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Overview. Welcome. Community. Storybase Designing Instruction with Stories. Getting Started. Open Project. <<. Home. >>. DKKTools (Davis, Kerney & Kim) - EDG6328/Fall 2008/Dr. David Merrill. Storybase. Overview. The story of Storybase. Welcome. Community.

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Home

Overview

Welcome

Community

Storybase

Designing Instruction with Stories

Getting Started

Open Project

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Home

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DKKTools (Davis, Kerney & Kim) - EDG6328/Fall 2008/Dr. David Merrill


Home

Storybase

Overview

The story of Storybase

Welcome

Community

Storybase is an instructional design tool that uses a story as its basis.

The following slides provide the guidelines for this tool.

Getting Started

Open Project

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DKKTools (Davis, Kerney & Kim) - EDG6328/Fall 2008/Dr. David Merrill


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Storybase

Overview

Overview

Goal: The goal of this tool is to help facilitate the creation of effective, efficient and engaging instruction by incorporating instructional design theories into a simple process.

Learner Audience: This tool is intended for developers, subject matter experts or anyone designing instruction that is not familiar with instructional design principles, theories or models.

Approach: The approach used emphasizes flexibility, adaptability, and applicability to realistic situations discussed at greater length in slides.

Special Features: Discussed throughout slides and includes Smart Tool capabilities, which automatically populate fields and review entered content, drag & drop embedded media objects, flexibility in navigation, and WYSIWYG editors.

Welcome

Community

Getting Started

Open Project

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DKKTools (Davis, Kerney & Kim) - EDG6328/Fall 2008/Dr. David Merrill


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Storybase

Story -based

Foundation

Storybase owes its foundation to several, well-established Instructional Design (ID) principles and models.

Structure

Integration

Application

Guidance

First Principles

Story

Demonstrate

Coaching

Activate

Pebble-in-the-Pond

Reflection

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S4 - DKKTools (Davis, Kerney & Kim) - EDG6328/Fall 2008/Dr. David Merrill


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“We can't solve problems by using the same kind of thinking we used when we created them. “

-- Albert Einstein

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Story is the core.

Storybase uses story as the kernel of instruction. Drawing on the power of story-telling and the constructivist influence of problem-based learning (PBL), Storybase employs key story elements along with other proven instructional design models to help novices design effective instruction.

Benefiting from the added motivation and relevance a story can provide, the resulting instruction promises to be more engaging. Using stories for learning does require a bit more effort and creativity to design and develop, however. Therefore, story-based learning may not be the right strategy for every type of learning goal. Stories are best suited for learning outcomes in the cognitive domain, especially those concepts, principles and processes that are “abstract”, “uninteresting or colorless”, or “difficult to appreciate”.

References:

ChaitanyaHakkaladaddi. (, n.d). Vivifying instruction through story-based learning.

StoBLs - Story-based Learning Objects from Tata Interactive Systems. Retrieved November 12, 2008, from http://www.tatainteractive.com/pdf/StoBLs.pdf.

Story

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“One's destination is never a place but rather a new way of looking at things.“

-- Henry Miller

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Storybase uses

Pebble-in-the-Pond.

Storybase provides a design and development process that is inspired by the five phases of the Pebble-in-the-Pond instructional design model.

Problem

Production

Story

Analysis

Design

Strategy

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Story =

Problem

Pebble-in-the-Pond

Design Model

Five phases: building from the identification of a problem which represents a whole task. Talk about properties of each phase.

References:

M. David Merrill. (2002). A pebble-in-the-pond model for instructional design.

Performance Improvement, 41(7), 41-46.

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“The universe is made of stories, not atoms.”

-- Muriel Rukeyser

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Storybase incorporates

First Principles

Task-centered

First Principles - talk about both layers. And task centered.

References:

Merrill, M. D. (2009). First principles of instruction. In C. M. Reigeluth & A.Carr (Eds.), Instructional design theories and models: Building a common knowledge base. New York: Routledge Publishers.

First Principles

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“The answer is always in the entire story, not a piece of it.“

-- Jim Harrison

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This a diagram showing a linear progression of the functionality for Storybase. However, it also allows for multi levels of progression.

Flow-Chart


Home

Authoring Story Board

Content is entered into Storybase in various text entry fields throughout the tool. There are also places where content is entered into a WYSIWYG editor. Content is organized and managed by either selecting options from a menu screen or using a drag and drop function from a toolbar.

