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EFFECTIVENESS OF NBA ACCREDITATION PROCESSES. K.G.Viswanadhan & N.J.Rao Department of Management Studies, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. Organization of presentation. Introduction Quality Frameworks Accreditation process of National Board of Accreditation (NBA)

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EFFECTIVENESS OF NBA ACCREDITATION PROCESSES

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Effectiveness of nba accreditation processes l.jpg

EFFECTIVENESS OF NBA ACCREDITATION PROCESSES

K.G.Viswanadhan & N.J.Rao

Department of Management Studies,

Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore


Organization of presentation l.jpg

Organization of presentation

  • Introduction

  • Quality Frameworks

  • Accreditation process of National Board of Accreditation (NBA)

  • Revisions on Accreditation Processes of NBA – A comparison

  • Studies based on statistical analysis

    • Old Process

    • New process (from January 2004)

  • Findings

  • Conclusions

Effectiveness of NBA accreditation processes - KG Viswanadhan & NJ Rao


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Introduction

  • Engineering education system is of utmost importance in generating the technical manpower required for building a strong nation.

  • Presently there are 1265 approved engineering colleges with a total intake of about 381,000 students in India.

  • A mechanism is needed to assess and assure the quality of education offered by these institutions.

  • This mechanism should be developed based on the conditions prevailing in the country.

Effectiveness of NBA accreditation processes - KG Viswanadhan & NJ Rao


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Quality Frameworks

Effectiveness of NBA accreditation processes - KG Viswanadhan & NJ Rao


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National Board of Accreditation (NBA)

  • All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE), which has been set up to oversee the growth and quality of technical education, established the National Board of Accreditation (NBA) in 1994.

  • The NBA is charged with the task of evolving a procedure for quality assessment in the technical education sector on the basis of specified guidelines, norms, benchmarks and criteria.

  • After conducting a series of workshops and discussions among the experts, NBA has formulated the accreditation process suitable for Indian engineering programmes.

Effectiveness of NBA accreditation processes - KG Viswanadhan & NJ Rao


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National Board of Accreditation (NBA)

  • The accreditation process has been reviewed from time to time to better its assessment capabilities.

  • The first reviewed process has been implemented with effect from 1-1-2003.

  • The second revision came into effect from 1-1-2004 .

Effectiveness of NBA accreditation processes - KG Viswanadhan & NJ Rao


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Revisions on Accreditation Processes of NBAGrading System

Effectiveness of NBA accreditation processes - KG Viswanadhan & NJ Rao


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Revisions on Accreditation Processes of NBAMinimum requirements for getting Accreditation

Effectiveness of NBA accreditation processes - KG Viswanadhan & NJ Rao


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Accreditation System

Number of variables

Earlier System

70

Modified from

1-1-2003 

70

Modified from

1-1-2004 

57

Revisions on Accreditation Processes of NBA Total numbers of variables to be assessed

Effectiveness of NBA accreditation processes - KG Viswanadhan & NJ Rao


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Accreditation System

Institute level

Department level

Institute / Department level

Total Points

Earlier System 

171

352

477

1000

Modified from 1-1-03 

171

352

477

1000

Modified from 1-1-04 

249

325

426

1000

Revisions on Accreditation Processes of NBA Split up of points among institute and department

Effectiveness of NBA accreditation processes - KG Viswanadhan & NJ Rao


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Criteria - Earlier system

Weights

1.Mission, Goals and Organization

100

2.Financial & Physical Resources

100

3.Human Resources: Faculty& Staff

200

4.Human Resources: Students

100

5.Teaching – Learning Processes

350

6.Supplementary Processes

50

7.Industry – Institution interaction

70

8.Research & Development

30

Total

1000

Revisions on Accreditation Processes of NBA Earlier criteria for accreditation

Effectiveness of NBA accreditation processes - KG Viswanadhan & NJ Rao


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Criteria from 1-1-2004

Weights

1.Organization and Governance

80

2.Financial Resources, Allocation

and utilization

70

3.Physical Resources

50

4.Human Resources: Faculty& Staff

200

5.Human Resources: Students

100

6.Teaching – Learning Processes

350

7.Supplementary Processes

50

8.Research & Development

and Interaction Effort

100

Total

1000

Revisions on Accreditation Processes of NBA New criteria for accreditation

Effectiveness of NBA accreditation processes - KG Viswanadhan & NJ Rao


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Data collection - Earlier Systems

  • Accreditation data of 49 Undergraduate Engineering Programmes from different parts of India during the period 2000-2001 have been collected for analysis.

