Biological Theories of Crime. Main assumptions Lombroso Sheldon XYY Male. Biological Theories. Biological theories tended towards seeing crime as a form of illness, caused by pathological factors specific to certain classes of individuals “bad” behaviour vs “sick” behaviour
A choleric person has a "hot" temperament, is irritable and easily roused to angerA melancolic person is sensive and tends to feel sadA phlegmatic person is not easily aroused to excitement and lacks emotion expression A sanguine person is confident and optimistic
and instincts of primitive man
Lombroso claimed that to the trained eye, the eye of the detective, these people would clearly be organized into categories
Those in group "A" are all shoplifters, "B" are swindlers, "H" are purse snatchers, "E" are murderers, etc.
And supposedly you can see a man's real character at a glance.Frontispiece of Criminal Man
The mug shot originated in the 1880s, in studies designed to explore the relationship between appearance and criminal behavior
These men are all forgers. The New York Police Department compiled this record in part to see if all forgers looked alike, or all murderers looked alike, or if all burglars had the same facial featuresMug Shots
Sheldon was an American psychologist who spent his life observing all the variety of human bodies
As a child he was an avid observer of animals and birds, and as he grew up, this hobby turned into a strong ability to observe the human body.
Three types of human body: