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Threatened, Endangered, and Other Sensitive Species. Identification, Biology, and EMS Protection Guidance. Western Timberlands Weyerhaeuser Company 4 March 2003. What to Do. Contact Weyerhaeuser Representative Do Not Move or Disturb Species of Interest: Bald Eagle, Golden Eagle

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Threatened endangered and other sensitive species

Threatened, Endangered, and Other Sensitive Species

Identification, Biology, and EMS Protection Guidance

Western Timberlands

Weyerhaeuser Company

4 March 2003


What to do

What to Do

  • Contact Weyerhaeuser Representative

  • Do Not Move or Disturb

  • Species of Interest:

    • Bald Eagle, Golden Eagle

    • Northern Spotted Owl

    • Marbled Murrelet

    • Pergrine Falcon

    • Western Pond Turtle

    • Goshawks

    • Osprey

    • Heron Rookery

    • Other Hawks and Owls during nest occupancy


What to do1

What to Do

  • Contact Weyerhaeuser Representative

  • Do Not Move or Disturb

  • Species of Interest:

    • Bald Eagle, Golden Eagle

    • Northern Spotted Owl

    • Marbled Murrelet

    • Pergrine Falcon

    • Western Pond Turtle

    • Goshawks

    • Osprey

    • Heron Rockery

    • Other Hawks and Owls during nest occupancy


Your responsibility

Your Responsibility:

  • Familiarity with threatened, endangered, and other sensitive species that are protected either by state/federal law, Weyerhaeuser’s EMS, or both, and may occur on Weyerhaeuser’s lands.

  • Knowledge of reporting procedures for observations or encounters with protected species:

    • Promptly report sightings to immediate supervisor or other designated rep.

    • STOP activity immediately if sighting is within an active unit, until determination is made of when/how to proceed.

    • Take all necessary steps to avoid killing or injuring a protected species.

    • Promptly report any dead or injured protected species on or near Weyerhaeuser lands or operations: do NOT handle or disturb dead or injured protected species.


Threatened endangered and other sensitive species1

Threatened, Endangered, and Other Sensitive Species

Identification, Biology, and EMS Protection Guidance

Western Timberlands

Weyerhaeuser Company

4 March 2003


Your responsibility1

Your Responsibility:

  • Familiarity with threatened, endangered, and other sensitive species that are protected either by state/federal law, Weyerhaeuser’s EMS, or both, and may occur on Weyerhaeuser’s lands.

  • Knowledge of reporting procedures for observations or encounters with protected species:

    • Promptly report sightings to immediate supervisor or other designated rep.

    • STOP activity immediately if sighting is within an active unit, until determination is made of when/how to proceed.

    • Take all necessary steps to avoid killing or injuring a protected species.

    • Promptly report any dead or injured protected species on or near Weyerhaeuser lands or operations: do NOT handle or disturb dead or injured protected species.


What to do2

What to Do

  • Contact Weyerhaeuser Representative

  • Do Not Move or Disturb

  • Species of Interest:

    • Bald Eagle, Golden Eagle

    • Northern Spotted Owl

    • Marbled Murrelet

    • Pergrine Falcon

    • Western Pond Turtle

    • Goshawks

    • Osprey

    • Heron Rockery

    • Other Hawks and Owls during nest occupancy


Western pond turtle

Western Pond Turtle

  • Clemmysmarmorata

  • Associated with quiet water in small lakes, marshes, & sluggish streams/rivers

  • Require basking sites such as logs, rocks, mudbanks

  • Nests are terrestrial; eggs are laid in May to August, with hatchlings overwintering underground & emerging in spring

  • Shell length: 4.5”- 8.5”

  • Feed on insects, frogs, fish,

  • tadpoles, earthworms, & plants


Western pond turtle1

Western Pond Turtle

  • Current status: endangered (WA) critical (OR), Federal species of concern (OR & WA populations est. to be 96-98% reduced since 1900)

  • WA-FPA: restrictions on road building, site prep., harvesting, and pesticide application w/in 0.25 mi. of all known individual occurrences