WYSIWYG

Drag & Drop

Drag & Drop

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Authoring Story Board

In addition, content can be added to the design slides using the tab buttons for each subtask. In this way, each one of the tabs is a template that the DBA does not have to include. They can add or delete the tabs according to their teaching style.

However, the tool will be automated with those templates on each tab because it is part of the theoretical support this tool was based around.

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Learning Story Board

This is how the instruction is delivered to the student.

Notice the learner has the same navigation buttons that the DBA used to navigate through the course.

The learner can access the attachments and/or videos right from this page.

While taking the course, the learner has these 3 navigation buttons that he/she will use the most.

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Functionality

Instructional Systems Design: Pebble-on-the-Pond

  • Storybase is a tool based on the Instructional Systems design model suggested by Pebble-on-the-Pond where the phases are composed of four steps:

    • Problem

    • Analysis

    • Strategy

    • Design and Production

In this tool, the instructional strategy step is combined with the design step so that DBAs can easily do their design jobs with built-in instructional strategies associated with pre-defined traits of knowledge objects.

As you can see on the screenshot , the main navigation toolbar is located on the top of the window. DBAs can navigate toa phase at any point while they are working. Basically this instructional design process advances with linear patter, moving from “Build a story” to “Produce Instruction.” However, during designing and developing a course, DBAs can move back and forward between phases with non-linear pattern. The purpose is so the DBA can access content they entered in different sections at anytime during development. In addition, it portrays the phase the DBA is working on with a different color and picture icon.

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Functionality

Identify Problems: Pebble-on-the-Pond

The first phase on the Pebble-on-the–Pond model is to identify the problem which represents a whole task.

Based on the understanding that tasks in the real world are accomplished in systemic and complex contexts and deal with complex learning, we defined that “problem is a story”. The story integrates knowledge, skills and attitudes, and coordinates a variety of constituent skills while involving the transfer of knowledge from the educational setting into the real world,

Story-building strategy can be a good instructional method to

identify and specify the problem and its properties.

Through Storybase, DBAs can build a story as a problem.

For example, there are guided tabs indicating each required design property: character, mission, setting, plot/ storyline, feedback, and resolution. DBAs put related values in a text box and create a database for a problem. In addition, the character function provides for the creation of virtual protagonists for a story.

The characters and situational background are used in the next design instruction phase automatically.

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Functionality

Built-in ID strategies: Based on the First Principle Theory

In the Analyze Problem phase, each knowledge object is characterized with Kind-of, How-to, and What happen type. Each type of knowledge has predefined displayed components. DBAs design each screen component referring to related guides. For example “Kind-of” has the following sequece:1) Tell general information for categories 2) Show example, 3) Emphasize the discriminating properties, 4) Show divergent examples. Designer can add additional pages and change sequence by drag-and-drop a tab (changing instructional sequence).

As DBAs begin the design phase, the selected whole story and its part tasks with related knowledge objects ( they are designed in the Analyze Problem stage) are automatically displayed on the left tabs.

The tabs show a structure of a course and provide a direct way to move into a task DBAs want to design. It has a hierarchical structure like the following:

1. Introduction (Whole Task)

2. Tasks

3. Subtasks or Knowledge Objects

4. Conclusion

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Functionality

Built-in ID strategies: Linking Phases

Once in the design stage, the slides will automatically populate the introduction, tasks, and subtasks structure. If the DBA needs to refer back to this information or make changes they can use the same high level navigation buttons of “Build a Story” and “Analyze Problem”.

In addition, each sun icon with the word “Setting on it is automatically populated with the setting descriptions described in the “Build a Story” phase. Once this button is clicked, the DBA can select the setting title they created and it will be included in the background of the learner interface. With characters, the DBA must recall this information from the previous phases and enter the character’s specific information in the design slides.

In the “Design Strategy” phase, the text box entry fields have a WYSGWYG function. Also, designers can easily design a presentation by drag-and-drop media objects on the screen. Possible media types vary: Audio-clip, Video-clip, Text, Image, and Flash. Every media object is embedded in a page.

In other words, Storybaseincludes advanced authoring functions because

DBAs do not need another authoring tools, such as Dreamweaver.

