The early earth
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The early Earth. Goals. To understand: (1) solar nebula theory for formation of Earth, (2) how this led to Earth ’ s stratification, and (3) methods used to understand Earth ’ s layering. Formation of Earth. Age of Earth. Early Earth. Hadean Eon and stratification. Early Earth.

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The early Earth

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The early Earth


Goals

To understand: (1) solar nebula theory for formation of Earth, (2) how this led to Earth’s stratification, and (3) methods used to understand Earth’s layering.


Formation of Earth


Age of Earth


Early Earth

Hadean Eon and stratification


Early Earth

About 4,000-million years ago semi-permanent crust formed


Earth’s layers

  • Core

    • Solid inner core

    • Liquid outer core

  • Mantle

    • The upper and lower mantle

    • The asthenosphere

Relative thickness of layers


Earth’s layers

The lithosphere

  • Rigid upper-most mantle

  • The crust: thin rind of light elements floating on top of Earth.


Relative thickness of Earth’s layers


So, how do we know what the mantle and core are made of?


1. Composition of meteorites

Iron-nickel alloy

Magnesium-silicate rocks


2. Inclusions of mantle in volcanic rocks

The mantle


3. Fragments of uppermost mantle trapped in mountain belts

The mantle in Oman


4. Behavior of sound waves from earthquakes & large explosions

Structure of fetus modeled from sound velocities

Structure of mantle modeled from sound velocities


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