  • OR-FPA: no restrictions


Western pond turtle2

Western Pond Turtle

  • EMS Guidelines:

    • Timing restrictions from 20 April - 20 August

    • Within 0.25 miles of water bodies with known occurrences

    • Restrict activities that potentially disturb breeding such as harvesting, road construction, site preparation, and helicopter operations

    • May require site specific management plan


Bald eagle

Bald Eagle

  • Haliaeetus leucocephalus

  • Associated with: coasts, rivers, lakes, marshes

  • Require tall trees/cliffs for nesting + adjacent roost, perch/stage trees

  • Nests are large platform nests, constructed of sticks; usually w/in 0.5 miles of water, near the top of the nest tree

  • Height: 30”- 40” wingspan: 72”- 90”

  • Breeding season begins early,

  • usually January or February

  • Young fledge and are flying

  • within ~ 3 months

  • Feed on fish, carrion, water

  • birds, small mammals


Bald eagle1

Bald Eagle

  • Current status: Threatened in OR, WA, & federally

  • WA-FPA: Restrictions on disruptive activities (harvesting, road building, etc.) within 0.25 mile of nest stand or roosting/staging stands

  • OR-FPA: restricted activities within 300’ of nest tree; 0.25 mile disturbance restriction required 1 Jan.-31 Aug. (0.5 miles if line of site); also requires protection of perch trees during critical period. 0.25 mile (0.5 mile, line of sight) disturbance restriction on roost stands from 15 November - 15 March


Bald eagle2

Bald Eagle

  • EMS Guidelines:

    • Timing restrictions from 1 January - 31 August

    • Within 0.25 miles of nest stand or roost stand (WA & OR), except 0.5 miles if line of sight (OR)

    • Additional restrictions in OR from 15 Nov. - 15 March, within 0.25 miles of roost stand, except 0.5 mile if line of sight

    • Restrict nest-disrupting activities such as harvesting, road construction, site preparation, and helicopter operations

    • May require site specific management plan


Golden eagle

Golden Eagle

  • Aquilachrysaetos

  • Associated with open country & open coniferous forests

  • Require cliffs for nesting, sometimes large trees

  • Large stick nests, lined with leaves, moss, fur

  • Nesting season begins in late March, young are independent after ~ 4 months

  • Height: 32”- 42” wingspan: 80”- 90”

  • Feed on rabbits, hares, other

  • mammals, birds, carrion


Golden eagle1

Golden Eagle

  • Current status: candidate species in WA, no OR or federal designation

  • WA-FPA: no restrictions

  • OR-FPA: no restrictions


Golden eagle2

Golden Eagle

  • EMS Guidelines:

    • Timing restrictions from 1 Jan. - 31 August

    • Within 0.25 miles of nest

    • Restrict nest-disrupting activities such as harvesting, road construction, site preparation, blasting, and helicopter operations

    • May require site specific management plan


Northern spotted owl

Northern Spotted Owl

  • Strixoccidentalis

  • Occur in mixed conifer stands, usually with multiple layers and a closed canopy

  • Nests in snags/defective green trees, usually in a hollow, but may utilize platform nests

  • Nesting season begins in March; young fledge ~ 6 weeks after hatching

  • Height:16”- 19” wingspan: ~ 24”

  • Feed on N. flying squirrels, red

  • tree voles, woodrats

  • May be relatively unafraid of

  • humans; look for pellets


Northern spotted owl1

Northern Spotted Owl

  • Current status: endangered in WA; OR & federally threatened

  • WA-FPA:

  • Maintenance of habitat in

  • vicinity of known sites,

  • disturbance avoidance from 1

  • March - 31 August

  • OR-FPA:

  • maintenance of 70 ac. suitable

  • habitat core around site center;

  • disturbance avoidance from 1

  • March - 30 September


Northern spotted owl2

Northern Spotted Owl

  • EMS Guidelines

    • Timing restrictions from 1 March - 31 August (WA), 1 March - 30 September (OR)

