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Chapter 9. Chemical Names and Formulas. Objectives for 9.1 (pgs 253-258). By the end of this section you WILL be able to… ID charges of monatomic ions by using PT Name ions Define polyatomic ion and write names and formulas of most common ones

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Chapter 9

Chapter 9

Chemical Names and Formulas


Objectives for 9 1 pgs 253 258
Objectives for 9.1 (pgs 253-258)

  • By the end of this section you WILL be able to…

  • ID charges of monatomic ions by using PT

  • Name ions

  • Define polyatomic ion and write names and formulas of most common ones

  • ID two common endings for the names of most polyatomic ions


Naming ions
Naming Ions

  • Monatomic

    -Ions formed from a single atom

    -Charge determined by number of valence electrons

    NOTHING NEW!

  • Cations

    -Positively charged

    -Form when elements LOSE electrons

    -Usually what type of elements?


  • Naming Cations

    -The name of the element followed by the word ion.

    -For example:

    Na+ is sodium ion, Mg2+ is Magnesium Ion

  • Anions

    -Negatively charged

    -Form when elements GAIN electrons

    -Usually form from what type of elements?


  • Naming Anions

    -Named for the element but have the suffix –ide

    For Example:

    Cl- is chloride N3- is nitride


Ions of transition metals p 255
Ions of Transition Metals (p. 255)

  • Since “s” and “d” valence electrons are available, transition metals may form cations with different charges (E.g. Fe2+ and Fe3+)

  • Stock System of naming uses a Roman numeral to designate the charge on the ion

    -For Example:

    iron (II) and iron (III) – preferred over Classical naming system

  • If the transition metal only forms one ion you do not have to use the stock system


Polyatomic ions
Polyatomic Ions

  • Ions that are made up of two or more covalently bonded atoms yet still have a net charge

  • They behave like ions when bonding because of excess electrons, or excess protons

  • To form some of these ions, BOTH electrons to be shared come from one atom

  • What type of bond is this?

    -Coordinate Covalent


Oxyanions
Oxyanions

  • Most of the common polyatomic ions are oxyanions

  • What do you think oxyanion means?

    -These anions contain different numbers of oxygen atoms

  • We will use the suffixes –iteand –ate to show how many oxygen are on each


  • -ate indicates the ion with more oxygen atoms

  • -iteindicates the ion with less oxygen atoms

  • BFAt corner will help us identify how many oxygen

  • If central atom is in the BFAt corner 3 oxygen atoms makes it an –ate 2 oxygen atoms is an –ite

  • If central atom is out of the BFAt corner 4 oxygen atoms makes it an –ate and 3 oxygen atoms is an -ite


Practice naming these
Practice naming these…

  • SO42-, SO32-, NO2-, NO3-, F-, ClO2-, ClO3-

  • Respectively, they are sulfate, sulfite, nitrite, nitrate, fluoride, chlorite, and chlorate

  • You will need to memorize the charges!



Prefixes
Prefixes

  • The prefix hypo- means less (think hypothermia)

  • This means there is one less oxygen than the oxyanion with the –ite ending.

    For example:

    ClO- is called hypochlorite

    SO2-2 would be called_________________


  • The prefix per- indicates that there is one MORE oxygen than the oxyanion with the –ate ending.

    For Example:

    ClO4- is called perchlorate

    PO53- is called _______________


Time to do work
Time to do work!

  • Make flashcards for your polyatomic ions

  • Memorize their charges

  • Use the BFAt corner to determine if they are –ite or -ate

End of section 9.1 What are your questions?


9 2 naming and writing formulas

9.2 Naming and Writing Formulas


9 2 naming and writing formulas for ionic compounds
9.2 Naming and Writing Formulas for Ionic Compounds

  • Binary Compound

    -Compounds composed of two different types of elements

  • Naming Binary Ionic Compounds

  • Write the name of the cation

  • Write the name of the anion

  • For metals with more than one oxidation state, use the STOCK SYSTEM!

    For example: Iron (III) Chloride = FeCl3


Writing formulas for binary ionic compounds
Writing Formulas for Binary Ionic Compounds

  • Ion Charge Method uses charges of ions to determine quantity of each ion in a compound

  • The net charges of a compound = 0

    Steps to writing balanced Formulas

  • Write the symbol and charge for each ion present. Write the cation first then the anion.

    Examples:

    Na+Cl- or Ca2+Cl-


1

1

1

2



  • PbSO However, you must place parentheses around the entire ion to signify more than one.4

  • BaCl2

  • Fe(C2H3O2)2

  • (NH4)2CO3

  • Sn2(CrO4)4 = Sn(CrO4)2 (lowest whole # ratio)


Compounds with polyatomic ions
Compounds with Polyatomic Ions However, you must place parentheses around the entire ion to signify more than one.

