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Ø. explain with the aid of an annotated diagram, why Tropical latitudes receive more of the. sun’s energy than Polar regions. Ø. explain why there is a net gain of solar region in the Tropical latitudes and a net loss towards. the poles. Ø.

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By the end of this topic you should be able to

Ø

explain with the aid of an annotated diagram, why Tropical latitudes receive more of the

sun’s energy than Polar regions

Ø

explain why there is a net gain of solar region in the Tropical latitudes and a net loss towards

the poles

Ø

describe the role of atmospheric circulation in the redistribution of energy over the globe

Ø

describe and explain the earth’s energy exchanges shown on a diagram

Ø

describe the factors which affect the amount of sunlight reflected from the earth’s surface

Ø

describe and account for the generalised pattern of atmospheric circulation and global

or

winds,

ocean currents shown on a world map

Ø

describe the variations in world temperature for the last 100 years (shown

eg. on a graph)

and suggest both physical and human reasons for these variations

Ø

describe and explain the origin, nature and weather characteristics of Tropical Maritime (

mT)

and Tropical Continental (

cT) air masses which affect West Africa

Ø

with reference to the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone and the movement of air masses,

describe and account for the variations in West African rainfall.

By the end of this topic you should be able to:


By the end of this topic you should be able to

Ø

describe and interpret climate maps, diagrams and graphs

Ø

construct and analyse climate graphs

Ø

describe and explain climate graphs

comment on the accuracy of statements which describe climate patterns

Ø

shown on maps etc.

GMTs


Inter tropical convergence zone itcz

INTER-TROPICAL CONVERGENCE ZONE (ITCZ)

Today:

  • Climate graphs

  • Air Masses in West Africa

    CLIMATE GRAPHS

    These graphs show rainfall and temperature throughout the year.

    You may be asked to construct, describe or interpret graphs.

    A line graph is used to show temperature in degrees Celsius.

    A bar graph shows rainfall in mm.

    ACTIVITY

    Describe in detail the climate of Hebron, Canada


Inter tropical convergence zone itcz1

INTER-TROPICAL CONVERGENCE ZONE (ITCZ)

ACTIVITY

Describe in detail the climate of Hebron, Canada

What questions do we need to ask ourselves?

  • Is the temperature the same all year?

    • If yes, give the temperature and comment on it

      • Cool, temperate, warm or hot?

    • If no what is the range?

    • When is the maximum and minimum?

    • Are there definite seasons?

  • Is the rainfall consistent throughout the year?

    • Note the distribution across the year – wet and dry season?

    • How much rainfall in each month? Very wet, dry, moderate etc.

    • Overall amount of rain in a year? Very wet, dry, moderate etc.

  • Can you identify the climatic region?

    • By the exam you will be able to pick out equatorial and savanna climatic graphs


Inter tropical convergence zone itcz2

INTER-TROPICAL CONVERGENCE ZONE (ITCZ)

ACTIVITY:

On your blank map of Africa show:

i. lines of latitude 0°, 10°N and 20°N

ii. label Equatorial, Tropical Continental

and Hot Desert climate regions

iii. describe the rainfall in each

CASE-STUDY – EQUITORIAL & SAVANNA REGIONS OF AFRICA

Main climatic regions:

  • Equatorial Climate

  • Tropical Climate

  • Hot Deserts

    These zones merge into one another

    Key difference is the rainfall rather than temperature

    Therefore seasons tend to be wet season and dry season rather than

    summer and winter


By the end of this topic you should be able to

INTER-TROPICAL

CONVERGENCE ZONE

(ITCZ)


Inter tropical convergence zone itcz3

Remember

Hadley

Cell

INTER-TROPICAL CONVERGENCE ZONE (ITCZ)

SUMMARY NOTE:

ITCZ

  • A zone of convergence is where winds meet

  • Converging winds include the trade winds which meet at the equator – called the ITCZ

  • Associated low pressure: calm, warm conditions

    EFFECT OF THE EARTH’S ORBIT ON THE ITCZ

  • Latitude receiving the most intense heating from the sun

  • This areas moves between the tropics due to the Earth’s orbit

  • The area of maximum heating is known as the thermal equator

  • Sun overhead at the Tropics at the solstices (once in N. Hemisphere and once in the S.)

  • Sun directly over the equator twice a year – equinoxes

  • This migration of the thermal equator shifts the belts of winds and pressure systems north and south over the year


By the end of this topic you should be able to

ITCZ

JULY

ITCZ

JANUARY


By the end of this topic you should be able to

What is the impact

of land and sea on

the migrating

ITCZ?

ITCZ

JULY

ITCZ

JANUARY


Inter tropical convergence zone itcz4

INTER-TROPICAL CONVERGENCE ZONE (ITCZ)

SUMMARY NOTE (Cont.):

EFFECT OF LAND AND SEA MASSES ON ITCZ

  • Rates of heating vary greatly over land and sea

  • Temperature extremes are greater over land – it heats and cools at a faster rate

  • This means that the ITCZ (zone of low pressure) moves at a different rate around the world

  • As a result the ITCZ moves further N and S over land than sea


Inter tropical convergence zone itcz5

INTER-TROPICAL CONVERGENCE ZONE (ITCZ)

CASE-STUDY – EQUITORIAL & SAVANNA REGIONS: AFRICA

The key underlying influence on climate regions, vegetation and land

use is rainfall and the migration of the ITCZ:

  • Equatorial

  • Tropical

  • Desert

    These zones, although distinct, merge together


Inter tropical convergence zone itcz6

INTER-TROPICAL CONVERGENCE ZONE (ITCZ)

CASE-STUDY – EQUITORIAL & SAVANNA REGIONS OF AFRICA

Climate matters, can be the difference between life and death

Food and water shortages

http://www.bbc.co.uk/scotland/learning/learningzone/clips/6182/

Land degradation / Desertification

Poor grazing

Migration

http://www.bbc.co.uk/scotland/learning/learningzone/clips/4324/

Decisions around these matters are influenced by climate

- Seasonality

- Unreliability of rainfall


Itcz case study equitorial savanna regions africa

ITCZ: CASE-STUDY – EQUITORIAL & SAVANNA REGIONS: AFRICA

AIR MASSES

You should be able to describe and explain the origin, nature and

weather characteristics of Tropical Maritime (mT) and Tropical

Continental (cT) air masses which affect West Africa

  • Explain the terms source area and air mass

  • Which are the two main air masses that influence the tropical areas of Africa?

  • Study figure 2.23. Draw a table to summarise the differences between Tropical Continental and Tropical Maritime air masses

  • Explain the term relative humidity

    Read pages 22


Itcz africa

ITCZ: AFRICA

AIR MASSES

Large parcels of air influenced by the earth’s surface are known as air

masses. The source area is important in determining the weather

associated with an air masses.

Tropical Continental:

Origin = Sahara Desert – large land mass in the Tropics

Nature = warm, dry, stable air

Characteristics = Very warm, dry weather in winter. Extremely hot,

dry weather in summer. Relatively low humidity (<20%)

Tropical Maritime:

Origin = Atlantic Ocean – tropics

Nature = Warm, moist and unstable

Characteristics = hot/very hot weather (65 – 82% relative humidity).

Rainfall


Itcz africa1

ITCZ: AFRICA

AIR MASSES – IMPACT ON WEST AFRICA

Due to the seasonal change in the position of thermal equator means

reality is different from textbook models.

See figure 2.21 and 2.22 on page 21

As the ITCZ migrates the influence of air masses moves also

This movement determines the supply of rainfall and subsequent climatic

graphs. You should be able to explain climate graphs in West Africa


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