PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Particle Power!' - fredericka-griffith
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1) Marks the topic of the sentence. The topic can be the same as the subject, but isn’t necessarily. It is anything you want to talk about. It is similar to the English expressions, "As for ~" or "Speaking of ~." When は is used, the topic has often already been introduced or is understood. Once established, the topic can be dropped from the sentence.
私は学生です。Talking about me, I’m a student
日本語はおもしろいです。Talking about Japanese, it’s interesting
2) Allows contrast. The contrast isn’t always explicit, but is implied by the use of は. は can also be used with に, で, and と to show contrast.
ジュースは飲みますが、ミルクは飲みません。I drink juice, but not milk.
大阪には行きましたが、京都には行きませんでした。I went to Osaka, but not Kyoto.
ここではタバコをすわないでください。Please don’t smoke here (but you can smoke elsewhere)
1) In a statement using は, the second part (the “comment”) is the most important. With が, the part marked by が is the most important, and is given emphasis. This is because がmarks its word as the subject of the sentence. It is specifically this and no other.
ケンは学校に行きました。Ken went to school.
ケンが学校に行きました。Ken is the one who went to school.
2) When a question word such as だれ and なに is the subject of a sentence, it is always followed by が, never by は. To answer the question, it also has to be followed by が.
1) Marks the direct object. What is the verb verbing? Marked by an を.
えいがを見ました。I saw a movie.
コーヒーを飲みました。I drank coffee.
くつをかいました。I bought shoes.
2) をhas a special relationship with します. If you do a job, it is your occupation. If you do a game, you are playing it. For words like かいものをします, りょうりをします or タイプをします the を is dropped when the whole phrase takes its own direct object.
4) Direction. に can be translated as “to” when indicating a destination.
あした、日本に行きます！ Tomorrow I will go to Japan!
きのう、学校に来ませんでした。 Yesterday, I did not come to school.
5) Direct Contact. に is used when a motion or action is directed at or onto a place or object.
ここに名前を書いてください。Write your name here please.
ケンはテーブルの上にすわりました。Ken sat on the table.
6) Specific time. に is used with various time expressions (year, month, day, and clock time) to indicate a specific point in time. It translates to “at” “in” or “on”. General time words, such as きょう, きのう, あした, and まえ etc. do not use any particle.
学校は七時三十分にはじまります。School starts at 7:30.
五月三日にうまれました。 I was born on May 3rd.
7) に has several other uses, including marking purpose, showing the source of an action in a passive sentence, and in phrases such as “per hour” or “per day”. Saving those for later now.
1) Destination. Like に, へ is used to mark a destination when moving toward a place. In fact, grammatically speaking, へ can almost always be replaced by a に, while the other way around is not true. However, へ often sounds more natural. へ can be thought of as “towards” rather than “to,” with the destination filling a larger and more vague area.
うちへかえります。I’m heading for home.
うちにかえります。I’m returning to my home.
2) Refer to の note number 5. に cannot be pared with no to make noun-clauses, but へ can. So in some cases, あｍwill take over for に when の is involved, even though it could not stand in the sentence by itself. Specifically, this happens for case 1 and 4 listed in に.