    • Within 0.25 miles of nest

    • Restrict nest-disrupting activities such as harvesting, road construction, site preparation, blasting, and helicopter operations

    • Requires development of a protection area core, as well as a site-specific operating plan, if w/in 0.7 miles of site center or within designated Owl Management Area

    • Survey of potential habitat prior to harvesting


Marbled murrelet

Marbled Murrelet

  • Brachyramphus

    marmoratus

  • Forages in marine environment, nests in inland forest stands, often colonial

  • Requires platform structures with moss for nesting; nests discovered as far as 64 miles inland

  • Fly at high speeds - 50+ mph

  • Height: ~ 9”

    wingspan: 10”- 12”

  • Breeding season begins in

  • April

  • Incubation for ~ 1 month,

  • young fledge 3-4 months later

  • Feed on small fish

  • Distinctive keer, keer call


Marbled murrelet1

Marbled Murrelet

  • Current status: OR, WA, and Federally threatened

  • WA-FPA: Habitat protection requirements + 300’ buffer on occupied stands, timing restrictions during nesting season (1 April - 31 August)

  • OR-FPA: no restrictions


Marbled murrelet2

Marbled Murrelet

  • EMS Guidelines

    • Timing restrictions from 1 April - 31 August

    • Within 0.25 miles of occupied stands, during daily peak activity periods (1 hour before to 2 hours after official sunrise; 1 hour before to 1 hour after official sunset)

    • Restrict nest-disrupting activities such as harvesting, road construction, site preparation, blasting, and helicopter operations

    • Requires site-specific protection (WA rule requires 300’ buffer on occupied stands)


Peregrine falcon

Peregrine Falcon

  • Falcoperegrinus

  • Associated with cliffs, overlooking open areas

  • Nest on cliffs (or manmade structures in urban areas); usually near a marsh, lake, or river

  • Height: 16”- 20” wingspan: 36”- 44”

  • Breeding season begins in March

  • Incubation lasts ~ 5 wks., young fledge in 4-5 mos.

  • Feed on birds, taken on the

  • wing

  • Distinctive black crown and

  • wedge, forming “helmet”


Peregrine falcon1

Peregrine Falcon

  • Current status: OR endangered, WA sensitive, Federal species of concern

  • WA-FPA: Class IV

  • special in vicinity of known nest

  • sites; disturbance avoidance w/in

  • 0.5 mi. of known nest from 1

  • March - 30 July, w/in 0.25 mi.

  • From 1 August - 28 February.

  • OR-FPA: no restrictions


Peregrine falcon2

Peregrine Falcon

  • EMS Guidelines

    • Timing restrictions: within 0.5 miles of nest from 1 March - 30 July (WA); within 0.25 miles of nest from 1 March - 1 August (OR)

    • Additional timing restrictions from 1 August - 28 February w/in 0.25 miles of nest (WA)

    • Restrict nest-disrupting activities such as harvesting, road construction, site preparation, blasting, and helicopter operations

    • May require site-specific management plan


Northern goshawk

Northern Goshawk

  • Accipitergentilis

  • Associated with conifer forests

  • Nest in stick nests, built in the fork of a limb, from 20’- 80’ up; usually in denser, closed-canopy forests (1-8 alternate nests)

  • Height: 21”- 26”

    wingspan: 40”- 46”

  • Breeding occurs in April/May

  • Young fledge w/in 3 months

  • Feed on birds (grouse, small hawks, ducks) & mammals (squirrels, rabbits)

  • Adult is grayish, with

  • distinct white “eyebrow” and

  • black crown

  • “Dive-bombing” behavior,

  • shrill scream


Northern goshawk1

Northern Goshawk

  • Current status: WA candidate species, OR critical species, Federal species of concern

  • WA-FPA: no restrictions

  • OR-FPA: no restrictions


Northern goshawk2

Northern Goshawk

  • EMS Guidelines

    • Timing restrictions: while nest is occupied

    • Within 0.25 miles of nest

    • Restrict nest-disrupting activities such as harvesting, road construction, site preparation, blasting, and helicopter operations

