Chapter 5 Memory. An Interesting Phenomenon: Flashbulb Memories. See in class!. Topics to Explore. Stages of Memory Encoding Information into Memory Retrieving Information from Memory Improving Memory. Part 1 Stages of Memory. Memory: Key Terms.
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Memory: Active system that stores, organizes, alters, and recovers (retrieves) information
Encoding: Converting information into a useable form
Storage: Holding this information in memory
Retrieval: Taking memories out of storage
Sensory Memory: Storing an exact copy of incoming information for less than a second; the first stage of memory
Icon: A fleeting mental image or visual representation
Echo: After a sound is heard, a brief continuation of the sound in the auditory system
Short-Term Memory (STM): second stage of memory; stores small amounts of information briefly; very sensitive to interruption or interference
Phonetically: Storing information by sound; how most things are stored in STM
Memory Span: STM is limited to holding seven (plus or minus two) information bits at once
Chunk: Meaningful units of information in memory
Recoding: Reorganizing or modifying information in STM
Maintenance Rehearsal: Repeating information silently to prolong its presence in STM
Elaborative Rehearsal: Links new information with existing memories and knowledge in LTM; Good way to transfer STM information into LTM
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Implicit (procedural) Memory (skills): Long-term memories of conditioned responses and learned skills, e.g., driving
Amnesiac patient was able to solve tower puzzle in 31 moves (minimum possible), but each time he began, he swore he couldn’t solve the puzzle. Evidence that skill memory and fact memory are separate and distinct.Example: Skill vs. Fact Memory
Front of brain is related to episodic memory. Back of brain is related to semantic memory.Graphic: Patterns of Blood Flowin Cerebral Cortex
Sensory is related to semantic memory.
Contains sensory information
Very brief retention (1/2 sec for visual; 2 secs for auditory)
Brief storage (up to 30 seconds w/o rehearsal)
Conscious processing of informationComparison of Three Stages of Memory
Example: How many of you can sing the theme song for Gilligan’s Island? How many learned it on purpose?
Example: How many of you can name all of the divisions of the nervous system? How many learned it on purpose?
Example of Recall:
The process of storing information in memory is called ______________.
Example of Recognition:
The process of storing information in memory is called:
a. rehearsal b. deep processing
c. encoding d. retrieval
Encoding failure theory: a theory that proposes that forgetting is due to the failure to encode the information into long-term memory
See in class!
See in class!
Storage decay theory: a theory that proposes that forgetting is due to the decay of physical traces of the information in the brain; periodically using the information helps to maintain it in the brain
The “Use it or lose it” theory!
Interference theory: a theory that proposes that forgetting is due to other information in memory interfering
Proactive interference: old information interferes with the retrieval of newly-stored information
Retroactive Interference: newly-stored information interferes with the retrieval of previously-stored information
Cue-dependent theory: a theory that proposes that forgetting is due to the unavailability of the retrieval cues necessary to locate the information in long-term memory.
This is one explanation for why we do not seem to have many memories from early childhood (ages 3 to 6 or so)
Knowledge of Results: Feedback allowing you to check your progress
Recitation: Summarizing aloud while you are learning
Rehearsal: Reviewing information mentally (silently)
Selection: Selecting most important concepts to memorize
Organization: Organizing difficult items into chunks; a type of reordering
Whole Learning: Studying an entire package of information at once, like a poem
Part Learning: Studying subparts of a larger body of information (like text chapters)
Progressive Part Learning: Breaking learning task into a series of short sections
Serial Position Effect: Making most errors while remembering the middle of the list
Overlearning: Studying is continued beyond bare mastery