOP activity immediately if sighting is within an active unit, until determination is made of when/how to proceed.

    • Take all necessary steps to avoid killing or injuring a protected species.

    • Promptly report any dead or injured protected species on or near Weyerhaeuser lands or operations: do NOT handle or disturb dead or injured protected species.


Threatened, Endangered, and Other Sensitive Species

Identification, Biology, and EMS Protection Guidance

Western Timberlands

Weyerhaeuser Company

4 March 2003


Your Responsibility:

  • Familiarity with threatened, endangered, and other sensitive species that are protected either by state/federal law, Weyerhaeuser’s EMS, or both, and may occur on Weyerhaeuser’s lands.

  • Knowledge of reporting procedures for observations or encounters with protected species:

    • Promptly report sightings to immediate supervisor or other designated rep.

    • STOP activity immediately if sighting is within an active unit, until determination is made of when/how to proceed.

    • Take all necessary steps to avoid killing or injuring a protected species.

    • Promptly report any dead or injured protected species on or near Weyerhaeuser lands or operations: do NOT handle or disturb dead or injured protected species.


What to Do

  • Contact Weyerhaeuser Representative

  • Do Not Move or Disturb

  • Species of Interest:

    • Bald Eagle, Golden Eagle

    • Northern Spotted Owl

    • Marbled Murrelet

    • Pergrine Falcon

    • Western Pond Turtle

    • Goshawks

    • Osprey

    • Heron Rockery

    • Other Hawks and Owls during nest occupancy


Western Pond Turtle

  • Clemmysmarmorata

  • Associated with quiet water in small lakes, marshes, & sluggish streams/rivers

  • Require basking sites such as logs, rocks, mudbanks

  • Nests are terrestrial; eggs are laid in May to August, with hatchlings overwintering underground & emerging in spring

  • Shell length: 4.5”- 8.5”

  • Feed on insects, frogs, fish,

  • tadpoles, earthworms, & plants


Western Pond Turtle

  • Current status: endangered (WA) critical (OR), Federal species of concern (OR & WA populations est. to be 96-98% reduced since 1900)

  • WA-FPA: restrictions on road building, site prep., harvesting, and pesticide application w/in 0.25 mi. of all known individual occurrences

  • OR-FPA: no restrictions


Western Pond Turtle

  • EMS Guidelines:

    • Timing restrictions from 20 April - 20 August

    • Within 0.25 miles of water bodies with known occurrences

    • Restrict activities that potentially disturb breeding such as harvesting, road construction, site preparation, and helicopter operations

    • May require site specific management plan


Bald Eagle

  • Haliaeetus leucocephalus

  • Associated with: coasts, rivers, lakes, marshes

  • Require tall trees/cliffs for nesting + adjacent roost, perch/stage trees

  • Nests are large platform nests, constructed of sticks; usually w/in 0.5 miles of water, near the top of the nest tree

  • Height: 30”- 40” wingspan: 72”- 90”

  • Breeding season begins early,

  • usually January or February

  • Young fledge and are flying

  • within ~ 3 months

  • Feed on fish, carrion, water

  • birds, small mammals


Bald Eagle

  • Current status: Threatened in OR, WA, & federally

  • WA-FPA: Restrictions on disruptive activities (harvesting, road building, etc.) within 0.25 mile of nest stand or roosting/staging stands

  • OR-FPA: restricted activities within 300’ of nest tree; 0.25 mile disturbance restriction required 1 Jan.-31 Aug. (0.5 miles if line of site); also requires protection of perch trees during critical period. 0.25 mile (0.5 mile, line of sight) disturbance restriction on roost stands from 15 November - 15 March


Bald Eagle

  • EMS Guidelines:

    • Timing restrictions from 1 January - 31 August

    • Within 0.25 miles of nest stand or roost stand (WA & OR), except 0.5 miles if line of sight (OR)

    • Additional restrictions in OR from 15 Nov. - 15 March, within 0.25 miles of roost stand, except 0.5 mile if line of sight

    • Restrict nest-disrupting activities such as harvesting, road construction, site preparation, and helicopter operations

    • May require site specific management plan


Golden Eagle

  • Aquilachrysaetos

  • Associated with open country & open coniferous forests

  • Require cliffs for nesting, sometimes large trees

  • Large stick nests, lined with leaves, moss, fur

  • Nesting season begins in late March, young are independent after ~ 4 months

  • Height: 32”- 42” wingspan: 80”- 90”

