Pests plagues politics lecture 6 products of the hive
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Pests, Plagues & Politics Lecture 6 Products of the Hive. Honey – Wax – Pollen – Venom - Royal Jelly “ The devil made the wasp, but God made the honey bee ” ~ Old Germanic Saying. Key Points Products of the Hive. History of Beekeeping Modern Apiculture Removeable Top Bar Frames Bee Space

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Pests, Plagues & Politics Lecture 6 Products of the Hive

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Pests, Plagues & Politics Lecture 6Products of the Hive

Honey – Wax – Pollen – Venom - Royal Jelly

“The devil made the wasp, but God made the honey bee”

~ Old Germanic Saying


Key PointsProducts of the Hive

  • History of Beekeeping

  • Modern Apiculture

    • Removeable Top Bar Frames

    • Bee Space

  • Honeybee products

    • Honey

    • Wax

    • Pollen, venom, royal jelly

    • Pollination Services


Prehistoric relations

  • Prehistoric records show a honey bee/human connection going back 6,000 BP

  • Humans were essentially another

    predator of the honey bee

Smoking the hive

Motopo Hills, Zimbabwe, ca. 10,000 yrs ago

Mesolithic cave painting

Cueva de la Arana, Bicorp, Spain


Historic Record

  • Humans eventually began providing cavities for honey bees to nest in.

  • Earliest records are Egyptian


Egyptian beekeeping

Harvesting honey combs (right) and packing honey (left)

ca. 1450 BC, West Bank, Luxor


Apiculture

  • The “management” of honey bees

  • Primary species utilized:

    • Apismellifera L. – The European honey bee

    • Two Biotypes:

      • European – adapted for temperate climates

      • African – adapted for tropical climates

    • Ca. 27 subspecies/biotypes in the world.

  • Honey bees to the western hemisphere ca. 1622 by European colonists


WHY KEEP BEES

  • Provide valuable products for our comfort, pleasure, & nutrition.

  • These are:

    • Honey - 200 million pounds per annum (U.S.)

    • Pollination - 16 billion $$ of agricultural product

    • Wax, Pollen, Royal Jelly, Venom


Prior to 1853 Beekeeping was

Inefficient/Wasteful

  • Skep hive – used for 2000 years

    • made of mud, clay or straw

    • unable to inspect for pests, disease

    • harvest destructive


The “Modern” Era of Beekeeping

  • Started in 1853 with the publication of the book THE HIVE & THE HONEYBEE

  • Written by L.L. Langstroth

    • The “Father” of modern beekeeping

  • Introduced the concept of “bee space”

  • From which the TOP-OPENING, MOVABLE FRAME HIVE evolved.


Bee Space – when bees have less than 1 cm to move around in, they will not build wax or propolis attachments to the wall of a hive, allowing for the removal of frames

Bee Space

1/4th to 3/8th inch


The modern beehive


HONEY

  • A saturated solution of carbohydrates

    • ca. 17% water

    • ca. 82.5% sugar:

      • fructose38%

      • glucose31%

      • maltose 7%

      • sucrose 1.5%

      • et alia 6%

    • ca. 0.5% protein, minerals, vitamins &

      • MAGIC


Honey

  • Produced from plant nectar

    • Primarily from flowers

    • Also extra-floral nectaries

  • Precursor of nectar is:

    • Phloem sap

    • Most often a dilute solution of sucrose

  • Essentially bees do two things:

    • Dehydrate

    • Enzymatic “inversion” of sucrose to glucose & fructose


FYI

+


HONEY

  • The first sweetener (long before sugar cane)

  • Our first alcoholic beverage(mead)

  • Production:

    • U.S. 200 million pounds per annum

    • World: two billion pounds per annum

  • Consumption:

    • U.S., one pound - Germany, four pounds

  • Myriad of minor uses

    • pharmacy - medicinal vehicle & taste corrective, wound dressing

    • cosmetics


  • BEESWAX

    • COSMETICS

      • creams, lotions, lipstick

    • CANDLES

      • liturgical, Jewish, Greek Orthodox, but most of all the RCC.

    • BEEKEEPING

      • foundation beeswax

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ceremonial_use_of_lights#Candles


    Comb from Beeswax


    Beeswax

    • Produced from four pairs of sub-dermal glands on the underside of the abdomen of a worker bee.

    • When the bee is 10 to 18 days old

    • Produced as small, translucent flakes

    • Precursor is honey & nectar (carbohydrates)


    Wax scales from wax glands


    BEESWAX COMPOSITION

    • Over 300 identified individual components

      • hydrocarbons (14%)

      • monoesters (35%)

      • diesters (14%)

      • hydroxy polyesters (8%)

      • free acids (12%)


    Royal Jelly

    • Definition

      • the glandular secretions of young worker bees (4-10 days old), produced by the hypopharyngeal in the head, used as food for larval bees.

    • Composition

      • 66% water

      • 14% protein

      • 14% carbohydrate

      • 5% lipid (fats & sterols)


    Queen cell

    Royal jelly in cell


    Bee Venom

    • Uses

      • As Pure Bee Venom for use in desensitization

      • As quackery for charlatans in treating a variety of neurological disorders.


    VENOM

    • Composition

      • a mixture of proteins & peptides

        • melittin50% dry wt

        • phospholipase A 12% dry wt

        • hyaluronidase<3% dry wt.

        • acid phosphatase<1% dry wt.

        • histamine<1% dry wt.


    VENOM

    • Melittin

      • lysis of blood & mast cells - release of histamine & serotonin from mast cells - depression of blood pressure & respiration.

    • Phospholipase A

      • cell lysis - pain - toxicity; synergistic with melittin

    • Hyaluronidase

      • hydrolyzes connective tissue - the spreading factor

    • Histamine

      • itching & pain

    • Acid phosphatase

      • involved in allergic reaction


    POLLEN

    • Plant male gametophyte

      • a reproductive structure that carries sperm

    • A primary food substance for bees

      • directly as food to older larvae

      • indirectly as the precursor for royal jelly

        {think of honey bees as specialized herbivores}


    POLLEN COMPOSITION

    • Protein

      • from 6 to 28%

    • Lipids

      • from 1 to 20%, but usually <5%

    • Sterols

      • <less than 0.5%

    • Additionally

      • sugars, starches, vitamins, minerals

    Pollen grain of chamomile flower


    Why eating pollen might not be such a good idea!!

    • Economics

      $8 to $12 per pound

    • Nutrition

      = that of soybean flour

      Not quantifiable

    • Pesticide residues

      Especially fungicides

    • Allergies


    Greatest Value of {honey} Bees

    • Pollination

      • U.S. = 15 billion $/annum

      • Oregon = 600 million $/annum

    • Fiscal mainstay for commercial beekeepers in PNW.


    Key PointsProducts of the Hive

    • History of Beekeeping

    • Modern Apiculture

      • Removeable Top Bar Frames

      • Bee Space

    • Honeybee products

      • Honey

      • Wax

      • Pollen, venom, royal jelly

      • Pollination Services


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