THE IMMUNE  SYSTEM
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THE IMMUNE SYSTEM. THE HEART. II.7 ANIMAL TRANSPORT. THE LYMPHATIC SYSTEM. CIRCULATORY SYSTEM. BLOOD AND BLOOD CELLS. ROUND UP. Blood composition. Blood consists of a pale yellow fluid called plasma in which are suspended white blood cells, platelets and red cells. .

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Blood consists of a pale yellow fluid called plasma in which are suspended white blood cells, platelets and red cells.

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Blood consists of a pale yellow fluid called plasma in which are suspended white blood cells platelets and red cells

THE IMMUNE SYSTEM

THE HEART

II.7 ANIMAL TRANSPORT

THE LYMPHATIC SYSTEM

CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

BLOOD AND BLOOD CELLS

ROUND UP

Blood composition

Blood consists of a pale yellow fluid called plasma in which are suspended white blood cells, platelets and red cells.

Centrifuged whole blood

Microscope drawing of blood smear

white cells

red cells

plasma

white cells

red cells

If blood is centrifuged the cells precipitate leaving the plasma as a supernatant.

Here is a photograph of a blood smear taken down a microscope


Blood consists of a pale yellow fluid called plasma in which are suspended white blood cells platelets and red cells

plasma

Plasma transports:

Carbon dioxide from the organs to the lungs

THE IMMUNE SYSTEM

THE HEART

II.7 ANIMAL TRANSPORT

THE LYMPHATIC SYSTEM

CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

BLOOD AND BLOOD CELLS

ROUND UP

Blood composition

Can you label the arrows?

Microscope drawing of blood smear

Soluble products of digestion from the small intestine to other organs

Urea from the liver to the kidneys

Plasma contains a variety of dissolved solutes such as urea, glucose, hormones.

platelet

red blood cell

whiteblood cell

It also contains plasma proteins that remain in the blood all the time.


Blood consists of a pale yellow fluid called plasma in which are suspended white blood cells platelets and red cells

IGCSE BIOLOGY – 11.7 TRANSPORT

THE IMMUNE SYSTEM

THE HEART

II.7 ANIMAL TRANSPORT

THE LYMPHATIC SYSTEM

CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

BLOOD AND BLOOD CELLS

ROUND UP

Blood composition

Microscope drawing of blood smear

white cells

White cells:

Have a nucleus

Form part of the body’s defence system against microbes


Blood consists of a pale yellow fluid called plasma in which are suspended white blood cells platelets and red cells

THE IMMUNE SYSTEM

THE HEART

II.7 ANIMAL TRANSPORT

THE LYMPHATIC SYSTEM

CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

BLOOD AND BLOOD CELLS

ROUND UP

Blood composition

Red cells

Have no nucleus

Microscope drawing of blood smear

Are packed with a red pigment called haemoglobin

In the lungs oxygen combines with haemoglobin to form oxyhaemoglobin

red cells

In other organ oxyhaemoglobin splits into haemoglobin +O2


Blood consists of a pale yellow fluid called plasma in which are suspended white blood cells platelets and red cells

THE IMMUNE SYSTEM

THE HEART

II.7 ANIMAL TRANSPORT

THE LYMPHATIC SYSTEM

CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

BLOOD AND BLOOD CELLS

ROUND UP

Blood composition

Design features of red blood cells for oxygen carriage

Microscope drawing of blood smear

No nucleus making more room for haemoglobin

Doughnut shaped giving greater surface area for gas exchange

red cells


Blood consists of a pale yellow fluid called plasma in which are suspended white blood cells platelets and red cells

THE IMMUNE SYSTEM

THE HEART

II.7 ANIMAL TRANSPORT

THE LYMPHATIC SYSTEM

CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

BLOOD AND BLOOD CELLS

ROUND UP

Blood composition

Platelets

Platelets are small fragments of cells

Platelets have no nucleus

Platelets help blood to clot at the site of a wound

platelets

Light microscope photograph of a stained blood sample (X3000) Platelets are stained blue


Blood consists of a pale yellow fluid called plasma in which are suspended white blood cells platelets and red cells

THE IMMUNE SYSTEM

THE HEART

II.7 ANIMAL TRANSPORT

THE LYMPHATIC SYSTEM

CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

BLOOD AND BLOOD CELLS

ROUND UP

The immune system

White blood cells

If pathogens gain entry to the body 2 types of white cells attack them:

lymphocyte

Makes antibodies which attach to the pathogen and help disable or destroy it

Produces antitoxins which neutralise any toxins produced by the pathogen

phagocyte

Phagocytic - engulfs the pathogen and digests it.

