Conservative Revolution. The rise of the modern Republican Party, the politics of New Federalism, and the conservatives’ national ascendancy to Washington D.C. New Deal Opponents Eisenhower to Goldwater The Great Society Nixon and the Welfare State.
The rise of the modern Republican Party, the politics of New Federalism, and the conservatives’ national ascendancy to Washington D.C.
New Deal Opponents
Eisenhower to Goldwater
The Great Society
Nixon and the Welfare State
Critics of the 1930s New Deal (D-FDR) programs argued that the nation could not afford the high federal spending.
Eisenhower (R) accepted the New Deal principles of keeping and expanding the federal bureaucracy. Senator Goldwater (R) won support in the south in his bid in 1964.
Johnson’s (D) Great Society program extended New Deal reforms and added Medicare and Medicaid which improved life for many Americans but cost billions of dollarsannually.
Nixon (R) aimed to reduce spending on social welfare programs. However, government grew as he signed into law new federal regulations in the workplace (OSHA) and environmental protections (EPA).
Conservatives were disturbed by rock music’s increasingly shocking lyrics as well as rising illegal drug use.
A new wave of often violent student riots provided another cause of concern for conservatives.
Many conservatives were critical of the sexual revolution and the women’s movement.
NeoConservatives promoted active government regulation of social morality and the protection of “family values.”
Although most people supported the desegregation of public schools, many parents questioned why their students had to be bused to distant schools.
Conservatives often argued that states and local communities should decide how to best balance civil rights with local values and needs.
Many Democrats who objected to affirmative action moved their support to the Republican Party. These Reagan Democrats would help Republicans win many victories in the 1980s.
One of Reagan’s main goals was to spur business growth.
Reagan believed that supply-side economics, a strategy that focused on the supply of goods and jobs, would achieve this goal.
Supply-side economics advocated giving more money to businesses and investors. These businesses in turn would hire more people and produce more goods.
In theory, aiding the wealthy investors and business owners would have a beneficial “trickle-down” effect on the poorer and working classes.
Cutting taxes was another of Reagan’s priorities.
In 1986, Congress passed the most sweeping tax reform in history.
The 1986 tax reforms eliminated loopholes, simplified the tax system, and cut tax rates, especially those of the most wealthy Americans.
Slowing Federal Growth
Preferred a focus on international development aid, fair trade policies to protect struggling domestic industries, promoting human rights, increased involvement in peacekeeping and nation-building, open diplomacy, and a greater role for international institutions like the U.N.
Preferred to develop the U.S.’ position as the sole global superpower, expanding strategic influence in countries of economic or military interest to the U.S., decreasing involvement in the U.N., unilateral diplomacy, and the use of “pre-emptive” actions (war-making and regime change).
Particularly focused on the Middle East and removing Saddam Hussein from Iraq.
Clinton tried to follow a middle course in dealing with the economy.
To reduce the deficit, Clinton proposed a budget including both spending cuts and tax increases. Congress passed the budget, but just barely.
Neither the spending cuts nor the tax increases were well received by the public.
In 1996, Congress passed the first minimum wage increase in five years.
The Battle Over Healthcare
When Clinton took office, many Americans lacked access to affordable healthcare.
Clinton proposed the creation of a government-supervised universal health insurance program that would guarantee affordable coverage to every American.
Despite popular support for healthcare reform, Clinton’s proposal failed to gain the necessary votes in Congress.
Contract With America
The Government Is Shut Down
Former VP Al Gore (D) and TX Governor George W. Bush (R)
Closely divided electorate
Election Controversies: 1-inaccuracies in early media coverage on election night; 2-absentee ballot authentication; 3-butterfly ballot; 4-inaccuracies in voter registration rolls; 5-lack of uniform voting equipment (punch card ballot); 6-disputes between the Secretary of State (R) and the FL Supreme Court regarding recount procedures
National popular vote vs. electoral vote
Bush v. Gore (2000)—supreme court ordered a halt to the recount while the case was pending; decided that the recount was conducted with arbitrary guidelines in violation of the equal protection clause of the 14th Amendment; since the recount could not be completed under new guidelines by the Dec. 12th deadline in federal law before the Electoral College vote was to occur, the FL Secretary of State was ordered to certify the original vote.
Gore won the popular vote; Bush won the presidency