  • Feed on rabbits, hares, other

  • mammals, birds, carrion


Golden Eagle

  • Current status: candidate species in WA, no OR or federal designation

  • WA-FPA: no restrictions

  • OR-FPA: no restrictions


Golden Eagle

  • EMS Guidelines:

    • Timing restrictions from 1 Jan. - 31 August

    • Within 0.25 miles of nest

    • Restrict nest-disrupting activities such as harvesting, road construction, site preparation, blasting, and helicopter operations

    • May require site specific management plan


Northern Spotted Owl

  • Strixoccidentalis

  • Occur in mixed conifer stands, usually with multiple layers and a closed canopy

  • Nests in snags/defective green trees, usually in a hollow, but may utilize platform nests

  • Nesting season begins in March; young fledge ~ 6 weeks after hatching

  • Height:16”- 19” wingspan: ~ 24”

  • Feed on N. flying squirrels, red

  • tree voles, woodrats

  • May be relatively unafraid of

  • humans; look for pellets


Northern Spotted Owl

  • Current status: endangered in WA; OR & federally threatened

  • WA-FPA:

  • Maintenance of habitat in

  • vicinity of known sites,

  • disturbance avoidance from 1

  • March - 31 August

  • OR-FPA:

  • maintenance of 70 ac. suitable

  • habitat core around site center;

  • disturbance avoidance from 1

  • March - 30 September


Northern Spotted Owl

  • EMS Guidelines

    • Timing restrictions from 1 March - 31 August (WA), 1 March - 30 September (OR)

    • Within 0.25 miles of nest

    • Restrict nest-disrupting activities such as harvesting, road construction, site preparation, blasting, and helicopter operations

    • Requires development of a protection area core, as well as a site-specific operating plan, if w/in 0.7 miles of site center or within designated Owl Management Area

    • Survey of potential habitat prior to harvesting


Marbled Murrelet

  • Brachyramphus

    marmoratus

  • Forages in marine environment, nests in inland forest stands, often colonial

  • Requires platform structures with moss for nesting; nests discovered as far as 64 miles inland

  • Fly at high speeds - 50+ mph

  • Height: ~ 9”

    wingspan: 10”- 12”

  • Breeding season begins in

  • April

  • Incubation for ~ 1 month,

  • young fledge 3-4 months later

  • Feed on small fish

  • Distinctive keer, keer call


Marbled Murrelet

  • Current status: OR, WA, and Federally threatened

  • WA-FPA: Habitat protection requirements + 300’ buffer on occupied stands, timing restrictions during nesting season (1 April - 31 August)

  • OR-FPA: no restrictions


Marbled Murrelet

  • EMS Guidelines

    • Timing restrictions from 1 April - 31 August

    • Within 0.25 miles of occupied stands, during daily peak activity periods (1 hour before to 2 hours after official sunrise; 1 hour before to 1 hour after official sunset)

    • Restrict nest-disrupting activities such as harvesting, road construction, site preparation, blasting, and helicopter operations

    • Requires site-specific protection (WA rule requires 300’ buffer on occupied stands)


Peregrine Falcon

  • Falcoperegrinus

  • Associated with cliffs, overlooking open areas

  • Nest on cliffs (or manmade structures in urban areas); usually near a marsh, lake, or river

  • Height: 16”- 20” wingspan: 36”- 44”

  • Breeding season begins in March

  • Incubation lasts ~ 5 wks., young fledge in 4-5 mos.

  • Feed on birds, taken on the

  • wing

  • Distinctive black crown and

  • wedge, forming “helmet”


Peregrine Falcon

  • Current status: OR endangered, WA sensitive, Federal species of concern

  • WA-FPA: Class IV

  • special in vicinity of known nest

  • sites; disturbance avoidance w/in

  • 0.5 mi. of known nest from 1

  • March - 30 July, w/in 0.25 mi.

  • From 1 August - 28 February.

  • OR-FPA: no restrictions


Peregrine Falcon

  • EMS Guidelines

    • Timing restrictions: within 0.5 miles of nest from 1 March - 30 July (WA); within 0.25 miles of nest from 1 March - 1 August (OR)

    • Additional timing restrictions from 1 August - 28 February w/in 0.25 miles of nest (WA)

    • Restrict nest-disrupting activities such as harvesting, road construction, site preparation, blasting, and helicopter operations

    • May require site-specific management plan


Northern Goshawk

  • Accipitergentilis

  • Associated with conifer forests

  • Nest in stick nests, built in the fork of a limb, from 20’- 80’ up; usually in denser, closed-canopy forests (1-8 alternate nests)