  • 32 programs, which scored 650 and more points out of 1000 points, are taken as ‘accredited’ and the other 17 as ‘not accredited’

Effectiveness of NBA accreditation processes - KG Viswanadhan & NJ Rao


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Sl. No

Variables

t

p-value

1

Mission, Goals and Organization

8.580

0

2

Financial & Physical Resources and their Utilization

2.982

0.007

3

Human Resources: Faculty& Staff

5.463

0

4

Human Resources: Students

8.716

0

5

Teaching – Learning Processes

6.228

0

6

Supplementary Processes

3.919

0.001

7

Industry – Institution Interaction

5.434

0

8

Research & Development

5.485

0

t –tests on criteria scores of accredited

and not-accredited programmes

Effectiveness of NBA accreditation processes - KG Viswanadhan & NJ Rao


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Interpretation of t- test

  • Scores of all the 8 criteria are significantly different for the accredited and not-accredited programmes.

  • Scores of all the 8 criteria are significantly higher for the accredited programmes than the non-accredited ones.

  • Most of the criterion scores are highly correlated

  • An attempt has been made to summarize these highly correlated criterions using a lesser number of linear functions

Effectiveness of NBA accreditation processes - KG Viswanadhan & NJ Rao


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Variables

Component 1

(Overall Performance)

Mission, Goals and Organization

.88

Financial & Physical Resources

.85

Human Resources: Faculty& Staff

.85

Human Resources: Students

.79

Teaching – Learning Processes

.78

Supplementary Processes

.74

Industry – Institution Interaction

.74

Research & Development

.69

Eigen Values

5.02

Percentage of Variance

62.73

Principal Component Analysis of the 8 Criterions

Effectiveness of NBA accreditation processes - KG Viswanadhan & NJ Rao


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Interpretation of results – Earlier systems

  • All of the eight criteria have discriminatory power in segregating between the accredited and not-accredited programmes.

  • All the criteria can be summarized into a single component, ‘Overall Performance of the Programme’ .

    Possible reasons

  • If a programme is good, it is good with regard to all criteria.

    or

  • If a programme seems to be good to the expert team of NBA, the marks allotted to all criteria will be higher.

Effectiveness of NBA accreditation processes - KG Viswanadhan & NJ Rao


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Data reduction and summarization

  • A minimum number of variables should be selected that can explain the variability of performance and that will allow an objective assessment of the programme .

  • Since the entire process is categorized into eight criteria, it is decided to conduct eight sets of Principal Component Analysis on the variables pertaining to each of these eight criteria .

  • Principal Component Analysis resulted in the emergence of 19 Components.

Effectiveness of NBA accreditation processes - KG Viswanadhan & NJ Rao


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Data reduction and summarization

Effectiveness of NBA accreditation processes - KG Viswanadhan & NJ Rao


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Names given to the Components

by looking at the weights on the

underlying variables

1. Participatory Management

2. Leadership Efficiency

3. Commitment to achieve Goals

4. Planning and Monitoring

5. Financial Resources

6. Supplementary Physical Resources

7. Main Physical Resources

8. Performance – Faculty & Staff

9. Supporting Staff Adequacy

10.Faculty Adequacy

11. Student Performance

12. Student Intake

13. Learning Facilities

14. Instruction, Evaluation and feedback

15. Academic calendar

16. Supplementary Processes

17. Institute initiatives

18. Industry Initiatives

19. R&D Activities

Effectiveness of NBA accreditation processes - KG Viswanadhan & NJ Rao


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Discriminating power of the components

  • A t–test has been conducted on the component scores of accredited and not-accredited programmes.

  • Scores of all the components except ‘Academic calendar' are significantly different for the accredited and not-accredited programmes.

  • All the 18 components are essential for deciding the accreditation status of the programme.