  • Write the symbol of the cation followed by the formula for the anion

  • Cross over to balance charges

  • Place parentheses around the polyatomic ion if there is more than one


Naming compounds with polyatomic ions
Naming Compounds with Polyatomic Ions However, you must place parentheses around the entire ion to signify more than one.

  • Memorize formula and charges of polyatomic ions (quiz is coming up)

  • Name the cation (don’t forget about the stock system if needed)

  • Name the anion

    Examples:

    A. Ca(OH)2

    a. Calcium hydroxide

    B. FeSO4

    b. Iron (II) sulfate


The reward of a thing well done is to have done it - However, you must place parentheses around the entire ion to signify more than one.Emerson

  • 9.3 Naming and Writing Formulas for Molecular Compounds

  • Interpret the prefixes in the names of molecular compounds in terms of their chemical formulas

  • Apply the rules for naming and writing formulas for binary molecular compounds


Naming binary molecular compounds
Naming Binary Molecular Compounds However, you must place parentheses around the entire ion to signify more than one.

  • Name the first element in the formula

  • Use the appropriate prefix to show how many of that atom are present (see page 269)

  • Name the second element

  • Use the appropriate prefix to show how many of that atom are present

  • Add the suffix –ideto show that it is a binary compound


  • Try these… However, you must place parentheses around the entire ion to signify more than one.

    N2O

    CCl4

    CO

    Dinitrogen monoxide

    Carbon tetrachloride

    Carbon monoxide


Writing formulas for binary molecular compounds
Writing Formulas for Binary Molecular Compounds However, you must place parentheses around the entire ion to signify more than one.

  • Use prefixes to tell you how many of each atom are present in the compound

  • Dinitrogentetroxide

    N2O4

  • Iodine heptafluoride

    IF7


9 4 naming and writing formulas for acids and bases
9.4 Naming and Writing Formulas for Acids and Bases However, you must place parentheses around the entire ion to signify more than one.

“If I set for myself a task, be it so trifling, I shall see it through. How else shall I have confidence in myself to do important things?”

-George Clason

Goals:

  • Apply the rules for naming acids

  • Apply the rules in reverse to write acids

  • Apply the rules for naming bases


Acids and bases naming and formula writing
Acids and Bases Naming and Formula Writing However, you must place parentheses around the entire ion to signify more than one.

  • Acids

    -a substance that contains one or more hydrogen atoms and produces hydrogen ions (H+) when dissolved in water

    -The general form is HnX

    - The name is dependent upon the name of the anion


  • Rules! However, you must place parentheses around the entire ion to signify more than one.

  • Rule 1 – if the anion ends in “-ide”, the acid name beginswith “hydro” and ends with “-ic” (binary acid)

    (E.g. HCl = hydro-chlor-ic acid)

  • Rule 2 – if the anion ends in “-ite”, the acid name ends with “-ous” (oxyacid). (no hydro)

    (E.g. H2SO3 = sulfur-ous acid)


  • Rule 3 - if the anion starts with However, you must place parentheses around the entire ion to signify more than one.“hypo” and ends with “-ite”, the acid name starts with “hypo” and ends with “-ous” (E.g. HClO = hypo-chlor-ous acid)

  • Rule 4 – if the anion ends in “-ate”, the acid name ends with “-ic” (E.g. HNO3 = nitr-ic acid)

  • Rule 5 - if the anion starts with “per” and ends with “-ate”, the acid name starts with “per” and ends with “-ic” (E.g. HClO4 = per-chlor-ic acid)

  • I ate so much I felt icky


Naming acids
Naming Acids However, you must place parentheses around the entire ion to signify more than one.

Use the same steps we did when writing formulas only backwards

You should know your polyatomic Ions by now (they’re not going away)


Naming bases
Naming Bases However, you must place parentheses around the entire ion to signify more than one.

  • Bases

  • an ionic compound that produces hydroxide ions (OH-) when dissolved in water

    Naming Bases

    -Name bases as you would any other ionic compound


Laws of definite and multiple proportions
Laws of Definite and Multiple Proportions However, you must place parentheses around the entire ion to signify more than one.

  • The Law of Definite Proportions - elements combine in a definite mass ratio regardless of the size of the sample produced (e.g. water is always 89% oxygen and 11% hydrogen by mass)

  • The Law of Multiple Proportions – whenever the same two elements form more than one compound, the different masses of one element that combine with a fixed mass of the other element are in a ratio of small whole numbers

    Examples: H2O and H2O2 CO and CO2 N2O and N2O4


Classical naming system
Classical Naming System However, you must place parentheses around the entire ion to signify more than one.

  • Classical System of naming using the Latin name of the element and the suffix “-ous” to show the lower of two oxidation states (E.g. ferrous)

  • The suffix “-ic” is used to show the higher of two oxidation states in the Classical System (E.g. ferric)


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