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1. 80

2. 2-40 9


(yam)


(Fiber)




2.1


2.1

(Reducing sugar)

6 (Hexose) (Mannose) 5 (Pentose) (Arabinose) (Quince) (Fig) (Xylose) (Peach)


(Disaccharides)

(Sugar derivatives) Sugar acid (Galacturonic acid) Sugar alcohol (Glycerol) (Sorbitol) Sugar phosphate Glucose-6 -phosphate Fructose-6-phosphate (Glycosides)


3. 1.0-1.5 2-4 4 8

4. 1 corky layer


(cutin) (suberin) hydroxy

acid

5. (Krebs'Cycle)


(Carboxylic group) -COOH (Ester) (Calcium Oxalate) (Potassium bitartrate)


5.1 Aliphatic monocarboxylic acid

5.1.1 (Formic acid) H-COOH

5.1.2 (Acetic acid) CH3-COOH Acetyl Coenzyme A

5.1.3 (Butyric acid)


5.2 Aliphatic monocarboxylic (Ketone) (Aldehyde)

5.2.1 (Glycolic acid) (Phosphoglyceric acid) (Mevalonic acid)

5.2.2 (Pyruvic acid) (Glycolysis)

5.2.3 (Glyoxylic acid)


5.3 Aliphatic di and tri carboxylic acid (Succinic acid)

5.4 (Saccharic acid) (Mucic acid) (Galacturonic acid)

5.5 Carbocyclic monocarboxylic acid

5.5.1 Aromatic acid (Benzoic acid) Vaccinium (Salicylic acid) (p-coumaric acid) (Chlorogenic acid) (Caffeic acid)


5.5.2 Alicyclic acid (Quinic acid) (Shikimic acid)

6. (Volatile Compounds) Oxygenated compounds terpenoid hydrocarbons


7. (Pigment) 3

(Chlorophylls) 0.1 Chlorophyll a, b, c d Chlorophyll a b 3:1


(Carotenoids) (Carotene) (Lycopene) (Xanthophyll) (Cryptoxanthin) 2.4

0.005 0.008 (Senescence)


-

2 isoprenoid 8 isoprenoid ( 2.4)


2.5 2.6

. 2.5a (cell sap) (oxonium salts) (chloride) (Rhambose)


phenol ring B ( 2.5) 2.5b-g (OH) ring B (OCH3)

20 6 (Pelargonidin) (Cyanidin) (Delphinidin) (Peonidin) (Petunidin) (Malvidin)


pH 0.71 (quinoidal) anhydro base carbinol base (chromenol) pH


pH chalcone

(Co-pigment) Cornflower Cornflower


. (Anthoxanthin) (Leucoanthocyanin) (Catechin) (coumarin) hydroxy cinnamic acid 2.6

flavonol quercetin ( 2.6a) hesperidin ( 2.6b) naringenin hesperidin 35 niringenin 75


8.


2.4


2.4 ()


2.4 ()


9. 2.6


2.5


10. (Toxic substances) (Amines) (Cyanogenic glycosides) (Hallucinogenic Compounds) (Nitrates Nitrites) (Oxalates)

(Aflatoxin) (Patulin) (Pesticides) 2.6


2.6


11. (Phenolic compounds) Secondary metabolite

- Ubiquinone Quinone

- (Catechol)


-

- (Secondary cell wall)


2.7


2


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