Effectiveness of NBA accreditation processes - KG Viswanadhan & NJ Rao


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New process (from January 2004)

  • Accreditation data of 78 programmes from various part of the country, which have undergone accreditation process based on the revised criteria, have been collected.

  • For analyzing the impact of revisions on the assessment capabilities of accreditation process, it is decided to conduct a PCA on the criteria scores of these newly accredited (after December 2003) programmes.

  • PCA has resulted in the derivation of three components.

Effectiveness of NBA accreditation processes - KG Viswanadhan & NJ Rao


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Variables

Comp1

Comp2

Comp3

Organization and Governance

.90

Financial Resources, Allocation and Utilization

-.51

.63

Physical Resources

.74

H R: Faculty & Staff

.35

.37

.67

H R: Students

.42

.61

-.34

Teaching – Learning Processes

.69

Supplementary Processes

.70

R & D and interaction Effort

.71

Cumulative % of variance

26.82

48.07

63.46

P C A results on the 8 criteria of the new process

Effectiveness of NBA accreditation processes - KG Viswanadhan & NJ Rao


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New process (from January 2004)

  • The three components can be named as ‘resources & supporting processes’, ‘core process’ and ‘governance of human resources’.

  • An attempt has been made to classify the fifty-seven variables of the new accreditation process in to nineteen derived components from the old process.

  • It is found out that none of the variables of the new process measures the components ‘commitment to achieve the goals’ and ‘main physical resources’.

Effectiveness of NBA accreditation processes - KG Viswanadhan & NJ Rao


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Limitations of earlier systems

  • Exact split-up for the scores of institution / department level parameters are not mentioned.

  • Some of the parameters(Syllabus, Admission criteria, Industry participation in curriculum planning , etc.) are not under the control of the programme or institution, but decided by the government, university and industries.

  • There was no provision for assuring specific, independent standards for critical criteria like teaching learning process, faculty, etc.

  • Separate weight is not given for the performance of the faculty of academic support departments. (Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry & Humanities).

Effectiveness of NBA accreditation processes - KG Viswanadhan & NJ Rao


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Positive changes in the revisions

  • Positive changes, which favor quality improvement, are visible in the revisions of NBA accreditation processes.

  • The change of grading system from ‘A, B, and C’ classification to ‘Accredited for 5 years and 3 years’ reduces the disparity between the accredited programmes.

  • The increase of minimum required points from 550 to 650 for getting accreditation, tightened the quality assurance of the programmes.

  • An attempt to reduce the number of variables to be assessed during the accreditation process is visible in the latest revision.

Effectiveness of NBA accreditation processes - KG Viswanadhan & NJ Rao


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Positive changes in the revisions

  • A tendency to give more weight to the institute level performance than the department level is visible in the new accreditation process.

  • A new outlook of process approach can be viewed in the modified system compared to the resource approach in the earlier system.

  • The PCA result of ‘three components’ from the new process data instead of the earlier result of a ‘single component’ from the previous processes, confirms the improved assessment capability of the new accreditation criteria .

Effectiveness of NBA accreditation processes - KG Viswanadhan & NJ Rao


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Flaws in the revised process

  • Even if the second and a part of the third limitations mentioned about the earlier systems are eliminated in the new process, the remaining limitations are yet to be rectified.

  • As the two components ‘commitment to achieve the goals’ and ‘main physical resources’ are significantly different for the ‘Accredited’ and ‘Not-accredited’ programmes, they are important to decide the accreditation status of a programme. Hence, the decision to avoid the variables connected with these components from the new assessment process is statistically unacceptable.

Effectiveness of NBA accreditation processes - KG Viswanadhan & NJ Rao


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Conclusions

  • NBA has been assisting the stakeholders in technical education to identify those institutions and their specific programmes, which meet the norms and standards and criteria prescribed by AICTE.

  • The process has been reviewed periodically to make it more effective.

  • These revisions indicate a positive shift of assessment from resource perspective to process perspective.

  • Improvements are still possible to reduce subjectivity from the process and to make the accreditation fool proof.

Effectiveness of NBA accreditation processes - KG Viswanadhan & NJ Rao


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