Stem cell research
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Stem Cell Research. By "Doctors" Scott Cardona, Grant Granado, George Matarangas, Calix O'Hara, and Paul Siewierski. What are stem cells?. Stem cells are cells with the capability of developing into many different types of cells. They are produced in some organs to replace damaged tissue.

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Stem Cell Research

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Stem cell research

Stem Cell Research

By "Doctors" Scott Cardona, Grant Granado, George Matarangas, Calix O'Hara, and Paul Siewierski


What are stem cells

What are stem cells?

Stem cells are cells with the capability of developing into many different types of cells. They are produced in some organs to replace damaged tissue.

http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/basics/


Stem cells cont

Stem Cells, cont.

Stem cells differ from other cells in that they are unspecialized but can become many different types of cells with specialized functions.

http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/basics/basics1.asp


Types of stem cells

Types of Stem Cells

There are two main types of stem cells with one major difference between them:

    1. Embryonic stem cells, from developing embryos

    2. Adult stem cells, from adult tissue

http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/info/stem_cell/

1

2


Types of stem cells cont

Types of Stem Cells, cont.

Adult stem cells can be taken from umbilical cords, placenta, fat from liposuction, and other tissue from the body. They can even be harvested from cadavers that are "fresh" enough.

http://www.aproundtable.org/tps30info/stemcellresearch.html


Types of stem cells cont1

Types of Stem Cells, cont.

Embryonic stem cells are taken from human embryos that are grown in vitro, but currently, they are more commonly used in research than actual treatment

http://www.aproundtable.org/tps30info/stemcellresearch.html


Stem cell research and treatment

Stem Cell Research and Treatment

The majority of stem cell research and treatment is conducted using adult stem cells. In fact, adult stem cell treatment has already helped thousands of people.

http://www.aproundtable.org/tps30info/stemcellresearch.html


Stem cell research cont

Stem Cell Research, cont.

Adult stem cell research is 20-30 years ahead of embryonic cell research because of the difficulty of embryonic cells developing outside of their usual environment.

http://www.aproundtable.org/tps30info/stemcellresearch.html


World s first transplant of a whole organ grown in lab

World's first transplant of a whole organ grown in lab

  • November 2008

  • Claudia Castillo

  • damaged windpipe

  • lower chance of rejection

    http://www.dailyglobal.com/2008/11/worlds-first-transplant-of-a-whole-organ-grown-in-lab/


Stem cell research

Pros

  • replace/repair damaged organs

  • Reduced risk of Transplantation

  • Serious medical conditions, like cancer and birth defects, are due to abnormal cell division and differentiation.

    http://www.dailyglobal.com/200

    8/11/world

    s-first-transplant-of-a-whole-or

    gan-grown-in-lab/

    http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_4cp

    HRWD5Y6I/TJKUaPoJbGI/AAAAA

    AAAAA8/kOq-Y682kuE/s1600/bi

    o+12.png


Pros cont

Pros cont.

Cardiovascular disease

  • stem cells that are injected into the circulation or directly into the injured heart tissue...

    http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/basics/basics6.asp

    http://cdn.elev8.com/files/2010/05/heart.jpg


Pros cont1

Pros cont.

  • ...appear to improve cardiac function and/or induce the formation of new capillaries.

    http://stemcells.ni

    h.gov/info/basics/b

    asics6.asp

    http://s3.amazona

    ws.com/readers/2

    10/10/28/stemcellt

    reatments_1.png

    http://terra.dadeschools.net/books/Biology/BiologyExploringLife04/0-13-115075-8/text/chapter30/30images/30-02.gif


Pros cont2

Pros cont.

  •  New studies indicate that it may be possible to direct the differentiation of stem cells to form insulin-producing cells ...

    http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/basics/basics6.asp

    http://static.guim.co.uk/sys-images/Guardian/Pix/commercial/2011/10/27/1319727251778/Stem-cells-being-grown-in-008.jpg


Pros cont3

Pros cont.

  • ...that eventually could be used in transplantation therapy for persons with diabetes.

  • Scientists know that turning genes on and off is central to this process.

    http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/basics/basics6.asp

    http://www.diabetes.org/diabetes-basics/diabetes-statistics/

    http://www.businessweek.com/news/2011-11-14/diabetes-will-strike-one-in-ten-adults-by-2030-idf-report-says.html

    http://www.abc.net.au/health/library/img/leukaemia_transplant.gif

    http://kids.jdrf.org/images/General_Images/Search_for_a_Cure/General/stemcells.jpg


Pros cont4

Pros cont.

  • 336 million people have diabetes

  •  1 in 10 adults (552 million) will have diabetes by 2030

  • Associated with 231,404 deaths

  • Deaths will double by 2030

    http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/basics/basics6.asp

    http://www.diabetes.org/diabetes-basics/diabet

    es-statistics/

    http://www.businessweek.com/news/2011-11-14/d

    iabetes-will-strike-one-in-ten-adults-by-2030-idf-r

    eport-says.html


Pros cont5

Pros cont.

