The relative
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 25

Ron Borland, David Hammond, Geoffrey T Fong, Hua H Yong, Warwick Hosking PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 51 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

The relative effectiveness of graphic and text based health-warnings: findings from the ITC:4-country study. Ron Borland, David Hammond, Geoffrey T Fong, Hua H Yong, Warwick Hosking. Tobacco industry control. Tobacco use control. Constrain tobacco marketing. Information: Mandated,

Download Presentation

Ron Borland, David Hammond, Geoffrey T Fong, Hua H Yong, Warwick Hosking

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Ron borland david hammond geoffrey t fong hua h yong warwick hosking

The relativeeffectiveness of graphic and text based health-warnings: findings from the ITC:4-country study.

Ron Borland, David Hammond, Geoffrey T Fong, Hua H Yong, Warwick Hosking


Ron borland david hammond geoffrey t fong hua h yong warwick hosking

Tobacco industry control

Tobacco use control

Constrain tobacco marketing

  • Information:

  • Mandated,

  • Campaigns

Programs to prevent uptake

Cessation programs and aids

Smoke-free rules

Biology

Regulate tobacco products

Tobacco use

Norms for use

Consequences of use

Elements of tobacco control


Ron borland david hammond geoffrey t fong hua h yong warwick hosking

Mediational Model(s) of Policy Effects

Proximal Variables

(Policy-Specific)

Distal Variables

(Psychosocial Mediators)

Policy

Behavior

Label Salience

Perc Effectiveness

Depth of Processing

Perceived risk

Perceived severity

Intentions

to Quit

Quit

Attempt

Labels

Immediate reactions: foregoing cigarettes

Warning labels

3


The itc surveys

The ITC Surveys

Cohorts with replenishment

2000 per country per wave

Around 30% new recruits in waves 2-5

Common questions

5 questions asked all waves

2 introduced at wave 2

4


Ron borland david hammond geoffrey t fong hua h yong warwick hosking

USA UK Australia Canada

OLD

NEW


Questions in itc surveys

Questions in ITC surveys

Processing frequency

Noticing

Reading or looking closely at

Cognitive reactions

Concern about health (W2 on)

Thoughts about quitting

Extent (W2 on)

Amount over last 6 mths

Behavioral reactions

Concern about health (W2 on)

Thoughts about quitting

7


Processing of warning labels current smokers at each wave

UK

AUST

Processing of Warning Labels (current smokers at each wave)

How often have you noticed WL in the last month?

Scale:

1 = never

2 = rarely

3 = sometimes

4 = often

5 = very often

UK peak and increase higher than Aust


Processing of warning labels current smokers at each wave1

UK

AUST

Processing of Warning Labels (current smokers at each wave)

How often have you read or looked closely at WL in the last month?

Scale:

1 = never

2 = rarely

3 = sometimes

4 = often

5 = very often

UK peak and increase higher than Aust


Summary

Summary

Text warnings processed more often

? Graphic taken in more quickly

Or processed differently

? Artifact of larger change in prominence

11


Cognitive reactions to warning labels current smokers

UK

AUST

Cognitive reactions to Warning Labels (current smokers)

To what extent do WL make you think about health risks of smoking?

Scale:

1 = not at all

2 = a little

3 = somewhat

4 = a lot

Australian peak higher than UK


Cognitive reactions to warning labels current smokers1

UK

AUST

Cognitive reactions to Warning Labels (current smokers)

To what extent do WL make you more likely to quit smoking?

Scale:

1 = not at all

2 = a little

3 = somewhat

4 = a lot

Australian peak higher than UK


Cognitive reactions to warning labels current smokers2

UK

AUST

Cognitive reactions to Warning Labels (current smokers)

In last 6 months, how much have WL made you think about quitting?