    • May require site-specific management plan


Osprey

Osprey

  • Pandionhaliaetus

  • Associated with lakes, rivers

  • Requires large, dead trees for nesting

  • Nests are large stick nests, constructed in the open and within easy reach of water

  • Height: 22”- 25”

    wingspan: 4’- 6’

  • Breeding begins in April

  • Young fledge in August

  • Feed on fish

  • Dark brown above, white below, with prominent eye stripe

  • “Bent” wings, with dark patches at the wrist


Osprey1

Osprey

  • Current status: WA monitor species, no OR or Federal

    status

  • WA-FPA: no restrictions

  • OR-FPA: protect nest tree, plus perching, fledging, replacement trees. 600’ disturbance buffer in effect from 1 March - 15 September.


Osprey2

Osprey

  • EMS Guidelines

    • Timing restrictions: 1 March - 15 September

    • Within: 0.25 miles of nest (WA); 600’ (OR)

    • Restrict nest-disrupting activities such as harvesting, road construction, site preparation, blasting, and helicopter operations

    • May require site-specific management plan


Great blue heron

Great Blue Heron

  • Ardeaherodias

  • Habitat generalist, although does not use forest interiors

  • Nests are large stick nests, constructed in deciduous or coniferous trees, usually in colonies, or rookeries

  • Height: 42”- 46”

    wingspan: 5’- 6’

  • Breeding begins in early spring

  • Young fledge by September

  • Consume primarily fish & crustaceans, but also herps., mammals, birds, some plants


Great blue heron1

Great Blue Heron

  • Current status: WA monitor species, no OR or Federal status

  • WA-FPA: no restrictions

  • OR-FPA: protect nest

  • trees, perching/fledging trees;

  • maintain vegetative buffer;

  • disturbance avoidance from 15

  • February - 31 July w/in 0.25 mi.


Great blue heron2

Great Blue Heron

  • EMS Guidelines

    Heron Rookery = 3+ nests (WA); > 1 nest (OR)

    • Timing restrictions: 15 February - 31 July

    • Within 0.25 miles of rookery

    • Restrict nest-disrupting activities such as harvesting, road construction, site preparation, blasting, and helicopter operations

    • Requires 1 tree height buffer around rookery


Other owls

Other Owls

Great Horned Owl: Bubovirginianus

Spotted Owl: Strixoccidentalis

Barred Owl: Strixvaria


Other owls vs spotted

Great Horned Owl

yellow eyes

ear tufts

Barred Owl

breast more streaked, with both white and brown

slightly larger

Other Owls(vs. Spotted)


Other raptors

Other Raptors

Turkey vulture: Cathartesaura

Red-tailed hawk:

Buteojamaicensis


Other raptors1

Other Raptors

Cooper’s Hawk: Accipitercooperi

Northern Harrier:

Circuscyaneus


Other raptors2

Other Raptors

  • All of these species have potential to occur within WY operating areas:

  • Potential confusion includes:

    Non-protectedspecies:Could be Confused With

    • Turkey vulture: golden eagle (size), osprey

    • Red-tail: golden eagle, goshawk

    • Cooper’s Hawk: peregrine, goshawk,

    • Northern Harrier: osprey, goshawk


Other owls raptors

Other Owls/Raptors

  • None of these species are state or federally protected, and none have WA or OR FPA protection.

  • WY EMS does require protection of known & active nests of other owl/raptor species

    • Nest tree must be protected during occupancy

    • Timing restrictions, while site is active, should limit nest disturbing activities anywhere from 1 tree length up to 0.25 miles of the nest

    • A site-specific management plan may be required


Summary

Summary

  • Some of these species are more readily identifiable than others

  • If one is encountered, and you are not sure of what it is, make every effort to note identifying features and behaviors which will aid in efforts to make a positive identification and thus manage accordingly, in compliance with the EMS

  • Observations of nests, even in the absence of birds, can be helpful in identifying resource sites for future planning and protection


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