  • Human stem cells could also be used to test new drugs

  • Ethical dilemmas are largest challenges to increased funding/ large-scale use

    http://www.hotlikesauce.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/11/

    stem-cecomic.jpg

    http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/basics/basics6.asp

    http://www.experiment-resources.com/stem-cell-pros-and-cons.html

    http://www.experiment-resources.com/embryonic-stem-cells.html


Stem cell research

Cons

  • Cons come from two areas

    • 1. Embryos being destroyed

      • Destroyed Embryos < 100 cells

      • Some equate this to murder

      • Only applies to embryonic research

        http://www.allaboutpopularissues.org/pros-and-cons-of-stem-cell-research.htm


Embryonic stem cells being extraced

Embryonic Stem Cells Being Extraced

http://www.centreofthecell.org/assets/images/blastocyst%20day%205.jpg


Cons cont

Cons cont.

  •  Embryos cont.

    • Proponents argue cells already available from in-vitro

    • No new cells destroyed 

      http://www.allaboutpopularissues.org/pros-and-cons-of-stem-cell-research.htm


Cons cont1

Cons cont.

  • 2. Medical Grounds

    • Mice with Parkinson's treated with stem cells died at 20% rate

    • -Suggests stem cells not viable treatment

http://www.allaboutpopularissues.org/pros-and-cons-of-stem-cell-research.htm


Cons cont2

Cons cont.

  • Medical cont.

  • Cells must

    • Create enough tissue

    • Differentiate into correct cells

    • Survive the translplant

    •  Function properly

    •  Avoid harming recipent

  •  Hard to achieve this

  • http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/basics/basics6.asp


  • Cons cont3

    Cons Cont.

    Cells being frozen for in vitro. Later stem cells can be obtained from these.

    http://media-3.web.britannica.com/eb-media//91/136091-050-DBFA64C0.jpg


    Groups who support stem cell research

    Groups who Support Stem Cell Research

    • Americans for Cures Foundation- will improve life.

    • American Association for the Advancement of Science- increases knowledge of human body.

    • Canadian Stem Cell Network- new treatments.

      http://www.stemcellresources.org/who_orgs.html


    Groups who support cont

    Groups who support cont.

    • Coalition for the Advancement of Medical Research-  developing new medicines.

    •  Planned Parenthood- providing services for the public.

    • 72% of Americans support Stem Cell research.

      http://www.stemcellresources.org/who_orgs.html


    Why do groups support it

    Why do groups support it?

    • Believe it is morally right 

    • Outweighs any destruction of embryos

    • Alternatively, Embryos not considered "human"

      http://poq.oxfordjournals.org/content/68/1/131.full


    Groups that are opposed to stem cell research

    Groups that are Opposed to Stem Cell Research

    • United States Conference of Catholic Bishops- considers murder

    • Christian Coalition- violation of human rights

    • Concerned Women for America- conservation of life

    • Southern Basptist Convention- goes against beliefs/ all life is sacred

      http://www.cc.org/

      http://urj.org/


    Groups who don t support cont

    Groups who don't support cont.

    • Union of American Hebrew Congregations (Reform)- requirement to use knowledge to heal others without hurting

    • Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America- destruction of fetuses is considered abortion

      http://www.cc.org/

      http://urj.org/


    Why do these groups oppose stem cell research

    Why do these groups oppose Stem Cell Research?

    • Generally contend it is destruction of human life

    • Consider Embryos "human"

    • Often routed in religious doctrne

      • Catholics, Jews, Protestants, Orthodox Christians

        http://www.quora.com/Why-do-people-oppose-stem-cell-research


    Church s view

    Church's View

    The Catholic Church condemns stem cell research on embryonic cells.

        The embryo is, from conception, a human being.

     http://www.vatican.va/roman_curia/pontifical_academies/acdlife/documents/rc_pa_acdlife_doc_20000824_cellule-staminali_en.html


    Church s view contd

    Church's View contd.

       Taking the life of another human is murder and wrong.

    http://www.vatican.va/roman_curia/pontifical_academies/acdlife/documents/rc_pa_acdlife_doc_20000824_cellule-staminali_en.html


    Church s view contd1

    Church's View contd.

    The end does not justify the means.

     http://www.vatican.va/roman_curia/pontifical_academies/acdlife/documents/rc_pa_acdlife_doc_20000824_cellule-staminali_en.html 


    Church s view contd2

    Church's View contd.

        Even if the end result is to save lives, the sacrificing of            innocent human beings to do so is wrong. 

    http://www.vatican.va/roman_curia/pontifical_academies/acdlife/documents/rc_pa_acdlife_doc_20000824_cellule-staminali_en.html 


    Church s view contd3

    Church's View contd  

     The Church does not oppose adult stem cell research.

        There is no loss of life in adult stem cell

    http://catholicism.about.com/od/thechurchintheworld/p/Stem_Cells.htm

    http://www.vatican.va/roman_curia/pontifical_academies/acdlife/documents/rc_pa_acdlife_doc_20000824_cellule-staminali_en.html   


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