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Functionality

Built-in ID strategies: Producing

Once in the production phase, the DBA will chose the format he or she desires from CD to Zip File. Once on of these buttons are clicked, Storybase will automatically review the content it has in its database before publishing. It will check for completion on all the named tasks, subtasks, settings, introduction, and conclusion pieces. It will give warnings in blue of non-threatening issues and will point out requirements in red.

The DBA can use the “Check Requirements” function to check each requirement that it has identified as an issue. The DBA must clear all of these red statements before continuing to publish. Storybase attempts to validate all information to make sure it has all the pieces necessary for the story.

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Annotation

Summary

Storybase employs three instructional design strategies: Story-based Learning (STL) Principles, Pebble-in-the-Pond (PIP), and First Principle Theory (FPT). They are integrated to produce an effective and efficient instructional design tool in order for the Designer-by-Assignment (DBA) to design courseware and facilitate complex learning, which focuses on achieving integrated learning goals rather than learning separate or isolated skills. Complex learning is concerned with the coordination and integration of “constituent” (enabling) skills and a focus on “real-life” tasks to attain a desired learning goal or behavior and facilitate transfer to the work setting or to daily life. We realized that “story” is the most appropriate vehicle to deliver real complex situation in an authentic manner. That is our primary reason we used story as a tool describe problem and tasks.

Storybaseuses story as the core of instruction. Drawing on the power of story-telling and the constructivist influence of problem-based learning (PBL), it employs key story elements along with other proven instructional design models to help novices design effective instruction. Benefiting from the added motivation and relevance a story can provide, the resulting instruction promises to be more engaging. Using stories for learning does require a bit more effort and creativity to design and develop, however, with a tool such as this it can help expedite the process. While story-based learning may not be the most appropriate strategy for every type of learning goal, this offers a cohesive model for most DBAs to utilize and focus content on stories if desired. Stories are best suited for learning outcomes in the cognitive domain, especially those concepts, principles and processes that are “abstract”, “uninteresting or colorless”, or “difficult to appreciate”.

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Annotation

Summary

  • Compared to the STL, which is a general principle to enhance a problem by making it more fruitful and situational, Pebble-in-the-Pond (PIP) focuses on describing an instructional design model that has been effective for implementing instruction based on the first principles. The model is not a substitute for ISD but a content-centered modification of more traditional ISD that facilitates incorporating first principles into instructional products. PIP bears four main ID phases which employed our tool: Identify problem, Analyze problem, Design instruction, and Production.

  • As PIP guides the processes in which instructional design proceeds with macro perspective, First Principle Theory (FPT) provides specific principles, “how to design knowledge objects delivered to learner.”, with a micro perspective. We derived several practical principles from that theory.

  • Task-Centered Design: Each lesson is designed based on a related task which elaborated and complicated gradually.

  • The main process could be composed of the following phases: activation, demonstration, application (applying obtained knowledge and skills to a simple task –short distance transfer-), integration (wherein an actual task is presented).

  • Each knowledge object has its own best –fit sequence in the form of templates in which specific attributes could be defined by referring principles depending on the types of knowledge: Kind-of, How-to, and What happens.

  • Designer complies with the main sequences of different selections of instructional components and diverse level of tasks.

  • Overall, this tool encompasses these theories and strives to provide cohesive yet simplistic application of these theories.

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Annotation

References

  • Instructional Design Theories

  • Merrill, M. D. (2002). A pebble-in-the-pond model for instructional design. Performance Improvement, 41(7), 39-44.

  • Merrill, M. D. (2007). A task-centered instructional strategy. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 40(1), 33-50.

  • Merrill, M. D. (2009). First Principles of Instruction. In C. M. Reigeluth & A. Carr (Eds.), Instructional Design

  • Theories and Models: Building a Common Knowledge Base (Vol. III). New York: Routledge.

Story-based Learning

  • http://www.tatainteractive.com/pdf/StoBLs.pdf

  • http://www.knowledgeplatform.com/Content/Pdfs/canning_workplace_stories.pdf

  • http://s.spachman.tripod.com/Narrative/storymap.htm

  • http://www.eduplace.com/rdg/gen_act/pigs/story_mp.html

  • http://www.sasked.gov.sk.ca/docs/ela/images/storymap.gif

  • http://www.fuse-studio.co.uk/?cat=14 Image credit

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We hope you enjoyed this presentation of,

Storybase

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