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1 80


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1. 80

2. 2-40 9


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(yam)


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(Fiber)


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2.1


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2.1

(Reducing sugar)

6 (Hexose) (Mannose) 5 (Pentose) (Arabinose) (Quince) (Fig) (Xylose) (Peach)


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(Disaccharides)

(Sugar derivatives) Sugar acid (Galacturonic acid) Sugar alcohol (Glycerol) (Sorbitol) Sugar phosphate Glucose-6 -phosphate Fructose-6-phosphate (Glycosides)


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3. 1.0-1.5 2-4 4 8

4. 1 corky layer


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(cutin) (suberin) hydroxy

acid

5. (Krebs'Cycle)


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(Carboxylic group) -COOH (Ester) (Calcium Oxalate) (Potassium bitartrate)


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5.1 Aliphatic monocarboxylic acid

5.1.1 (Formic acid) H-COOH

5.1.2 (Acetic acid) CH3-COOH Acetyl Coenzyme A

5.1.3 (Butyric acid)


5 2 aliphatic monocarboxylic ketone aldehyde

5.2 Aliphatic monocarboxylic (Ketone) (Aldehyde)

5.2.1 (Glycolic acid) (Phosphoglyceric acid) (Mevalonic acid)

5.2.2 (Pyruvic acid) (Glycolysis)

5.2.3 (Glyoxylic acid)


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5.3 Aliphatic di and tri carboxylic acid (Succinic acid)

5.4 (Saccharic acid) (Mucic acid) (Galacturonic acid)

5.5 Carbocyclic monocarboxylic acid

5.5.1 Aromatic acid (Benzoic acid) Vaccinium (Salicylic acid) (p-coumaric acid) (Chlorogenic acid) (Caffeic acid)


5 5 2 alicyclic acid quinic acid shikimic acid

5.5.2 Alicyclic acid (Quinic acid) (Shikimic acid)

6. (Volatile Compounds) Oxygenated compounds terpenoid hydrocarbons


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7. (Pigment) 3

(Chlorophylls) 0.1 Chlorophyll a, b, c d Chlorophyll a b 3:1


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(Carotenoids) (Carotene) (Lycopene) (Xanthophyll) (Cryptoxanthin) 2.4

0.005 0.008 (Senescence)


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-

2 isoprenoid 8 isoprenoid ( 2.4)


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2.5 2.6

. 2.5a (cell sap) (oxonium salts) (chloride) (Rhambose)


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phenol ring B ( 2.5) 2.5b-g (OH) ring B (OCH3)

20 6 (Pelargonidin) (Cyanidin) (Delphinidin) (Peonidin) (Petunidin) (Malvidin)


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pH 0.71 (quinoidal) anhydro base carbinol base (chromenol) pH


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pH chalcone

(Co-pigment) Cornflower Cornflower


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. (Anthoxanthin) (Leucoanthocyanin) (Catechin) (coumarin) hydroxy cinnamic acid 2.6

flavonol quercetin ( 2.6a) hesperidin ( 2.6b) naringenin hesperidin 35 niringenin 75


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8.


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2.4


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2.4 ()


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2.4 ()


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9. 2.6


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2.5


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10. (Toxic substances) (Amines) (Cyanogenic glycosides) (Hallucinogenic Compounds) (Nitrates Nitrites) (Oxalates)

(Aflatoxin) (Patulin) (Pesticides) 2.6


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2.6


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11. (Phenolic compounds) Secondary metabolite

- Ubiquinone Quinone

- (Catechol)


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-

- (Secondary cell wall)


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2.7


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2


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