Scale:

1 = not at all

2 = somewhat

3 = very much

No diffs, Aust vs UK)


Summary1

Summary

Graphic warnings stimulate more appropriate thoughts (ie more intense thoughts)

? Graphic more emotionally salient

No clear effect for frequency over time

15


Behavioral reactions to warning labels current smokers

UK

AUST

Behavioral reactions to Warning Labels (current smokers)

Avoidance of WL in last month (composite measure on a 4-point scale, where 0 = no avoidance, 4 = avoid WL in all 4 ways)

Australian peak and increase greater than UK


Behavioral reactions to warning labels current smokers at each wave

UK

AUST

Behavioral reactions to Warning Labels (current smokers at each wave)

Have WL stopped you from smoking in the last month?

Scale:

1 = never

2 = once

3 = a few times

4 = many times

No clear diffs Aust vs UK


Comparisons with canada

Comparisons with Canada

Slower decline in effects in Canada than UK, especially to cognitive and behavioral reactions

See also Hammond et al, 2007

18


Ron borland david hammond geoffrey t fong hua h yong warwick hosking

Impacts of Warning labels Australia 2006

NB: Impacts of Warning labels at least sometimes


Ron borland david hammond geoffrey t fong hua h yong warwick hosking

Demographic effects

  • Females avoid the new warnings more.

  • Stronger effects with younger age group.

    • especially main effects

      • foregoing cigarettes

      • thinking about risks

      • motivating to quit/stay quit

  • No consistent education effects

Australian data only


Predictors of making quit attempts by the next survey wave

Predictors of making quit attempts by the next survey wave

PredictorW1W2W2W3W3W4W4W5

Notice WL1.020.93*1.001.05

Read/look at1.011.011.01 0.95

All analyses control for sociodemographics (including country)

and cigarettes per day;

plus other Warning label variables

21


Predictors of making quit attempts by the next survey wave1

Predictors of making quit attempts by the next survey wave

PredictorW1W2W2W3W3W4W4W5

Think about ------1.13*1.051.10*

risks------(1.07)(0.99)(1.04)

More likely------1.19*1.26*1.20*

to quit------(1.08)(1.14*)(1.08)

Think quit1.26*1.17*1.091.11

(6 months)(1.12*)(1.13*)(1.03)(1.07)

All analyses control for sociodemographics (including country)

and cigarettes per day; plus other Warning label variables.

Figures in brackets below are after controlling for intention to quit.

22


Predictors of making quit attempts by the next survey wave2

Predictors of making quit attempts by the next survey wave

PredictorW1W2W2W3W3W4W4W5

Forego 1.51*1.27*1.42*1.40*

cigarettes(1.31*)(1.21*)(1.41*)(1.31*)

Avoid1.24*1.151.021.04

warnings(1.14)(1.11)(1.02)(1.03)

All analyses control for sociodemographics (including country)

and cigarettes per day; and other Warning label variables.

Figures in brackets below are after controlling for intention to quit.

23


Reactions to warning labels and quit attempts

Reactions to warning labels and quit attempts

  • ITC data: 4 wave-wave transitions

  • Forego cigs and attempts

    • All 4 (sociodemogs + other reactions + CPD)

    • All 4 (+ Plans)

  • Report prompting attempts and attempts

    • All 4 (sociodemogs + other reactions + CPD)

    • 3 of 4 (+ Plans)

  • Think of risks and attempts

    • 2 of 3 (sociodemogs + other reactions + CPD)

    • ?0 of 3 (+ Plans)


Ron borland david hammond geoffrey t fong hua h yong warwick hosking

Reactions to warnings and concerns about future health


Conclusions

Conclusions

  • Graphic and text based warnings may have different paths of effect

    • Graphic more emotionally charged and stimulate more cognitions related to quitting

  • Graphic warnings better at stimulating cognitions that predict quitting

  • Graphic warnings seem to be more sustained

  • Graphic warnings work with less specific processing

  • Size is also critically important

  • Novelty also plays an important role

    • but, warnings do not wear out completely


Ron borland david hammond geoffrey t fong hua h yong warwick hosking

27


  • Login