  • Height: 21”- 26”

    wingspan: 40”- 46”

  • Breeding occurs in April/May

  • Young fledge w/in 3 months

  • Feed on birds (grouse, small hawks, ducks) & mammals (squirrels, rabbits)

  • Adult is grayish, with

  • distinct white “eyebrow” and

  • black crown

  • “Dive-bombing” behavior,

  • shrill scream


Northern Goshawk

  • Current status: WA candidate species, OR critical species, Federal species of concern

  • WA-FPA: no restrictions

  • OR-FPA: no restrictions


Northern Goshawk

  • EMS Guidelines

    • Timing restrictions: while nest is occupied

    • Within 0.25 miles of nest

    • Restrict nest-disrupting activities such as harvesting, road construction, site preparation, blasting, and helicopter operations

    • May require site-specific management plan


Osprey

  • Pandionhaliaetus

  • Associated with lakes, rivers

  • Requires large, dead trees for nesting

  • Nests are large stick nests, constructed in the open and within easy reach of water

  • Height: 22”- 25”

    wingspan: 4’- 6’

  • Breeding begins in April

  • Young fledge in August

  • Feed on fish

  • Dark brown above, white below, with prominent eye stripe

  • “Bent” wings, with dark patches at the wrist


Osprey

  • Current status: WA monitor species, no OR or Federal

    status

  • WA-FPA: no restrictions

  • OR-FPA: protect nest tree, plus perching, fledging, replacement trees. 600’ disturbance buffer in effect from 1 March - 15 September.


Osprey

  • EMS Guidelines

    • Timing restrictions: 1 March - 15 September

    • Within: 0.25 miles of nest (WA); 600’ (OR)

    • Restrict nest-disrupting activities such as harvesting, road construction, site preparation, blasting, and helicopter operations

    • May require site-specific management plan


Great Blue Heron

  • Ardeaherodias

  • Habitat generalist, although does not use forest interiors

  • Nests are large stick nests, constructed in deciduous or coniferous trees, usually in colonies, or rookeries

  • Height: 42”- 46”

    wingspan: 5’- 6’

  • Breeding begins in early spring

  • Young fledge by September

  • Consume primarily fish & crustaceans, but also herps., mammals, birds, some plants


Great Blue Heron

  • Current status: WA monitor species, no OR or Federal status

  • WA-FPA: no restrictions

  • OR-FPA: protect nest

  • trees, perching/fledging trees;

  • maintain vegetative buffer;

  • disturbance avoidance from 15

  • February - 31 July w/in 0.25 mi.


Great Blue Heron

  • EMS Guidelines

    Heron Rookery = 3+ nests (WA); > 1 nest (OR)

    • Timing restrictions: 15 February - 31 July

    • Within 0.25 miles of rookery

    • Restrict nest-disrupting activities such as harvesting, road construction, site preparation, blasting, and helicopter operations

    • Requires 1 tree height buffer around rookery


Other Owls

Great Horned Owl: Bubovirginianus

Spotted Owl: Strixoccidentalis

Barred Owl: Strixvaria


Great Horned Owl

yellow eyes

ear tufts

Barred Owl

breast more streaked, with both white and brown

slightly larger

Other Owls(vs. Spotted)


Other Raptors

Turkey vulture: Cathartesaura

Red-tailed hawk:

Buteojamaicensis


Other Raptors

Cooper’s Hawk: Accipitercooperi

Northern Harrier:

Circuscyaneus


Other Raptors

  • All of these species have potential to occur within WY operating areas:

  • Potential confusion includes:

    Non-protectedspecies:Could be Confused With

    • Turkey vulture: golden eagle (size), osprey

    • Red-tail: golden eagle, goshawk

    • Cooper’s Hawk: peregrine, goshawk,

    • Northern Harrier: osprey, goshawk


Other Owls/Raptors

  • None of these species are state or federally protected, and none have WA or OR FPA protection.

  • WY EMS does require protection of known & active nests of other owl/raptor species

    • Nest tree must be protected during occupancy

    • Timing restrictions, while site is active, should limit nest disturbing activities anywhere from 1 tree length up to 0.25 miles of the nest

    • A site-specific management plan may be required


Summary

  • Some of these species are more readily identifiable than others

  • If one is encountered, and you are not sure of what it is, make every effort to note identifying features and behaviors which will aid in efforts to make a positive identification and thus manage accordingly, in compliance with the EMS

  • Observations of nests, even in the absence of birds, can be helpful in identifying resource sites for future planning and protection


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