Microscope photo of a human blood smear


Blood consists of a pale yellow fluid called plasma in which are suspended white blood cells platelets and red cells

THE IMMUNE SYSTEM

THE HEART

II.7 ANIMAL TRANSPORT

THE LYMPHATIC SYSTEM

CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

BLOOD AND BLOOD CELLS

ROUND UP

The immune system

White blood cells

– phagocytosis and antibody action

Pathogen engulfed by white cell

engulfs and digests pathogens by phagocytosis

Invading pathogens usually a bacteria or viruses

Phagocyte.

Pathogen toxin

produces antibodies to attack the pathogens or their toxins

Lymphoctye

Pathogen or toxins produced by the pathogen

antibody


Blood consists of a pale yellow fluid called plasma in which are suspended white blood cells platelets and red cells

THE IMMUNE SYSTEM

THE HEART

II.7 ANIMAL TRANSPORT

THE LYMPHATIC SYSTEM

CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

BLOOD AND BLOOD CELLS

ROUND UP

The immune system

Re-infection

Once they have produced antibodies against a particular bacterium or virus, white memory cells can produce them quicker, and in greater quantity if the pathogen returns, giving the person immunity against that disease

Memory cells: rapid and massive antibody production

Level of antibody in the blood

The pathogen is eliminated but the damaging symptoms of disease will have already occurred

The pathogen is eliminated before disease symptoms and dangers occur

Time

initial infection

infection over

new infection


Blood consists of a pale yellow fluid called plasma in which are suspended white blood cells platelets and red cells

THE IMMUNE SYSTEM

THE HEART

II.7 ANIMAL TRANSPORT

THE LYMPHATIC SYSTEM

CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

BLOOD AND BLOOD CELLS

ROUND UP

The immune system

Vaccination

Introducing a mild or dead form of the disease into a person causes the production of antibodies without the symptoms of disease

HOW VACCINATION WORKS

Memory cells: rapid and massive antibody production

Level of antibody in the blood

The pathogen is eliminated before disease symptoms and dangers occur

Antibodies produced but no disease symptoms

Time

Infection with the real virulent pathogen

Vaccination with mild or dead pathogen


Blood consists of a pale yellow fluid called plasma in which are suspended white blood cells platelets and red cells

How clotting happens:

There is a protein called ___________ which circulated in the blood. At points of damage in blood vessels this protein is converted to _______, a net like protein which catches red blood cells and forms a tangle, or clot.

IGCSE BIOLOGY – 11.7 TRANSPORT

THE IMMUNE SYSTEM

THE HEART

II.7 ANIMAL TRANSPORT

THE LYMPHATIC SYSTEM

CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

BLOOD AND BLOOD CELLS

ROUND UP

Blood clotting

When a blood vessel is damaged, either by a cut or other means, the blood clots for 2 reasons:

To prevent leakage of blood

To prevent the entry of pathogens

fibrinogen

A blood clot forming – the blood protein fibrin (white) acts like a net at the point of damage. It catches red blood cells and they form a clump which blocks the opening in the blood vessel

fibrin


Blood consists of a pale yellow fluid called plasma in which are suspended white blood cells platelets and red cells

IGCSE BIOLOGY – 11.7 TRANSPORT

THE IMMUNE SYSTEM

THE HEART

II.7 ANIMAL TRANSPORT

THE LYMPHATIC SYSTEM

CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

BLOOD AND BLOOD CELLS

ROUND UP

Blood clotting

White blood cells move to the clot to kill bacteria of viruses entering through the point of damage

white blood cell

‘puss’ a mixture of fibrin and dead white blood cells

fibrin

trapped red blood cell


Blood consists of a pale yellow fluid called plasma in which are suspended white blood cells platelets and red cells

IGCSE BIOLOGY – 11.7 TRANSPORT

II.7 ANIMAL TRANSPORT

CLICK HERE TO RETURN TO THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

William Harvey was born in England in 1578. In 1628 Harvey published An Anatomical Study of the Motion of the Heart and of the Blood in Animals which explained how blood was pumped from the heart throughout the body, then returned to the heart and recirculated. The views this book expressed were very controversial and lost Harvey many patients, but it became the basis for all modern research on the heart and blood vessels.


Blood consists of a pale yellow fluid called plasma in which are suspended white blood cells platelets and red cells

Immunity

Types of immunity

  • Natural active immunity

Immune system activation due to infection

  • Artificial active immunity (vaccination)

Immune system activation by vaccination

  • Artificial passive immunity

Injection with antibodies. Used against potentially fatal and fast acting diseases e.g. tetanus antitoxin

  • Natural passive immunity

Mother’s antibodies crossing the placenta e.g. measles. Also IgA in colostrum prevents bacterial / viral growth


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