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Effective Training: Strategies, Systems and Practices, 2 nd Edition. Chapter Four Needs Analysis. Session Overview. Describe the purpose of a needs analysis Explain the difference between proactive and reactive needs analysis Describe the framework for conducting a needs analysis.

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Effective training strategies systems and practices 2 nd edition

Effective Training: Strategies, Systems and Practices, 2nd Edition

Chapter Four

Needs Analysis


Session overview
Session Overview

  • Describe the purpose of a needs analysis

  • Explain the difference between proactive and reactive needs analysis

  • Describe the framework for conducting a needs analysis

Chapter 4


Training needs analysis
Training Needs Analysis

Training Needs Analysis (TNA):

  • “A systematic method for determining what caused performance to be less than expected or required” p.115

Chapter 4


Analysis phase

Output

Process

Input

Organizational

Analysis

Objectives

Resources

Environment

Training

Needs

Operational

Identify Performance Discrepancy (PD)

PD = EP < AP

And Causes of PD

Analysis

Expected

Performance

(EP)

Non

Person Analysis

Training

Actual

Needs

Performance

(AP)

TRIGGER

Actual Organizational

Performance

(AOP) < Expected

Organizational

Performance (EOP)

Analysis Phase

Chapter 4


Training needs analysis1
Training Needs Analysis

Training needs analysis (TNA):

  • is conducted when a triggering event occurs

  • determines the benchmark for evaluation of training.

  • provides an essential component in the implementation of the strategic plan

Chapter 4


Approaches to tna
Approaches to TNA

Two Approaches to Analysis:

  • Proactive TNA – focuses on anticipated performance problem

  • Reactive TNA – focuses on a perceived performance problem (discrepancy)

Chapter 4


Model of process when performance discrepancy is identified 1 of 2

Performance Discrepancy

YES

Is it worth fixing?

YES

Reward/ Punishment Incongruence

KSA

Deficiency

Inadequate

Obstacles in

Feedback

the System

YES

YES

YES

YES

Provide Proper Feedback

Remove

Obstacles

Choose Appropriate Remedy

Change

Contingencies

Model of Process When Performance Discrepancy Is Identified – (1 of 2)

Chapter 4


Model of process when performance discrepancy is identified 2 of 2

Choose

Change

Provide

Remove

Appropriate

Contingencies

Proper

Obstacles

Remedy

Feedback

Job Aid

Training

Practice

Change the Job

Transfer or Terminate

Model of Process When Performance Discrepancy Is Identified – (2 of 2)

Performance discrepancy is worth fixing AND is due to a KSA deficiency

Chapter 4





Framework for conducting a tna
Framework for Conducting a TNA

  • Organizational Analysis

    • Examining the internal environment of the organization and determining its fit with organizational goals and objectives

  • Job Analysis (Task Analysis)

    • Examine jobs to determine the required KSAs necessary to get the job done

  • Person Analysis

    • Examine employees to see whether they possess the required KSAs necessary to do the job.

Chapter 4


Organizational analysis
Organizational Analysis

An organizational analysis should collect

data about:

  • The mission and strategies of an organization

  • The resources and allocation of the resources, given the objectives

  • The factors in the internal environment that may be causing the problem

Chapter 4


Organizational analysis what do you ask and of who 1 of 3
Organizational Analysis: What Do You Ask and Of Who (1 of 3)

What to Ask About Who to Ask

Mission Goals and Objectives

What are the goals and objectives of the organization

How much money has been allocated to any new initiatives

Is there general understanding of these objectives

Top management

Relevant department managers, supervisors and incumbents

Social Influences

What is the general feeling in the organization regarding meeting goals and objectives

What is the social pressure in your department regarding these goals and objectives productivity

Top management

Relevant department managers, supervisors and incumbents

Chapter 4


Organizational analysis what do you ask and of who 2 of 3
Organizational Analysis: What Do You Ask and Of Who (2 of 3)

What to Ask About Who to Ask

Reward Systems

What are the rewards and how are they distributed?

Are there incentives, are they tied to the goals and objectives?

What specifically do high performers get as rewards?

Top management

Relevant department managers, supervisors and incumbents

Job Design

How are the jobs organized?

Where does their work/material/ information come from, where does it go when done?

Does the design of the job inhibit workers from being high performers?

Relevant supervisors and incumbents, perhaps relevant department managers

Chapter 4


Organizational analysis what do you ask and of who 3 of 3
Organizational Analysis: What Do You Ask and Of Who (3 of 3)

What to Ask About Who to Ask

Job Performance

How do employees know what level of performance is acceptable?

How do they find out if their level of performance is acceptable?

Is there a formal feedback process?

Are there opportunities for help if required?

Relevant supervisors and incumbents

Methods and Practices

What are the policies/ procedures/rules in the organization.

Which if any inhibit performance

Relevant department managers supervisors and incumbents

Chapter 4


Job analysis
Job Analysis

An operational analysis should collect

data to:

  • Determine what KSAs are required by employees in order to meet the expected performance

  • Determine the characteristics of the task environment (workflow, equipment, ergonomic concerns, etc…)

Chapter 4


Job analysis1
Job Analysis

Two approaches to Job Analysis:

  • Worker-Oriented Approach

    • Focuses on the KSAs that are required on the job

  • Task-Oriented Approach

    • Focuses on the work activities (tasks) required to perform the job

Chapter 4


Job analysis a comparison of the worker and task oriented approaches
Job Analysis: A Comparison of the Worker- and Task-Oriented Approaches

Job Task-Oriented Worker-Oriented Approach Approach

______________________________________________________________

Garage attendant Checks tire Pressure Obtains information from visual displays

Machinist Checks thickness of Use of a measuring crankshaft device

Dentist Drills out decay from Use of precision teeth instruments

Forklift Driver Loads pallets of High level of eye-hand washers onto trucks coordination

Chapter 4


Job analysis data sources 1 of 3
Job Analysis: Data Sources Approaches (1 of 3)

Chapter 4


Job analysis data sources 2 of 3
Job Analysis: Data Sources Approaches (2 of 3)

Chapter 4


Job analysis data sources 3 of 3
Job Analysis: Data Sources Approaches (3 of 3)

Chapter 4


Personal analysis
Personal Analysis Approaches

Person Analysis

  • Examine employees to see whether they possess the required KSAs necessary to do the job.

    Expected Performance – Actual Performance = Performance Discrepancy

Chapter 4


Person analysis data sources 1 of 5
Person Analysis: Data Sources Approaches (1 of 5)

Chapter 4


Person analysis data sources 2 of 5
Person Analysis: Data Sources Approaches (2 of 5)

Chapter 4


Person analysis data sources 3 of 5
Person Analysis: Data Sources Approaches (3 of 5)

Chapter 4


Person analysis data sources 4 of 5
Person Analysis: Data Sources Approaches (4 of 5)

Chapter 4


Person analysis data sources 5 of 5
Person Analysis: Data Sources Approaches (5 of 5)

Chapter 4


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